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By benjamin VINCENT, 








BnADUuay, evaks, and cc, printers, wniiEFniARa. 




In 1855, when the printing of the Seventh Edition of this Dic- 
tionary had begun, and Mr. Haydn's failing health prevented the 
continuance of his labours, I acceded to the request of the publisher 
to correct the press and supply the continuations of the articles. In 
doing so I soon perceived that the execution of the work was far from 
being equal to the merit of its conception ; and after much considera- 
tion, I was eventually induced to undertake its gradual revision and 
completion, in order to render the book more worthy of its established 
reputation. During the last ten years the chronological tables have 
been examined and continued ; a great number of articles have been re- 
written, and new ones inserted, and much geographical, biographical, 
literary, and scientific information supplied, together with a Table of 
the Populations and Governments of the various countries of the world ; 
and the Index has been greatly augmented by the insertion of dates 
relating to eminent persons of past and present times. With the 
present edition is given a table of Contemporary European Sovereigns 
since the Norman Conquest. To afford room for these additions, the 
size of the page and the bulk of the volume have been enlarged, 
and very many articles have been condensed. My aim has been 
throughout to make this book not a mere Dictionary of Dates, but a 
dated Encyclopaedia, a digested summary of every department of human 
history brought down to the very eve of publication. The latest Addi- 
tions and Corrections will be found at the end of the volume. 

Benjamin Vincent. 

Febkuaky, 1866. 


The design of the Author has been to attempt the compression of the 
greatest body of general information that has ever appeared in a single volume, 
and to produce a Book of Reference whose extensive usefulness may render its 
possession material to every individual— in the same manner that a London 
Directory is indispensable, on business affairs, to a London merchant. 

He grounds his hope of the Public taking an interest in this work altogether 
upon its own intrinsic utility. Its articles are drawn principally from historians 
of the first rank, and the most authentic annalists ; and the Dictionary of 
Dates will, in almost every instance, save its possessor the trouble of turning 
over voluminous authors to refresh his memory, or to ascertain the date, order, 
and features of any particular occurrence. 

The volume contains upwards of Fifteen Thousand Articles, alphabeti- 
cally arranged ; and, from the selection of its materials, it must be important 
to every man in the British Empire, whether learned or unlearned, or whether 
connected with the professions or engaged in trade. 

It would be difficult to name all the authors from whose works the Compiler 
of this volume has copiously extracted ; but he may mention among the classics, 
Herodotus, Livy, Pliny, and Plutarch. He has chosen in general chronology, 
Petavius, Usher, Blair, Prideaux, and the Abbe Lenglet Dufresnoy. For the 
events embraced in foreign history, he has relied upon Henault, Voltaire, La 
Combe, Rollin, Melchior Adam, the Noiiveau Dictionnaire, and chief authors of 
their respective countries. On subjects of general literature, his authorities 
are Cave's Historia Literaria, Moreri, Bayle, Priestley, and others of equal 
repute. And English occurrences are drawn from Camden, Stow, Hall, Baker, 
Holinshed, Chamberlayne, Rapin, Hume, Gibbon, Goldsmith, &c. Besides 
these, the Compiler has freely used the various abridgments that have brought 
facts and dates more prominently forward; and he is largely indebted to 

viii PREFACE. 

Chambers, Aspin, Beatson, Anderson, Beckmann, the Cyclopcedias, Annual 
Register, Statutes at Large, and numerous other compilations. In almost eveiy 
instance the authority is quoted for the extract made and date assigned, 
though inadvertence may have prevented, in some few cases, a due 

The leading events of every country, whether ancient or modern kingdoms, 
are to be found in the annals of each respectively, as in the cases, for instance, 
of Greece, Rome, the Eastern Empire, England, France, and Germany. 
But, independently of this plan of reference, when any historical occurrence 
claims, from its importance, more specific mention, it is made in a separate 
article, according to alphabetical arrangement. Thus, in the annals of 
England, the dates are given of the foundation of our universities, the 
institution of honorary orders, and signature of Magna Charta; we find, in 
those annals, the periods of our civil wars, and remarkable eras in our history, 
set down as they have occurred; but if more ample information be necessary 
to the Reader, and if he desire to know more than the mere date of any fact or 
incident, the particulars are supplied under a distinct head. In the same way, 
the pages of battles supply the date of each, in the order of time ; yet in all 
instances where the battle has any relation to our own country, or is 
memorable or momentous, the chief features of it are stated in another part 
of the volume. 

The Compiler persuades himself that the Dictionary op Dates will be 

received as a useful companion to all Biographical works, relating, as it does, 

to things as those do to x>ersons, and affording information not included in the 

range or design of such publications. 

Joseph Haydn. 
London, May, 1841. [Died Jan. 17, 1856.] 

{According to the Almanack de Gothafor 1866.) 


Anhalt, Population in Dec. 1864 
Argentine Confederation . . 1859 
Austrian Empire . . . Oct. 1857 

Baden Dec. 1864 

Bayaria Dec. 1864 

Belgium Dec. 1863 

BoUvia 1858 

Brazil 1856 

Bremen (free city) . . . Deo. 1864 
Brunswick- WoUenbilttel . Dec. 1864 

ChUi (estimated) 1857 

Chinese Empire (estimated) . 1849 
Costa Rica (estimated) . . . 1861 
Denmark and colonies . . . 1865 
Equator (estimated) .... 1858 

Egypt 1859 

France and colonies (estimatd.) 1862 
Frankfort (free city) . . Dec. 1864 
Great Britain & colonies (estm.) 1861 
Greece and Ionian Islands (est.) 1865 

Guatemala 1858 

Hamburg (free city) .... 1860 

Hanover Dec. 1864 

Hayti and St. Domingo"(est.) . 1865 

Hesse-Cassel Deo. 1864 

Hesse-Darmstadt . . . Dec. 1864 
Hesse-Hombiu-g .... Deo. 1864 
Holland and colonies .... 1863 

Holstein 1865 

Honduras 1858 

Italy (estimated) 1864 

Japan (estimated) 

Liechtenstein 1858 

Lippe Deo. 1864 

Lubeck (free city) 1862 

Meoklenburg-Schwerin . Dec. 1864 
Mecklenburg-StreUtz .... 1860 

Mexico (estimated) 1865 

Monaco 1864 

Montenegro (estimated) . . . 1859 

Morocco about 

Nassau Dec. 1864 

New Granada . ■ 1864 

Nicaragua 1858 

Oldenburg Dec. 1864 

Panama 1864 

Papal States (estimated) . . . 1863 

Paraguay 1857 

Persia (estimated) 1869 

Peru 1859 

Portugal and colonies . . Deo. 1863 

Prussia Deo. 1865 

Eeuss-Greiz Dec. 1864 

Eeuss-Schleiz Dec. 1864 

Roumania(Dan. Prncip.)e3tmi. 1862 
Russia, Poland, &c. (estim.) . 1865 
Sandwich Islands (Hawaii, &e.) 1861 
San Marino ........ 1858 

San Salvador 1858 

Saxony Dec. 1864 

Saxe-Altenburg .... Deo. 1864 
Saxe-Coburg-Gothii . . Dec. 1864 
Saxe-Meiningen .... Dec. 1864 
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach . Dec. 1864 
Schaumburg-Lippe . . Dec. 1864 
Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, Dec. 1864 
Schwaxtzburg-Sondershausen ,, 1864 

Servia 1865 

Sleswig 1865 

Spain and colonies 1864 

Sweden and Norway (estimtd.) 1863 

Switzerland Dec. 1860 

Turkish Empire (estimated) . 1865 

Uruguay 1860 

Venezuela 1859 

Waldeck Dec. 1864 

Wurtemberg Dec. 1864 

XTuited States of America . . 1860 
































22 104,789 

35 to 40 mil. 















































Leopold, duke 

Bartolomeo Mitre, president . 
Francis-Joseph, emperor . . 
Frederick, grandrduke . . . 

Louis II., king 

Leopold II., king 

Gen. M.Melgarejo, president. 
Pedro II., emperor .... 
C. Mehr, burgomaster . . . 

Wilham, duke 

Jos§ J. Perez, president . . . 
Ki-tsiang, emperor .... 
J. Ximenes, president^ . . . 
Christian IX., king .... 
G. OaTTSon, president . . . 
Ismail Pacha, viceroy . . . 
Napoleon III., emperor . . . 
Two Burgomasters. 

Victoria, queen 

George I., king 

Vincent Cerna, president . . 


George V., king 

N. Fabre Geffrard, president 
Frederic- William I., elector . 
Louis III., grand-duke . . . 
Ferdinand, landgrave . . . 
Wihiam III., king .... 
Held by Austria. 
J. M. Medina, president . . 
Victor-Emmanuel, king . . 
Mikado {spiritual) ; Tycoon 

John II., prince 

Leopold, prince 

Burgomasters and Senate. 
Frederic Francis, grand-duke . 
Frederic WiUiam, grand-duke 
Maxirailian I., emperor . . . 

Charles, prince 

Nicholas I., prince .... 
Sidi Mohamed, sultan . . 

Adolphus, duke 

M. Murillo, president . . 
T. Martinez, president . . 
Peter, grand-duke .... 
Jil Colunje, gfowerjior. . . 

Pius IX., pope 

F. S. Lopez 

Nassir-ed-Deen, sAa^ . . 
M. Canseco, president . . 

Louis I., king 

William I., king .... 
Henry XXII., prince . . 
Henry LXIX., prince . . 
Alex. John I. (Cousa) hospodar 
Alexander II., cza/r .... 

Kamehameha V. 

Capitani reggenti. 

F. Duenas, president .... 

John, king 

Ernest, dtike 

Ernest II., duke 

Bernard, duke 

Charles- Alexander, grand-duke 

Adolphus, prince 

Gunther, prince . ... 

Gunther, prince 

Michael III. (MUosoh) . . . 
Held by Prussia. 

Isabella II., queen 

Charles XV., king 

Annual president 

Abdul-Aziz, sultan .... 
Gen. V. Floras, prov. president 
J. E. Falcon, president . . . 

George V., prince 

Charles, king 

Andrew Jolmson, president . 

Oct. 1, 1794. 

Aug. 18, 1830 
Sept. 9, 1826 
Aug. 25, 1845 
April 9, 1835 

Dec. 2, 1825. 
April 25, '1806 

AprU 5, 1855 
April's, 1818 

April 20, 1808 

May 24, 1819 
Deo. 24, 1845 

May 27, 1819 

'Aug. 20, 'l80'2 
June 9, 1806 
April 26, 1783 
Feb. 19, 1817 

March 14, 1820 
Oct. 5, 1840 . 
Sept. 1. 1821 . 

Feb. 28, 1823 . 
Oct. 17, 1819 . 
July 6, 1832. . 
Dec. 8, 1818 . . 
1840 .... 

July 24, 1817 

Julys, 1827. 
May 13, 1792 

■ 1829. '. ; 

Oct. 31, 1838 . 
March 22, 1797 
March 28, 1846 
May 19, 1792 . 
March 10, 1820 
AprU 29, 1818 . 
Dec. 11, 1830 . 

Deo. 12, 1801 
Sept. 16, 1826 
June 21, 1818 
Dec. 17, 1800 
June 24, 1818 
Aug. 1, 1817 
Nov. 6, 1793 
Sept. 24, 1801 
Sept. 4, 1825 

Oct. 10, 1830 
May 3, 1826 . 

Feb. 9, 1830. 

Jan. 14, 1831. . 

March 6, 1823 . 

1809, . . . 

Aug. 9, 1817. 
Oct. 12, 1862. 
Dec. 2, 1848. 
April 24, 1852. 
March 10, 1864. 
Dec. 10, 1865. 
Deo. 1864. 
April 7, 1831. 
Dec. 31, 1863. 
April 25, 1831. 
Sept. 18, 1861. 
Aug. 22, 1861. 
April 3, 1863. 
Nov. 15, 1862. 

Jan. 18, 1863. 
Dec. 2, 1853. 

June 20, 1837. 
June 5, 1863. 
May 3, 1865. 

Nov. 18, 1851. 
Jan. 23, 1859. 
Nov. 20, 1847. 
June 16, 1848. 
Sept. 8, 1848. 
March 17, 1849. 

Feb. 1864. 
March 17, 1861. 

Nov. 12, 1858. 
Jan. 1, 1851. 

March 7, 1842. 
Sept. 6, 1860. 
April 10, 1864. 
June 20, 1856. 
Aug. 14, 1860. 
Sept. 1859. 
Aug. 20, 1839. 
April 1, 1864. 
March 1, 1859. 
Feb. 27, 1853. 
March 10, 1865. 
June 16, 1846. 
Sept., 1862. 

Nov., 1865. 
Nov. 11, 1861. 
Jan. 2, 1861. 
Nov. S, 1859. 
Sept. 16, 1856. 
Jan. 1859. 
March 2, 1855. 
Nov., 1863. 

April, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1854. 
Aug. 3, 1853. 
Jan. 29, 1844. 
Deo. 24, 1803. 
July 8, 1853. 
Nov. 21, 1860. 
AprU 28, 1807. 
Aug. 19, 1835. 
Sept. 26, 1860. 

Sept. 29, 1833. 
July 8, 1859. 
July 4, 1864. 
June 25. 1861. 
Feb., 1865. 
March 18, 1865. 
May 15, 1845. 
June 25, 1864. 
April 15, 1865. 


Great Britain. 










1066. -Will. I. 

1057. Male 3. 
1093. Donald 

1060. PhiUp. I. 

1066. Sancho II. 

1065. Sancho. 

1065. Sancho of 

1056. Hen. 4, 

1064. Solom. 

1087. Wil. II. 

1094 Dune. 
1094. Donald 

1072. Alfonso VJ. 

1072. Alfonso VI. 

1075. Geisa. 

1076. Lad. I. 

1C98. Edgar. 

1094. Peter. 

1093. Henry, 

1098. Colo- 

1 1 00. Hen I. 

1107. Alex. I. 1108. Louis VI. 

1 109. Urracaand 1104. Alfonso I. 

1112. Alfonso, as 1106. Hen.s. 

1114. Step.2. 

Alfonso VII. 

1124. Dav. I. 

1126. Alfon.Vn. 


1131. Bela 2. 

1135. Stept. 

IT 37. Louis VII. 

1 134. Ramiro. 

1154. Hen. 2. 


1 137. Petronella 

1139. Alfonso I.,iii38.Conr.3. 


1157. Sancho III. 

and Raymond. 

as king. 


1 1 72. (Jreld. 

1165. Will. 


1 161. Step. 3. 

annexed. ) 

u8o. Philip IL 

1163. Alfonso II. 

1173. Bela 3. 

1 1 89. Rich. I. 

1185. Sancho I. 

1 190. Hen.6. 

1 199. John. 

1196. Peter II. 

ii98.Phihp. 1196. Emerid 

i2t6. Hen. 3. 

1214. Alex.2. 

1214. Henry I. 

1213. James I. 1212. Alfonso II. 

i2o8. Oiho 4. 

1204. Ladis- 

1223. Louis VIII. 

1215. Fred.2. 

las II. 
1205. An- 

1226. Louis IX. 

1230. Ferdin.III. 

1223. Sancho II. 

drew II. 
1233. Bela 4 

1249. Alex.3. 

1252. Alfonso X. 

1248. Alfon. III. 

1250. Con. 4. 
1254. WiU. 
1237. Rich. 

1272. Ed. I. 

1270. Philip HI. 

1276. Peter III. 

1279. Dionysius 

1273. Ro- 

1270. Ste. 4, 
1272. Lad. 3 

1282 (Wales' Interregnum. 

1284. Sancho IV. 

or Denis. 



1792. John 

1285. Philip IV. 

1283. Alfons. III. 
129s. Perdin. TV. 1291. James II. 

1292. Adolp. 
1298. Alb. 1. 

1290. And. 3. 

1307. Ed. II. 

1306. Robert 

1308. Hen. 7. 

1 301. Charo- 

(Bruce) 1.1314. Louis X. 

1312. AlfonsoXI. 

1314. Lou. 5. 


1316. John. 

1327. AlfonsoIV. 

1325. AlfonsoIV. 

1327. Ed. III. 

1329. Dav. II. Phil. V. 
1332.Ed.Bal. 1321. Chas. IV. 
1342.Dav.IL 1328. Phil. VI. 

1336. Peter IV. 

1342. Louis. 

1347. Chas.4. 

1350. John. 

1350. Peter. 

1357. Peter. 

1377. Rich. 2. 


1364. Chas. V. 

1369. Henry. 

1367. Ferdinand. 

1378. Wen- 


1380. Chas. VI. 

1379. John I. 

1387. John I. 

1383. John I. 


1382. Mary. 
1387. Mary* 

1399. Hen. 4. 1390. Rob. 3. 

1390. Henry II. 

1395. Martin. 

1400. Rupert 


1413. Hen.s- 

1406. Jas. I. 

1406. John II. 

1410. Interregnin. 

1410. Sigismvmd. 

1422. Hen.6. 

1437. Jas. II. 

1422. Chas. VII. 

1454. Henry IV. 

1412. Ferdinand 

of Sicily. 
1 416. Alfonso V. 

1433. Edward. 
1438. Alfonso X- 

1438. Albert. 

1458. John II. 

1440. Fred. 3. 

1440. Lad. 4 1 

1461. Ed.IV. 


1 461. Louis XI. 

1474. Isabella. 

1479. Ferdin. II. 

1445. LaH. 5I 
1458. Mat- 1 

1483. Ed. V. 
Rich. 3. 



1483. Chas.VIII. 

1479. Ferdinand and Isabella. 

1481. John II. 

1493. Max. I. 

1485. Hen. 7. 


1499 Switz. 

1498 Louis XII. 

1495. Emanuel. 


1490. Lad. t 








Naples and Sicilt. 

30. Ingo. 

io6g. Olaf. 

1093. Magnus. 

1047. Sweyn II. 
1076. Hai'old. 
1080. Canute IV. 
10S6. Olaus IV. 
1095. Eric I. 

1058. Boles- 

1082. Ladis- 

1071. Mich. 7 1073. Greg-. VII. 

1081. Alexius: ^°88. Urban n. 

1099. Pascal II. 

t2. PhiUp. 
t8. Ingo II. 
29. Swei'ker. 

55. Eric I. 
5i. Char. VII. 
57. Canute. 

59. Swerk. II. 

1 103. Sigurd I., 
and others. 

T122. Sigurd I. 

1130. MagnusIV. 
and others. 

Civil war and 

1 1 86. Swerro. 

1 105. Eric II. 

1137. Eric III. 

1147. Sweyn III. 
Canute V. 
1 1 57. Waldemar. 

1 182. Canute VI. 

1 102. Boles. 3 

1138. Lad. 2 
1145. Boles. 4 

1173. Miecis- 

las III. 
1 1 78. Ca- 

semir II. 

1194. Lesk.5. 

1118. John 

1 1 43. Manuel 

1180. Alex.2. 
1183. Andro- 

nicus C. 
1185. Isaac 2. 
1 195. Alex. 3. 

1 1 24. 

Gelas. II. 
CaUxt. II. 
Honor. II. 
Innoc. II. 
Celest. II. 
Lucius II. 
Eugen. III. 
Anasta. IV. 
Adrian IV. 
Alex. III. 
Lucius III. 
Urban III. 
Greg. VIII. 
Clem III. 
Celest. III. 
Innoc. III. 

1131. Roger I. 

1154. William I. 
1166. WiUiam II. 

1 1 89. Tancred. 
1 194. William III. 

1 197. Fred. II. of Germny. 

10. Eric II. 
16. John I. 

22. Eric III. 

50. Birger, Jarl 
56. Waldemar. 

75. Magnus I. 

30. Birger II. 

1202. Hako III. 

and others. 
1207. Hako IV. 

1263. Magnus VI, 

1280. Eric. 

1299. Hako V. 

1202. Walde. II. 

1241. Eric IV. 
1250. Abel. 
1252. Christoph. 
1259. Eric V. 

1200. Miec.3. 
1202. Lad. 3. 
1227. Boles.s 

1279. Lesk.6, 

1289. Anarch. 

1296. Ladis.4 


1222. John 


1255. Theo.2. 

1258- John 
1 259. Mich. 8. 

1282. Andro- 
nicus II. 

1216. Honor. III. 
1227. Greg. IX. 
1241. Celest. IV. 
1243. Innoc. IV. 
1254. Alex. IV. 
1261. Urban IV. 
1265. Clem. IV. 
1268-9. Vacant. 
1271. Gregory X. 
1276. Innoc. V. 
Adrian V. 

1276. John XXI. 

1277. Nichol.III. 
1281. Martin IV. 
1285. Honor. IV. 
1288. Nich. IV. 
1292-3. Vacant. 
1294. Celest. V. 


1250. Conrad. 

1254. Conradin. 

1258. Manfred. 

1266. Charles of Anjou. 


1285. Chas.2. 1282. Peter 
of Arragon. 
1285. James. 

1293. Fred. 2. 

tg. Magn. II. 

1319. United to 

1350. EricIV. 
1359. Magnus II. 
1363. Albert. 

ig. Margaret. 

1380. United to 

1320. Christo- 
pher II. 

1334. Interregnni. 

1340. Wald. III. 

1375. Inierregnm. 

1376. Olaus V. 

1387. Margaret. 

1300. Winces- 

1333. Cas. 3. 

1370. Louis. 

1382. Mary. 
1384. Hedw. 
1396. Lad. s. 

1303. Bened. XI. 
1305. ClementV. 
1314-15. Vocani. 
1332. And.3. I1316. JohnXXII. 
1334. Bene. XII. 
1341. Johns. 1 1342. Clem. VI. 
1352. Innoc. VI. 
1362. Urban V. 
1370. Greg. XI. 
1391. Man- ■ 1378. Urban VI. 
uel VI. 1389. Bonif. IX. 

1309. Robt. 

1337. Peter 2. 
1343. Joan.2. i342.Louis. 
& Andrew 1355. Fred. 3. 
of Hung. 
1349. Louis. 1376. Maria 
<fc Martin . 
1381. Chas.3. 
1385. Ladislas. 

1412. Eiic. XIIL 

1440. Christopher III. 
j3. Chas. Vm. 
1457. Christian I. 

; 1483. John of Denmark. 

1448. Christn. I. 

1481. John. 

1434. Lad. 6. 
1445. Casi. 4. 

1492. Albert 

1423. John 6. 

1448. Con- 
stant. 13. 


1433. Ma- 
homet II. 

1404. Innoc. VII. 
1406. Greg. XII. 

1409. Alex. V. 

1410. John 23. 
1417. Martin V. 
1431. Eugen. IV. 
1447. Nicholas V. 
1455. Cahx. III. 
1458. Pius II. 
1464. Paul II. 
1471. Sixtus IV. 
1484. Inno. VIII. 
1492. Alex. VI. 

1402. Mart. I. 

1409. Mart.2. 
1414. Joan.2. (United to 


1 410. Ferd.i. 
1416. Alfo.i. 

1433. Alfonso I. 
1438. Ferd.i. 1458. John. 

1494. Alfo.2. 
I4g5. Ferd.2. 
1496. Fred. 2. 

i47g. Ferd. 


Great Britain. 










1509. Hen. 8. 

1513. Jas. V. 

1515. Francis I. 

'^Ihiirp'T^ ^ Ferdinand II. 
1512. Ferd.V.(Cast.)lI. (Arragon). 

1521. John III. 

1519. Ch!»s.s 
(I. of Sp.) 

1516. Lou. 2 

1526. Jn. Za 

polski an( 

Ferdiu. 2. 

1547. Ed. VI. '1542. Mary. 

1547. Henry II. 

1516. Charles I. (V. of Germ. 1519). 

1553. Mary. 
1558. Eliz. 

1567. Jas. VI. 

1559. Francis II. 

1560. Charles IX. 

(Kings of Hungaev.) 
X558. Ferdinand. 

1556. Philip II. ' 

1 557- Sebastian. 

1564. Maximilian II. 

1574. Henry III. 


1578. Henry. 

1579. William of 

1576. Rodolph II. 

Or.'-.nge, $tadt- 


1589. Henry IV. 

1580. Annexed to 


1598. Philip III. 

1587. Maurice. 


1633. Jas. I. (VI. of Scot.; 

1610. LouisXIII. 

1612. Mathias. 

1625. Charles I. 

1621. Philip IV. 

1625. Fred. Hen. 

Kingdom restored 

1619. Ferdinand II. 
1637. Ferdinand III. 

I6^9. Commonwealth. 

1643. Louis XIV. 

1647. William II. 
1650-72. No 

1640. John of 

16C0. Charles II. 

1665. Charles II 


1656. Alfonso VI. 
1667. Peter, 

1658. Leopold I. 

i6'3s. James II. 

1672. Will. Hen. 


1639. William and Mary. 

(Will. III. of 

1683. Peter II. 

i6)S. William III. 


1702. Anne. 

1700. Philip V. 

1702-47. No 

1706. John V. 

1705. Joseph 


1714. George I. 
1727. George II. 

171 5. Louis XV. 

1724. Louis. 


1711. Chas 6. 

Philip V. 

1701. Fred. I 


1 713. Fred.- 

1742. Chas. 7. 

William i. 

1746. Ferd. VI. 1747. Will. Hen. 1750. Joseph. 

1 745. Francis 

1740. Fred .-2 

1759. Chas. III. .757. Will. IV. | George III. 

1774. Louis XVI. 



1777. Maria and 
Peter III. 

1765. Jos. a. 

1786. Fred.- 

1788. Chas. IV. 1786. Maria, 

WiUiam 2 

(abdicated.)', 1 alone. 

1793. Lou. XVII. 

■1793. Amiexed to 


1797. Fred.- 


France. |i79i. John,r«£fCJi« 

1 792. Fran. 2. 

William 3 

1802. Consulate. 

1808. Ferd. VII. 

1806. Louis,i-ingr. 

iBiz. (George Prince of 

i8o4.Napoleon I. 



Wales, regent.)* 


Jos. Bonap. 
1814. Ferd. VII. 


1816. John VI. 

1826. Peter IV. 

Maria II. 

1814. Will. Fred. 

1806. Fran.i. 

18.TO. George IV. 

1824. Charles X. 


1828. Miguel. 

1830. William IV. 


1S33. I.<iabena II. 

1833. Maria II. 

1835. Ferd.2. 

1837. Victoria. 

1840. William II. 

1840. Fred.- 

1848. Republic. 

1849. WiU. III. 



1852. Napol. III. 

1853. Peter V. 
i86i. Luis I. 

i860. Will. I 

Belgium.— 1831. Leopold I. 
,, 1865. Leopold II. 









Naples and Sicily. 

1520. Christian II. 

3. Gustavus 

3. Eric XIV. 
3. John III. 


1533. Ivan IV. 

1584. Feodor I. 

. Sigismund 1598. Boris 

1513. Christn.II. 

1523. Fredrick I. 
and Norway. 

1534. Christ. III. 
1559. Fred. II. 


1501. Alex. 
1506. Sig. I. 

1548. Sig.II. 

1575. Staph. 
1587. Sig. 3. 

1512. Selim. 

1520. Soly- 
man II. 

1566. Sel. 2. 

1574. Amu- 
rath III. 

1595. Mah. 3. 

J. Chas. IX. 
:. Gustavus 

[. Christina. 

^. Chas. X. 
). Chas. XI. 

. Chas. XII. 

1606. Basil. 
1613. Michael 

1645. Alexis. 

1676. Feodor. 

1682. Ivan V. 

Peter I. 

1689. Peter I. 

1632. Lad. 7. 
1648. John C. 
1648. Fred. III. 1669. Mich 

1670. Christn. V. 

1699. Fred. IV. 

1674. John 

1697. Predk. 
August. I. 

1603. Ach. I . 

161 7. Mus. I. 

1618. Osm.2. 

1622. Musta- 
pha, again. 

1623. Am. 4. 
1640. Ibrah. 
1648. Mah. 4. 
1687. Sol. 3. 
1691. Ach. 2. 
1695. Mus. 2. 






Pius III. 
Julius II. 
Adrian VI. 
Clem. VII. 
Paul III. 
Julius III. 
Marcel. II. 
Paul IV. 
Pius IV. 
Pius V. 
Greg. XIII. 
Sixtus V. 
Urban VII. 
Greg. XIV. 
Innoc. IX. 

1501. United to Sjpain. 

1605. Leo XL 
Paul V. 
1621. Greg. XV. 
1623. UrbanVIIl, 
1644. InnocentX. 
1665. Alex. Vll. 
1667. Clem. IX. 
1670. Clem. X. 
1676. Innoc. XI. 
1689. Alex. VIII 
1691. Innoc. XII. 

). Ulrica and 
rederick I. 

:. Fred. I. 
. Adolphus 






Gather. I. 
Peter II. 

Ivan VI. 


Peter III. 
Cather. II. 

'. Gustav.IV. 1796. Paul I. 

. Chas.XIII. 1801. 

. Norway an- 


. Chas. XIV. 

Chas. XV. 

Alexand. I. 

1855. Alex. II. 

1730. Christn. VI. 

1746. Fred. V. 

1766. Christ. VII. 


1808. Fred. VI. 

1814. Norway 

taken away. 

1839. Chris. VIII, 
1848. Fred. VII. 

'1S63. Chrisn. IX. 

1704. Stan.i' 

1709. Fredk. 



1733. Fredk. 

August. 2. 

1764. Stan. 2. 

1793. Parti- 

1703. Ach. 3. 1700. Clem. XI. 

1721. Inno.XIII. 
1730. Mah. 5. [1724. Bene.XIII, 

1730. Clem.XII. 
1740. Bene. XIV. 

1734. Osm.3. 
1737. Mus. 3. 

1774. Ach. 4. 

1758. Clem.XIII. 
1769. Clem. XIV. 
1 773. 'Pius VI. 

1800. Pius VII. 

Ifaples and 

1 713. Chas. 3, 
Am. of Sa- 
voy, Sicily. 

fj2o Annexed 
to Germany. 

1738. Chas. 4. 

1759. Fred. 4. 


1720. Victor- 

1730. Charles 

1773. Victor- 
Amade. 2. 

1 796. Charles 


1832. Otho I. 

1S63. Geo. L 

1807. Mus. 4, 

1808. Mah.6. 

1839. Abdul 

1 861. Abdul 

1823. Leo XII. 
1829. Pius VIII. 
1831. Greg. XVI, 

1846. Pius IX. 


1806. Joseph 

1808. Joach. 

Naples and 

18x3. Ferd. I. 
1823. Fran. I. 
1830. Perd. 2, 
1859. Fran.2. 
to Italy. 

1802. Victor- 

Emman. 1. 

to kingdom 

of Italy. 
1814. Victor- 

Bmman. i. 
1821. Charles 

1 83 1. Charles 

1849. Victor- 



1 861. Victor-Emmanuel. 

See Article Kussia for preceding Eulers. 



AARGAU (Switzerland,) formerly included in Berne, was formed into an independent 
canton in 1803, and iinally settled as such in 1815. It was much disturbed by religious dis- 
sensions in 1 841 — 44. 

ABACUS, the capital of the Corinthian order of architecture, ascribed to Callimachus, 
about 540 B.C. — This name is also given to a frame traversed by stiff wires, on which beads 
or counters are strung, used by the Greeks, Romans, and Chinese. M. Lalanne published 
an ABACUS at Paris in 1845. — The multiplication table has been called the Pythagorean 

ABATTOIRS, slaughter-houses for cattle. In 18 10 Napoleon decreed that five should be 
erected near Paris ; they were opened in 181 8. An abattoir was erected at Edinburgh in 
1851 ; and abattoirs form part of the new London metropolitan cattle-market, opened on 
June 13, 1855. 

ABBASSIDES, descendants - of Mahomet's imcle, Abbas-Ben- Abdul-Motalleb. Abul 
Abbas defeated Merwan II., the last caliph of the Ommiades, in 750, and became the ruler 
of the faithful. The Abbasside colour was black. Thirty-seven caliphs of this race reigned 
from 750 to 1258. 

ABB AYE, a military prison near St. Germain des Pres, Paris, where 164 prisoners were 
murdered by infuriated republicans led by Maillard, Sept. 2 and 3, 1 792. 

ABBEYS, monasteries. for men or women. See MonacMsm and Commits. The first abbey 
founded in England was at Bangor in 560 ; in France, at Poitiers, about 360 ; in Ireland in 
the fifth century ; in Scotland in the sixth century. 1 10 monasteries and priories were sup- 
pressed in England, 2 Heniy V. 1414. Salmon,. These institutions (containing then about 
47,721 persons) were totally suppressed throughout the realm by Henry VIII., I539-* 
Abbeys were suppressed in France in 1790 ; and in the kingdom of Italy in i86i. 

ABBOT (from .45, father), the head of an abbey. In England, mitred abbots were lords of 
parliament ; there were twenty-seven abbots and two priors thus distinguished in 1329 ; but 
the number was reduced to twenty-five in 1396. Coke. The abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, 
and St. John's, Colchester, were hanged and quartered for denying the king's supremacy, and 
not surrendering their abbeys, 1539. See Glastonhury. 

ABC CLUB. A name adopted by a number of republican enthusiasts in Paris, their 
object being to relieve the abaisses or depressed. They broke out into an insurrection on 
June 5, 1832, which was suppressed with bloodshed, after Paris had been put into a state of 
siege on June 6. These events are described by Victor Hugo in Les Mis6rables, published 
in 1862. 

* Viz., 374 large monasteries (revenue jo/^,gxgl. 13s. 3A), 186 less monasteries Crevenue 33,479?. 13s. 7%d.), 
and 48 houses of the knights hospitallers (revenue 2385?. 12s. d,d.) : total, houses, 608 ; revenue, 
140,784?. 199. 6fcJ. 




Sylla, Roman dictator B.C. 
Diocletian, Roman emperor 


Stephen II., of Hungary- 
Albert, the Bear of Bran- 
denburg . . ... 
Lescov V. of Poland 
Uladlslaus III. of Poland . . 
John Balliol, of Scotland 
Otho (of Bavaria), of Hun- 


Eric IX., of Denmark, &.O. . 

Pope Felix V 

Charles V., as emperor . 

,, as king of Spain . 
Christina, of Sweden 
John -Casimir, of Poland . . 
James II., of England . 
Frederick Augustus II., of 
Poland 1704 



1 142 




Napoleon, of France, April 5, 1814 
Victor Emmanuel, of Sar- 
dinia . . March 13, 1821 
Pedro IV., of Portugal, 

May 2, 1826 
Charles X., of France, 

Aug. 2, 1830 
Pedro I., of Brazil . April 7, 1831 
Dom Miguel, of Portugal 

(by leaving it) . May 26, 1834 
William I. , of Holland, Oct. 8, 1840 
Louis-Philippe, of France, 

Feb. 24, 1848 
Louis Charles, of Bavaria, 

March 21, 1848 
Ferdinand of Austria, Dec. 2, 1848 
Charles Albert, of Sardinia, 

March 26, 1849 
Leopold II., grand-duke of 
Tuscany . . . July, 1859 

ABDICATIONS of sovereigns, voluntary and compulsory, are numerous in history. The 
following are the most remarkable : — 

Phihp v., of Spain (re- 
sumed) 1724 

Victor Amadeus, of Sardinia 1730 
Charles, of Naples . . . 1759 
Stanislaus, of Poland . . 1795 
Charles Emmanuel II., of 

Sardinia . . June 4, 1802 
Francis II., of Germany, 

who became emperor of 

Austria . . Aug. ii, 1804 
Charles IV., of Spain, in 

favour of his son, March 19 ; 

in favovir of Bonaparte. 

See Spain . . May i, 1808 
Gustavus IV. , of Sweden . . 1809 
Joseph Bonaparte, of Naples 

(for Spain) . June i, 1808 
Louis, of Holland . July i, 1810 
Jerome, of Westphalia, 

Oct. 20, 1813 

ABECEDARIANS, followers of Stork, an Anabaptist in the sixteenth century, deriving 
their name from their rejection of all worldly knowledge, even of the alphabet. 

ABELARD anu Heloise, celebrated for their passionate love, which commenced at 
Paris, 1 1 18, when Heloise (a canon's daughter) was under seventeen years of age. Abelard 
built the convent of the Paraclete and made her abbess in 1121. Here he taught wbat was 
condemned as heresy, 1122 and 1140. After sufiering an ignominious injury, he became 
a monk of the abbey of St. Denis, and died of grief in 1 142, at St. Marcel. Heloise begged 
his body, buried it in the Paraclete, and was interred beside him in 1163. The ashes of both 
were carried to the Museum of Fi-ench Monuments in 1800 ; and the museum having been 
subsequently broken up, they were finally removed to the burying-ground of P^-e La Chaise, 
in 181 7. Their works and letters were published in one volume in 1616. Pope's imitations 
of the latter are well known. 

ABENCERRAGES, a powerful Moorish tribe of Granada, opposed to that of the Zegiis. 
From 1480 to 1492 their quarrels deluged Granada with blood and hastened the fall of the 
kingdom. They were extenninated by Boabdil (Abu Abdallah), the last king, who was 
detiironed by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492 ; his dominions were annexed to Castile. 

ABENSBERG. See Eckmuhl. 

ABERDEEN (N. Scotland), said to have been founded, in the third century after Christ. 
Gregory the Great conferred peculiar privileges on Aberdeen, in 893. Old Aberdeen was 
made a royal burgh in 1154; it was burnt by the English in 1336 ; and soon after New 
Aberdeen was built. The university was founded by bishop William Elphiustone, who had a 
bull from the pope Alexander VI. in 1494. King's college was erected in 1500-6. Marischal 
college was founded by George Keith, earl marischal of Scotland, in 1593 ; rebuilt in 1837. In 
1858 the universities and colleges were united. — Malcolm III. having gained a great victory 
over the Danes in tlie year loio, resolved to found a new bishopric, in token of his gratitude 
for his success, and pitched upon Mortlach in Banffshire, where St. Beaniis was first bishop, 
1015. The see, removed to Aberdeen early in the twelfth century, was discontinued at the 
revolution, 1689, and is now a post-revolution bishopric, instituted in 1721. See Bishops, 

ABERDEEN ADMINISTRATION, called the Coalition Ministry, as including Whigs, 
Radicals, and followers of Sir R. Peel. Formed in consequence of the resignation of tlie first 
Derby administration; sworn in Dec. 28, 1852; resigned Jan. 30, 1855; succeeded by the 
Palnicrston administration, which see. 

Earl of Aberdeen, */r«« lord of the treasury. 

Lord Cranworth, lord chancellor. 

Earl Granville, pretident of the council. 

Duke of Argyll, lord privy seal. 

Lord John Russell, t foreign. 

Viscount Palmerston, home secretary. 

Duke of Newcastle, t colonial and war seerttary. 

William Ewart Gladstone, chancellor of exchequer. 

Sir James Graham, .rtr«< lord of the admiralty. 
Sir Charles Wood, preaident of the India hoard. 
Edward Cardwell, -president of board of trade. 
Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-at-war. 
Sir William Moles worth, chief commissioner of works. 
Marquess of Lansdovnie (without office). 
Viscount Canning, Lord Stanley of Alderley, right 
hon. Edward Strutt, &c. 

* Born in 1784; engaged in foreign diplomacy, 1813 ; became foreign secretary, Jan. 1828; joined 
the party of Sir R. Peel, 1846; died, Dec. 14, i86o. 

t Lord John Russell was succeeded as foreign secretary by the earl of Clarendon, but continued a 
member of the cabinet, vrithout office ; he afterwards became president of the council, in the room of 
earl Gr.inville, appointed to the duchy of Lancaster. 

X On June 11, 1854, the offices were separated ; the duke of Newcastle remained secretary of icar, and 
sir George Grey was made colonial secretary. 


ABHORREES, a political court-party in England, in the reign of Charles 11. the 
opponents of the Addressers (afterwards Whigs), so called from their address to the king 
praying for the immediate assembly of the parliament which was delayed on account of its 
being adverse to the court. The first mentioned (afterwards Tories) expressed their abhorrence 
of those who endeavoured to encroach on the royal prerogative, 1680.* Hivme. 

ABINGDOlSr LAW. In 1645, lord Essex and Waller held Abingdon, in Berks, against 
Charles I. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, and by 
prince Rupert in 1645. On these occasions the defenders put every Irish prisoner to death 
without trial ; hence the term "Abingdon law." 

''ABJURATION of certain doctrines of the church of Rome was enjoined by statute 25 
Charles II. 1672. The oath of abjuration of the pope and the pretender was first administered 
by statute 13 William III. 1701 ; the form was changed in after reigns. By 21 & 22 Vict, 
c. 48 (1858) an alteration in this oath was authorised for Jews. 

ABO, a port of Russia, founded prior to 1157, was till 1809 capital of Swedish Finland. 
It has suffered much by fire, especially in 1775 and 1827; was seized by the Russians in 
Feb., 1808 ; ceded to them in 1809 ; and rebuilt by them after the fire in 1827. A university 
was erected by Gustavus Adolphus and Christina, 1640, et seq., and removed to Helsingfors 
in 1827. The peace of Abo, between Russia and Sweden, was signed in 1743. 

ABORIGINES (from ah origine, without origin), a name given to the earliest known 
inhabitants of Italy (whence came the Latini) ; now applied to the original inhabitants of 
any country. — The Aborigines Protection Society was established in 1838. Reports on the 
condition of the aborigines in the British colonies were presented to parliament in 1834 
and 1837. 

ABOUKIR (Egypt), the ancient Canopus. The bay is famous for the defeat of the 
French fleet by Nelson, August 1, 1798. See Nile. A Turkish army of 15,000 was defeated 
here by 5000 French under IJonaparte, July 25, 1799. A British expedition to Egypt under 
general sir Ralph Abercromby landed here, and Aboukir siu-reudered to them after an 
obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, March 8, 1801. See Alexandria. 

ABRAHAM, Era of, used by Eusebius ; so called from the patriarch Abraham, who died 
B.C. 1821. It began October i, 2016 b.c. To reduce this era to the Christian, subtract 
2015 years and three months. 

ABRAHAM, Heights of, near Quebec, Lower Canada. The French were defeated here 
by general Wolfe, who fell in the moment of victory, Sept. 13, 1759. See Quebec. 

ABRAHAMITES, a sect which adopted the errors of Paulus, and was suppressed by 
Cyriacus, the patriarch of Antioch. In the ninth century, there sprang uj) a community of 
monks imder a like designation : it, too, was suppressed, or rather exterminated, for v/orshipping 
images. A mongrel sect of this name was banished from Bohemia by Joseph II. in 1783. 

ABSALOM'S REBELLION, ending in his death (1024-3 B.o.) is described in 2 Sam. 
XV. — xix. 

ABSENTEE TAX (four shillings in the pound) was first levied in Ireland in 1715 on the 
incomes and pensions of absentees (persons who derive their income from one country and 
spend it in another) but ceased in 1753. -^ *^^ ^^ ^s. in the pound was vainly proposed by 
Mr. Flood in 1773 and by Mr. Molyueux in 1783. 

ABSOLUTION, Ecclesiastical. Till the third century, the consent of the congregation 
was necessary to absolution ; but soon after the power was reserved to the bishop ; and in 
the twelfth century the form " /absolve thee" had become general. ' 

ABSTINENCE. It is said that St. Anthony lived to the age of 105 on twelve ounces of 
bread and water daily, and James the hermit to the age of 104. St. Epiphanius lived 
thus to 115; Simeon the Stylite to 112; and Kentigern, commonly called St. Mungo, 
to 185 years of age. Spottisioood. Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, 
was said to have lived twenty months without food ; but her imposture was detected by Dr. 
A. Henderson, Nov. 1808. At Newry, in Ireland, a man named Cavanagh was reported to 
have lived two years without meat or drink, Aug. 1840. His imposture was afterwards 
discovered in England, where he was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841. See Fasts. 

* The commons expelled several members for being Abborrers, among tbem sir Francis Withens 
(whom they sent to the Tower), and prayed his majesty to remove others from places of trust. They also 
resolved, " that it is the undoubted right of the subject to petition for the calling of a parliament, and 
that to traduce such petitions as tumultuous and seditious, is to contribute to the design of altering the 
constitution." Oct, i68q. Salmon. 

B 2 



ABSTINENTS, ascetics tliat wholly abstained from wine, flesh, and marriage, appeared 
in France and Spain in the third century. 

ABYSSINIA, a large country in N. E. Africa. Its ancient history is very uncertain. 
The kingdom of AuxumitfE (from its chief town Auxnme) flourished in the ist and 2nd 
centuries after Christ. The religion of the Abyssinians is a corrupt form of Christianity 
introduced about 329 by Frumeutius. About 960, Judith, a Jewish princess, murdered a 
great part of the royal family, and reigned forty years. The youTig king escaped : and the 
royal house was restored in 1268 in the person of his descendant Icon Amlac. In the middle 
ages it was said to be ruled by Prester John or Prete Janni. The Portuguese missions com- 
menced in the I5tli century, but were expelled about 1632 in consequence of the tyranny of 
Mendez and the Jesuits. The encroachments of the Gallas and intestine disorders soon after 
broke up the empire into petty governments. Missions were sent from England in 1829 and 
1841. Much information respecting Abyssinia has been given by Bruce (1790), Salt 
(1805—9), Riippell (1838), and Parkyns (1853).* 

ABYSSINIAN ERA is reckoned from the creation, which the Abyssinians place in the 
5493rd year before our era, on the 29th Aug. old style : and their dates consequently exceed 
ours by 5492 years and 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian time to the Julian year, subtract 
5492 years and 125 days. 

ACADEMIES. Acadcmia was a shady grove without the walls of Athens (bequeathed to 
Academus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philosophy, and his followers 
took the title of Academics, 378 B.C. Stanley. — Rome had no academies. — Ptolemy Soter is 
said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, about 3 14 B. c. Abderahman I., caliph of 
Spain, founded academies about a.d. 773. Theodosius the Younger, Charlemagne, and 
Alfred are also named as founders of academies. Italy is celebrated for its academies ; and 
Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in the city of Milan. The following are among the 
principal academies : — 

American Academy of Sciences, Boston, 1780. 

Ancona, of the Caglinosi, 1642. 

Basil, 1460. 

Berlin, Royal, 1700; of Princes, 1703; Architecture, 

Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687 ; Mathematics, 1690 ; 

Sciences and Arts, 1712. 
Brescia, of the Erranti, 1626. 
Brest and Toulon, Military, 1682, 
Brussels, Belles Leitres, 1773. 
Caen, Belles Leitres, 1705. 
Copenhagen, of Sciences, 1743. 
Cortona, Antiquities, 1726. 

Dublin, Arts, 1742; Painting, Sculpture, &c., 1823. 
Erfurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754. 
Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612. 
Florence, Belles Lettres, 1272 ; Delia Crnsca (now 

united with the Florentine, and merged imder 

that name), 1582 ; Del Clmento, 1657 (by cardinal 

de' Medici); Antiquities, 1807. 
Geneva, Medical, 1715. 
Genoa, Painting, (fee., 1751 ; Sciences, 1783. 
Germany, Natures Curiosi, now Jjiopoldine, 1662. 
Gottingen, 1750 
Haerlem, the Sciences, 1760. 
Irish Academy, Royal, DubUn, 1782. 
Lisbon, History, 1720 ; Sciences, 1779. 
London. See Societies. Royal Academy of Fine 

Arts, 1768 ; of Music, 1734-43 ; and 1822. 
Lyons, Sciences, 1710; Physic and Mathematics 

added, 1758. 
Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713 ; History, 1730; 

Painting and the Arts, 1753. 
Manheim, Sciences, 1755 ; Sculpture, 1775. 
Mantua, the Vigilanti, Sciences, 1704. 
Marseilles, Belles Lettres, 1726. 
Massachusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780. 

Milan, Architecture, 1380; Sciences, 1719. 

Munich, Arts and Sciences, 1759. 

Naples, Rossana, 1540; Mathematics, 1560; Sciences, 
1695 ; Hercalaneuvi, 1755. 

New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814. 

Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682. 

Padua, for Poetry, 1613 ; Sciences, 1792. 

Palermo, Medical, 1645. 

Paris, Sorbonne, 1253 ; Painting, 1391 ; Music, 1543 
and 1672 ; French (by Richelieu), 1635 ; Fine Arts, 
1648 ; Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (by Colbert), 
1663 ; Sciences (by Colbert), 1666 ; Architecture, 
1671 ; Surgery, 1731 ; Military, 1751 ; Natural 
philosophy, 1796. 

Parma, the Innominati, isso. 

Perousa, Insensati, 1561 ; Filigirti, 1574. 

Philadelphia, Arts and Sciences, 1749. 

Portsmouth, Naval, 1722; enlarged, 1806. 

Rome, Umoristi, 161 1 ; Fantascici, 1625.; Infecondi, 
1653 ; Painting, 1665 ; Arcadi, 1690 ; Enghsh, 
1752 ; Lincei, about 1600 ; Nuovi Lincei, 1847. 

St. Petersburg, Sciences, 1725 ; Military, 1732 ; the 
School of Arts, 1764. 

Stockholm, of Science, 1741 ; Belles Leitres, 1753; 
Agriculture, 1781 ; Royal Swedish, 1786. 

Toulon, Military, 1682. 

Turin, Sciences?, about 1759; Fine Arts, 1778. 

Turkey, Military School, 1775. 

Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720. 

Venice, Medical, <fec., 1701. 

Verona, Music, 1543 ; Sciences, 1780. 

Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705 ; Surgery, 
1783 ; Oriental, i8io. 

Warsaw, Languages, and History, 1753. 

Washington, United States, America, 1863. 

Woolwich, Military, 1741. 

* Abyssinia has long been in a state of anarchy. In 1855 the emperor Ras Ali was deposed by his 
son-in-law Theodore, the present ruler, who invited the European sovereigns to join him in a crusade 
against his neighbours the Turks. Our consul (Plowden) at iUassowah imprudently joined this sovereign, 
and lost his hfe while opposing an insun-ection ; and his successor (col. Cameron) and other persons are 
now imprisoned by Theodore, who is jealous of their favouring the Turks. The subject was discussed 
in parliament in July, 1865, and the consul was censured by government for having disregarded his 


ACADIA. See Nova Scotia. 

ACANTHUS, the foliage forming the volutes of the Corinthian capital, ascribed to 
Callimachus, about 540 B. c. 

ACAPULCO, a Spanish galleon, from Acapulco, laden with gold and precious wares 
(estimated at above i,cx)0,oooZ. sterling), taken by lord Anson, who had previously acquired 
booty in his voyage amounting to 600,000?. He arrived at Spithead in the Centurion, after 
having circumnavigated the globe, June 15, 1744. 

ACAEISTANIA, N". Greece. The people became prominent in the Peloponnesian war, 
having invited the help of the Athenians against the Ambracians, 432 B.C. The Acarnanians 
were subdued by the Lacedaemonians in 390 ; they took part with Macedon against the Komans 
in 200, by whom they were subjugated in 197 ; finally, in 145. 

ACCENTS. The most ancient manuscripts are written without accents, and without any 
separation of words ; nor was it until after the ninth century that the copyists began to leave 
spaces between the words. Michaelis, after Wetstein, ascribes the insertion of accents to 
Euthalius, bishop, of Sulca, in Egj-pt, A.D. 458. Accents were first used by the French in 
the reign of Louis XIIL (about 1610). 

ACCESSION, The, i.e. that of the house of Hanover to the throne of England, in the 
person of George I., elector of Hanover, the son of Sophia, the daughter of Elizabeth, the 
daughter of James I. He succeeded to the crown, Aug. i, 1714, by virtue of the act of 
settlement passed in the reign of William III., June 12, 1701, which limited the succession 
to liis mother (as a protestant) in the event of queen Anne dying without issue. 

ACCESSORIES to Crimes. The law respecting them consolidated and amended in 186L 

ACCIDENTS. See Coal, Fires, Railways, &c. Eor compensation for accidents, see 
Caiwphell's Act and Passengers. 

ACCLIMATISATION of Animals. This has been prosecuted with great vigour since the 
establishment of the Zoological society of London in 1829, and of the Society d'Acclimata- 
tion in Paris. Numbers of European animals have been naturalised in Australia ; the 
camel has been conveyed to Brazil (1859) ; alpacas are bred at Paris ; and ostriches in Italy 
(1859). On Oct. 6, i860, the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, was opened as a zoological 
Garden, containing only acclimatised animals. An English acclimatisation society was 
founded June 10, i860, by hon. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. J. Crockford, Mr. F. Buckland, &c., 
and the prince of "Wales became president in April, 1865. An acclimatising garden was 
established at Melbourne, Australia, in Feb. i86i, and efforts are being made to naturalise 
English birds, fishes, &c. 

ACCORDION, a small wind-instrument with keys, introduced into England from Germany 
about 1828. 

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL in Chancery. The office was appointed in 1726, and 
abolished in 1841 ; it was always held by a master in chancery. Hardy. 

ACCUSERS, By the occult writers, such as Agrippa, accusers are the eighth order of 
devils, whose chief is called Asteroth, or Spy. In the Revelation, ch. xii. 10, the devil is 
called " the accuser of the brethren." — False accusers were to be hanged, by 24 Henry YI. 
1446 ; and burnt in the face with an F, by 37 Henry VIII. 1545. Stow. 

ACELDAMA, a field, said to have been the one bought with the thirty pieces of silver given 
to Judas Iscariot for betraying Christ, is still shown to travellers. It is covered M'ith an arched 
roof, and retains the name Aceldama, that is "the field of blood," to this day. Matthew 
xxvii. 8; Actsi. 19. — This name was given to an estate purchased by judge Jeffreys after 
the "bloody assizes" in 1685. 

ACETYLENE, a luminous hydrocarbon gas resembling coal gas, discoveredby Berthelot, 
and made known in 1862. 

ACHAIA (N. Peloponnesus), Greece ; the capital was settled by Achseus, the son of 
Xuthus, about 1330 B.C. ( ?) The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the Jitolians 
until about 284 B. c. The Achsei, descendants of Achseus, originally inhabited the neigh- 
bourhood of Argos ; but when the Heraclidse drove them thence, they retired among the 
lonians, expelled the natives, and seized their thirteen cities, viz., Pellene, JJgira, /Egium, 
Bura, Tritaea, Leontium, Rhypes, Cerynea, Olenos, Helice, Patrse, Dyme, and Phai'se, form- 
ing the AcH.ffi;AN League, which was broken up soon after the death of Alexander of Macedon, 
323 B.C. 



Achala invaded by Epaminondas . . B.C. 366 
The Achaean league revived by four cities 

about 280 — 

Aratus made prsetor 245 

The league joined by Corinth, Megara, &c. 243—236 
Supported by Athens and Antigonus Doson . . 229 
War with the Spartans ; the Achseans defeated 
at Ladocea, by the Spartans under Cleo- 
menes III., 226; but totally defeat them at 

Sellasia 221 

The Social war begun ; battle of Caphyas, in 

Arcadia ; Aratus defeated . ... 220 

The Peloponnesus ravaged by the iEtolians . 219 

Aratus poisoned at jEgium 213 

Philopoemen, leader of the league, defeats the 

Spartan tyrant Machanidas . . . . 208 
Alliance of the league with the Romans . . 198 
Philopoemen defeated by Nabis in a naval 

battle 194 

Sijarta joined to the league . . . .191 
War with Messene : Philopoemen made pri- 
soner and slain 183 

TheAchfeansoverrunMesseniawitb fire&sword 182 
The Romans enter Achaia, and carry off num- 
bers of the people, among whom is the cele- 
brated Polybius 163 

Metellus enters Greece ... . . 147 

The Achajans defeated by Mummius at Leuco- 
petra ; the league dissolved by Mummius ; 
Corinth taken ; Greece subjected to Rome, 
and named the province of Achaia . . . 146 
Achaia made a Latin principality, a.d. 1205 ; 
founded by William of Champlitte, 1205 ; ob- 
tained by Geoffrey Villehardomn, 1210 ; by 
Geoffrey II., 1218 ; by his brother William, 
1246 ; who conquers the Moors, 1248 ; makes 
war with the emperor Michael, 1239, and 
gains three fortresses, 1262 ; succeeded 
by Isabella, 1277 ; who marries Florenz 
of Hainult, 1291 ; their daughter Maiid, 
princess, 1311 ; thrice married ; forcibly mar- 
ried to John de Gravina, and dies in prison ; 
Achaia subject to the kings of Naples . . 1324 

Conquered by the Turks 

about 1540 

ACHONRY, Sligo (N. Ireland) ; a bishopric founded by St. Finian, wbo erected the 
church of Achad, usiially called Achonry, about 520, and conferred it on his discijJe Nathy 
(Dathy, or Uavid), the first bishop. The see, held with Killala since 1612, was united with 
Tuam in 1834. 

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, in which colour is got rid of, were invented by John 
Dollond, and described in Phil. Trails, of the Royal Society, London, 1 753-8. 

ACIDS (now defined as salts of hydrogen) are generally soluble in water, redden organic 
blues, decompose carbonates, and destroy the properties of alkalies, forming alkaline salts. 
The number was increased by the Arabs ; Geber (8th centuiy) knew nitric acid and 
sulphuric acid. Theories of the constitution of acids were put forth by Becher (1669), 
Lemery (1675), and Stahl (1723). After the discoveiy of oxygen by Priestley, Aug. i, 1774, 
Lavoisier (1778) concluded that oxygen was a constituent of all acids ; but about 1810 Davy, 
Gay-Lussac, and others, proved the existence of acids free from oxygen. In 1816 Dulong 
proposed the binary or hydrogen theoiy of acids, and in 1837 Liebig applied the theories of 
Davy and Dulong to explain the constitution of several organic acids. Oxygen acids are 
now termed anhydrides. An innumerable number of acids have been discovered through the 
advance of organic chemistry. Watts. 

ACOLYTES, an inferior order of clergy in the Latin church, unknown to the Greek 
church for four hundred years after Cluist. 

ACOUSTICS (from akouo), Greek, I hear), the science of sound, so named by Sauveur in 
the 17th century. The communication of sounds to the air by the vibrations of the 
atmosphere, strings, &c., was explained by Pythagoras about 500 b.c., and by Aristotle, 
330 B.C. 

Velocity of sound said to be 1473 feet in a second, 
by Gassendi ; 11 72 feet by Cassini, Romer and 
others ; 968 by Newton, about 1700. 

Chladni (who raised acoustics to an independent 
science) published his important discoveries on 
the figures produced in layers of sand by harmonic 
chords, (fee, in 1787, and since. 

Cagniard-Latour invented the sirint (which ?fe), iBig. 

Biot, Savart, Wheatstone, Lissajous, Helmholtz, 
Tyndall, and others in the present century have 
greatly increased our knowledge of acoustics. 

The speaking trumpet is said to have been used by 
Alexander the Great, 335 B.C. 

Galileo's discoveries, about a.d. 1600. 

His theorem of the harmonic curve demonstrated 
by Dr. Brook Taylor, in 1714 ; further perfected 
by D'Alembert, Euler, Bemouilli, and La Grange, 
at various periods of the eighteenth century. 

Hooke calculated the vibration of sounds by the 
striking of the teeth of brass wheels, 168 1. 

Sauveur determined the number of vibrations be- 
longing to a given note, about 1700. 

ACRE. This measure was formerly of uncertain quantity, and differed in various parts 
of the realm, until made standard by statute 31 Edward I. 1303, and fixed at 40 poles or 
perches in length, and 4 in breadth — or 160 square poles, containing 4840 square yards, 
or 43,560 square feet. In certain counties and places the measure is larger. Pardon. 

ACEE, Acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was taken by the Saracens in 638 ; by the 
crusaders under Baldwin I. in 1104 ; by Saladin in 1187 ; and again by Richard I. and other 
crusaders, July 12, 1191, after a siege of two years, with a loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 
40 earls, 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers. It was then named St. Jean d'Acre. It was 
retaken by the Saracens in 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished. This capture was 
rendered memorable by the murder of the nuns, who had mangled their faces to repress the 


lust of the infidels. — Acre, gallantly defended by Djezzar Eacha against Bonaparte in July, 
1798, was relieved by Sir Sidney Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French, between 
March 16 and May 20, 1799, when Bonaparte retreated. — St Jean d'Acre, as a pachalic 
subject to the Porte, was seized July 2, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted. On 
Nt)v. 3, 1840, it was stormed by the British fleet under sir Eobert Stopford, and taken after 
a bombardment of a few hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2000 in killed and wounded, 
and 3000 prisoners, while the British had but twelve killed and 42 wounded. See Syria and 

ACEOPOLIS, the citadel of Athens, was built on a rock, andaccessible only on one side ; 
Minerva had a temple at the bottom. The roof of this vast pile, which had stood above 
2000 years, was destroyed by the Venetians who took Athens in 1687. 

ACS (Hungary). The Hungarians under Gorgey were defeated here by the Austrians 
and Eussians, on July 10, 1849. 

ACT OF Settlement, &c. See Accession, Succession, Supremacy, and Uniformity Acts. 

ACTA SANCTOEUM (acts of the saints), a work commenced by the Jesuits in the 
seventeenth century. The first volume appeared in 1643 : the publication was interrupted 
in 1734, when the fifty -third volume was published, but was resumed in 1846, and is still in 
progress : having advanced in the order of the months as far as October. From one of the 
first editors, Bolland, the writers have been named BoUandists. 

ACTINOMETEE, an instrument to measure the power of the solar rays, invented by sir 
J. F. Herschel, about 1825. See Sun. 

ACTIUM, a promontory of Acarnania, "W. Greece, near which was fought, on Sept. 2, . 
31 B c, the battle between the fleets of Octavianus Ctesar on the one side, and of Marc Aiitony 
and Cleopatra on the other, which decided the fate of Antony ; 300 of his galleys going over 
to Cffisar. This victory made Octavianus master of the world, and the Eoman empire is 
commonly dated Jan. i, 30 B.C. (the Actian Era). The conq[ueror built Nicopolis (the city 
of victory), and instituted the Actian games. Blair. 

ACTEESSES appear to have been unknown to the ancients ; men or eunuchs performing 
the female parts. Chai'les 11. is said to have first encouraged the public appearance of 
women on the stage in England, in 1662 ; but the queen of James I. had previously per- 
formed in a theatre at court. Theat. Biog. Mrs. Colman was the first actress on the stage ; 
she performed the part of lanthe in Davenant's "Siege of Ehodes," in 1656. Victor. 

ACTS OF Parliament, or Statutes. See Parliament, The following are among the 
most celebrated early statutes : — 

Statutes of Clarendon, to restrain the powetr of the 
clergy, enacted in 10 Hen. II. 1164. Provisions 
of Merton, 1235-6. Statute of Marlborough, 1267. 
Of Bigamy, 1275-6. Of Gloucester, the earliest 
statute of which any record exists, 6 Bdw. I., 
1278. Of fMortmain, 1279. Quo Warranto, Oct. 
1280. Statutes of Wales, 1284. Of Winchester, Oct. 
1284. Of Westminster, 1285. Statute forbidding 
the levying of taxes without the consent of par- 
liament, 1297. Magna Charta, 1297. Of Prae- 
munire, 1306. 

Between 1823 and 1829, 1126 acts were wholly re- 
pealed, and 443 repealed in pai-t, chiefly arising 
out of the consolidation of the laws by Mr. (after- 
wards sir Robert) Peel ; of these acts, 1344 related 
to the kingdom at large, and 225 to Ireland solely; 
and in 1856 many obsolete statutes (enacted be- 
tween 1285 and 1777) were repealed. 

By the Statute Law Revision Act of 1861, 770 acts 
were wholly repealed, and a great many pai-tially. 
By the similar Act of 1863, a great number of 
enactments were repealed, commencing with the 
Provisions of Merton, 20 Henry III. (1236), and 
ending with i James II. (1685). 

The greatest number of acts passed in any one year 

ACTS, in dramatic poetry, first employed by the Eomans. Five acts are mentioned by 
Horace (Art of Poetry) as the rule (about b. c. 8). 

ACTUAEY, AcTUAUius, the Eoman accountant. The Institute of Actuaries founded in 
1848, publishes its proceedings in the "Assurance Magazine." 

since i8oo, was 570, in 1846 (the railway year) ; 
402 were local and personal, 51 private, and 117 
public acts. In 1841, only 13 were passed (the 
lowest number), of which two were private. In 
three instances only, the annual number was 
under a hundred. The average number of the first 
ten years of the present century was 132 public 
acts. In the ten years ending 1850, the average 
number of acts, of public interest, was 112. 

The number of public general acts passed in 1851 
was 106 ; in -1852, 88 ; in 1853, 137 ; in 1854, 125 ; 
in 1855, 134; in 1856, 120; in 1857, 86; in 1858, 
109 ; in 1859, loi ; in i860, 154; in 1861, 134; in 
1862, 114 ; in 1863, 125 ; in 1864, 121. 

In 1850. 13 Vict. c. 13, was passed to curtail Repeti- 
tions in statutes. 

Statutes first printed in the reign of Richard III., 

Statutes of the Realm, from Magna Charta to 
George I., printed from the original records and 
MSS. in 12 vols, folio, under the direction of com- 
missioners appointed in 1801, 1811 — 28. 

The statutes passed during each session are now 
printed annually in 4to. and 8vo. Abstracts are 
given in the Cabinet Lawyer. 

Lord Hawkcsbiiry, foreign secretary. 
Lord Hobart, colonial secretary. 
Earl St. Vincent, admiralty. 
Earl of Chatbani, ordnance. 
Charles Yorke, secrctary-at-tBar. 
Viscount Lewisham, Lord Auckland, &c. 


ADAM AND EVE, Era of, set down by most Christian writers as being 4004 B.C. There 
have been as many as one hundred and forty opinions on the distance of time between the 
creation of the world and the birth of the Kedeemer : some make it 3616 years, and some as 
great as 6484 years. See Creation. 

ADAMITES, a sect said to have existed about 130, and to have assembled quite naked 
in their places of worship, asserting that if Adam had not sinned there would have been no 
marriages. Their chief was named Prodicus ; they deified the elements, rejected prayer, and 
said it was not necessary to confess Christ. Eusehius. A similar sect arose at Antwerp in the 
twelfth century, under Taudemus, or Tanchelin, whose followers, 3000 soldiers and others, 
committed many crimes under spiritual names. The sect became extinct soon after the 
death of its chief; but another of the same kind, named Turlupins, appeared shortly after in 
Savoy and Dauphiny. A Fleming named Picard, revived this sect in Bohemia, about 1415 ; 
it was sujjpressed 'by Ziska. 

ADDINGTON ADMINISTRATION. Mr. Pitt, having engaged to procure Roman 
Catholic emancipation to secure the union with Ireland, and being unable to do so as a 
minister, resigned Feb. 3, 1801. A new ministry was formed by Mr. Addington, March 
iSoi ; after various changes it terminated May 11, 1804. 

Henry Addington,* first lord of the treasury and 

chancellor of the exchequer. 
Lord Eldon, lord chancellor. 
Duke of Portland, lord president. 
Earl of Westmoreland, lord privy seal. 
Lord Pelham, home secretary. 

ADDISCOMBE COLLEGE, near Croydon, Surrey, established by the East India 
company, in 1809, for the education of candidates for the scientific branches of the Indian 
army, was closed in 1861. 

ADDLED PARLIAMENT. See Parliament, 1614. 

ADDRESSERS. ^q& Ahhorrers. 

ADELAIDE, the capital of South Australia, was founded in 1836. It contained 14,000 
inhabitants in 1850, and 18,259 in 1855. It was made a bishopric in 1847. 

ADELPHI (Greek for brothers), a series of streets on the south side of the Strand, London, 
erected about 1 768 by the brothers, John, Robert, James, and William Adam, after whom 
the streets are named. Adelphi Theatre, see under Tlicatres. 

ADEN, a free port on the S. W. corner of Arabia, where in 1837 a British ship was 
wrecked and plundered. The sultan promised compensation, and agreed to cede the place 
to the English. The sultan's son refusing to fulfil this agreement to captain Haynes, a 
naval and military force, under captain H. Smith, of the Volage, Avas dispatched to Aden, 
which captured it, Jan. 19, 1839. It is now a coal depot for Indian steamers, &c. 

ADIGE, a river in N. Italy, near which the Austrians defeated the French on March 26, 
30, and April 5, 1799. 

ADMINISTRATIONS of England, and of Gkeat BRiTAiN.t For a fuller account of 
each, since 1 700, see separate articles headed with the name of the premier. 

* BomT757; became viscount Sidmouth in 1805; held various ofiSces afterwards, and died in 1S44. 
His circular to the lords lieutenants, dated March 27, 1817, dii'ecting them to adopt severe measures against 
the authors of blasphemous and seditious pamphlets, was greatly censured, and not carried into effect. 

t Until the Restoration, there was not in fact anything that could be exclusively called a Cabinet. 
The sovereign latterly governed by a collection of privy councillors, sometimes of larger, sometimes of 
smaller number, the men and offices being frequently changed. The separation of the Cabinet from the 
Privy Council became greater during the reign of William III., and the control of the chief, now termed 
the "premier," was e.stablished in the reign of Anne. "The era of ministries may roost properly be 
reckoned from the day of the meeting of the parliament after the general election of 1698." — Lord 
Macaulay. " In Walpole's time there was an interior council, of Walpole, the chancellor, and secretaries 
of state, who. in the first instance, consulted together on the more confidential points." — Croker's 
Memoirs of Lord Hervey. Till 1850 the cabinet council usually consisted of the following twelve members : 
— First lord of the treasury ; lord chancellor ; lord president of the council ; chancellor of the exchequer ; 
lord privy seal ; home, foreign, and colonial secretaries ; first lord of the admiralty ; president of the 
board of trade; president of the board of control; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In 1850, the 
number was fifteen, and included the secretary-at-war, the postmaster-general, and the chief secretary for 
Ireland. In the Palmerston-llussell cabinet (which see), the president of the poor-law-board replaced the 
secretary for Ireland. The average duration of a ministry has been set down at four, five, and six years ; 
but instances have occurred of the duration of a ministry for much longer periods : sir Robert Walpole 
was minister from 1721 to 1742 (21 years); Mr. Pitt, 1783 to 1801 (18 years); and lord Liverpool, 1812 to 
1827 (15 years). Several ministries have not endured beynnd a few months, a,R the CnaMtion Miiiistry in 
1783, and the " Talents" Ministry in 1806. The " Short-lived" Administration lasted Feb. 10 to 12, 1746. 



Administkations of England, and of Great Britain. 

Henry VIII. — Abp, Warham ; Bps. Fiaher and 
Pox ; earl of Surrey, &c. . . . a.d. 1509 

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, &c. . . . . 1514 

Earl of Surrey ; Tunstall, bishop of London, &,c. 1523 

Sir Thomas More ; bishops Tunstall and Gardi- 
ner, and Cranmer (afterwards abp. of Canter- 
bury) 1529 

Abp. Cranmer; lord Cromwell, aft. earl of 
Essex ; Thos. Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, &o. . 1532 

Thomas, duke of Norfolk; Henry, earl of 
Surrey ; Thomas, lord Audley ; bishop Gardi- 
ner ; sir Ralph Sadler, &c 1540 

LordWriothesley; Thomas, duke of Norfolk; lord 
I;isle; su-William Petre; sir William Paget, &c. 1544 

Edward VI. — Lord Wriothesley, now earl of 
Southampton, lord chancellor (expelled) ; 
Edward, earl of Hertford, lord protector, 
created duke of Somerset; John, lord Rus- 
sell ; Henry, earl of Arundel ; Thomas, lord 
Seymour ; sir William Paget ; sir William 
Petre, &c. ..... . . 1547 

John Dudley, late lord Lisle and earl of War- 
wick, created duke of Northumberland ; 
John, earl of Bedford; bishop Goodrich, sir 
WiUiam Cecil, &c 1551 

Mary. — Stephen Gardiner, bp. of Winchester ; 
Edmund Bonner, bp. of London ; William, 
marquess of Winchester ; sir Edwd. Hastings, 
&c. . 1554 

Elizabeth. — Sir Nicholas Bacon ; Edward, lord 
CUnton ; sir Robert Dudley, aftd-:. earl of 
Leicester ; sir Wm. Cecil, aftds. lord Burleigh. 1558 

Lord Burleigh (minister during nearly all the 
reign) ; sir N. Bacon,. &c 1572 

WUliam, lord Burleigh ; sir Thomas Bromley ; 
Robert Devereux, earl of Essex (a favoiirite) ; 
earl of Leicester ; earl of Lincoln ; sir Walter 
Mildmay ; sir Francis Walsingham, &c. . 1579 

Lord Burleigh ; Robert, earl of Essex ; sir 
Christoj)her Hatton, <&c 1587 

Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, afterwards 
earl of Dorset ; sir Thomas Egerton, a/tei'- 
wards lord Ellesmere and viscovuit Brackley ; 
sir Robert Cecil, &c. 1599 

James I. — Thomas, earl of Dorset; Thomas, 
lord Ellesmere ; Charles, earl of Nottingham ; 
Thomas, earl of Suffolk ; Edward, earl of 
Worcester; Robert Cecil, aftei-wards earl of 
Salisbury, <&c 1603 

Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury ; Thomas, lord 
BUesmere ; Henry, earl of Northampton ; 
Charles, earl of Nottingham ; Thomas, earl of 
Suffolk, (fee. 1609 

Henry, earl of Northampton ; Thomas, lord 
Ellesmere ; Edward, earl of Worcester ; sir 
Ralph Winwood ; Charles, earl of Notting- 
ham ; Robert, viscount Rochester, afterwards 
earl of Somerset, (fee 161 2 

Thomas, lord Ellesmere ; Thomas, earl of 
Suffolk ; Charles, earl of Nottingham ; sir 
George VUliers (a favourite), afterwards vis- 
count Villiers, and successively earl, mar- 
quess, and duke of Buckingham . . . 1615 

Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards viscount Man- 
deville and earl of Manchester . . . . 1620 

Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of Middle- 
sex ; Edward, earl of Worcester ; John, eai-1 
of Bristol ; John WiUiams, dean of West- 
minster ; George Villiers, now marquess of 
Buckingham ; sir Edward Conway, &c. . 1621 

Charles I. — Richard, lord Weston, afterwards 
earl of Portland ; sir Thomas Coventry, after- 
wards lord Coventry ; Henry, earl of Man- 
chester (succeeded by James, earl of Marl- 
borough, who, in turn, gave place to Edward, 
lord, afterwards viscount, Conway); William 
Laud, bishop of London ; sir Albert Morton, 
&c 1628 

William Laud, noio archbishop of Canterbury ; 
Francis, lord Cottington ; James, marquess 

of Hamilton ; Edward, earl of Dorset ; sir 
John Coke ; sir Francis Wiudebank, &c. . 1635 

William Juxon, bishop of London ; sir John 
Finch, afterwards lord Finch ; Francis, lord 
Cottington ; Wentworth, earl of Strafford ; 
Algernon, earl of Northumberland ; James, 
marquess of Hamilton ; Laud, archbishop of 
Canterbury ; sir Francis Windebank ; sir 

Henry Vane, &c 1640 

[The king beheaded, Jan. 30, 1649.] 

Commonwealth. — Oliver Cromwell, protector, 
named a council, the number at no time to 
exceed twenty-one members, or be less than 
thirteen 1653 

Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded on 
the death of the latter. A council of officers 
ruled at Wallingford house . . . . 1658 

Charles II. — Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl 
of Clarendon : George Monk, created duke of 
Albemarle ; Edward Montagu, created earl of 
Sandwich ; lord Saye and Sele ; earl of Man- 
chester; lord Seymour; sir Robert Long, <fcc. 1660 

George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made first 
commissioner of the treasury, <fec. . . . 1667 

"Cabal" Ministry: Clifford, Ashley, Bucking- 
ham, Arlington, Lauderdale. (See Cabal.) . 1670 

Thomas, lord Clifford ; Anthony, earl of Shaftes- 
bury ; Henry, earl of Arhngton ; Arthur, 
earl of Anglesey; sir Thomas Osborne, created 
viscount Latimer ; Henry Coventry ; sir 
George Carteret ; Edward Seymour, &c. . 1672 

Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards earl of 
Danby, made lord high treasurer June 26, 1673 

Arthm-, earl of Essex (succeeded by Lawrence 
Hyde, aft. earl of Rochester) ; Robert, earl of 
Sunderland, (fee 1679 

[The king nominated a new council on April 21, 
consisting of thirty members only, of whom 
the principal were the great officers of state 
and great officers of the household.] 

Sidney, lord Godolphin ; Lawrence, earl of 
Boctiester : Daniel, earl of Nottingham ; 
Robert, earl of Sunderland ; sir Thomas 
Chicheley ; George, lord Dartmouth ; Henry, 
earl of Clarendon ; earls of Bath and Radnor, 
•fee 16.S4 

James II. — Lawrence, earl of Rochester ; George, 
marquess of Halifax ; sh- George Jeffreys, 
afterwards lord Jeffreys ; Henry, earl of Cla- 
rendon ; sir John Ernley ; viscount Preston, 
<&c 1685 

The earl of Rochester was displaced, and John, 
lord Belasyse, made first commissioner of 
the treasury in his room, Jan. 4 ; the earl of 
Sunderland made president of the council ; 
viscount Preston, secretary of state ; and 
various other changes took place in this and 
the following year 1687 

[The king left WliitehaU. in the night of Dec. 17, 
and quitting the kingdom, landed at Amble- 
teuse, in France, on Dec. 23, 1688.] 

William III. and Mary. — Charles, viscount 
Mordaunt ; Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, 
created marquess of Carmarthen, afterwards 
duke of Leeds ; George, marquess of Halifax ; 
Arthur Herbert, afterwards lord Torrington ; 
earls of Shrewsbury, Nottingham and Sun- 
derland ; earl of Dorset and Middlesex ; 
William, earl {afterwards duke) of Devon- 
shire ; lord Godolphin ; lord Montagu ; lord 
De la Mere, <&c. 1689 

Sidney, lord Godolphin ; Thomas, earl of 
Danby; Richard Hampden ; Thomas, earl of 
Pembroke; Henry, viscount Sydney; Daniel, 
earl of Nottingham, <fec. .... 1690 

Sir John Somers became lord Somers in 1697, 
and lord chancellor ; Charles Montagu, after- 
vjards lord Halifax, was made fu'st commis- 
sioner of the treasury. May i, i6g8, succeeded 
by Ford, earl of TankerviUe, in 1699. 




ADMINISTRATIONS of Great Britain, continued. 

Anne. — Sidney, lord {afterwards earl of) Godol- 
phin: Thomas, earl of Pembroke, &c. May, 1702 

Kobert Harley, earl of Oxford ; sir Simon Har- 
court, &o June i, 171 1 

Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, made lord trea- 
surer three days before the queen's death, 
&c July 30, 1714 

George I. — Charles, earl of Halifax (succeeded 
on his death by the earl of Carlisle), &c. . 1714 

Robert Walpole, first lord of the treasury and 
chanceUor of the exchequer, &c. . . . 1715 

James {afterwards earl) Stanlwpe; William, lord 
Cowper, &c 1717 

Charles, earl of Sunderland, &c 1718 

Kobert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert Walpole, 
and earl of Orford, &c 1721 

George II. — Robert Walpole, continued . . 1727 

[Sir Robert remained prime minister twenty- 
one years ; numerous changes occurring in 
the time. See Walpole.] 

Earl of jritmm£r<on ,- lord Hard wicke, &c. . 1742 

Henry Pelham, in the room of earl of Wilming- 
ton, deceased Aug. 1743 

"Broad Bottom," administration— Henry Pel- 
ham; lord Hard wicke, &c. . . Nov. 1744 

"Short-lived" administration — earl of Bath; 
lords Winchilsea and Granville Feb. 10-12, 1746 

Henry Pelham, &c., again . Feb. 12, 1746 

Thos. H. Pelham, duke of Newcastle; earl of 
Holdemesse, &c April, 1754 

Duke of Devonshire ; William Pitt, &c. Nov. 1756 

Duke of Nnocastle, and Mr. Pitt, afterwards 
earl of Chatham, &c. - . . . June, 1757 

George III.— Dvike of Newcastle, Mr. Pitt's 
ministry, continued ..... 1760 

Earl of Bide; lord Henley, &c. . . May, 1762 

George Grenville; earls of Halifax and Sand- 
wich, &c. April, 1763 

Marquess of Rockingham; earl of Winchilsea, 

<Sic - . . July, 1765 

Earl of C^a</(a»i/ duke of Grafton, &c. Aug. 1766 

Duke of Gr«/<on; lord North, (fee. . Dec. 1767 

Frederick, lord A'br(A; earl Gower, &c. Jan 1770 

[Lord North was minister during the whole of 
the American war.] 

Marquess oi Rockingham ; lord Camden; C. J. 
Fox ; Edmund Burke, &c. . . March, 1782 

Earl of Shelburne {afterwards marquess of Lana- 
downe) ; WiUiam Pitt, &c. . . . July, ,, 

"Coalition Ministry," duke of Portland; lord 
North ; C. J. Fox ; Edmund Burke, &c. April, 1783 

William Pitt ; Henry Dundas, &c. . Dec. „ 

[During Mr. Pitt's long administration, nume- 
rous changes in the ministry took place.] 

Henry Addington ; duke of Portland ; lord 
Eldon, &c March, et seq. 1801 

William Pitt; lord Eldon; George Canning, 
&c May, et seq. 1804 

[Mr. Pitt died Jan. 23, 1806] 

"All the Talents" administration— lord Gren- 
ville ; lord Henry Petty ; lord Erskine ; C. J. 
Fox ; sir Charles Grey {afterwards earl Grey). 

Feb. i8o6 

[Mr. Fox's death, Feb. 13, 1806, led to nume- 
rous changes.] 

Duke of Portland; lord Eldon, &c.* March, 1807 

Spencer Perceval ; earl of Liverpool ; viscoimt 
Palmerston, ifec. . . . Nov. and Dec. 1809 

Regency. — Mr. Spencer Perceval (shot by 
Bellingham, May 11, 1812), <&c., continued 

Feb. s, 1811 

Earl of Liverpool ; lord Eldon ; Mr. Vansittart ; 
lord Melville ; viscount Castlereagh, &c. 

May, June, 1812 

George IV. — Earl of Liverpool, &c., continued 

Jan. 29, 1820 

[Dui-ing lord Liverpool's long administration. 

numerous changes in, and accessions to, 
oflBce occurred] 

George Canning ; lord Lyndhurst ; viscount 
Goderich ; Mr. Huskisson ; lord Palmerston ; 
duke of Clarence, <fec. . . . April, 

[Mr. Canning died Aug. 8, 1827.] 

Viscount Goderich : viscount Palmerston ; mar- 
quess of Lansdowne ; Mr. Huskisson, &c. 


Duke of Wellington ; Robert Peel ; Mr. Hus- 
kisson, &c Jan. 

[The ministry was reconstructed on the retire- 
ment of the earl of Dudley ; lord Palmerston ; 
Mr. Grant ; and Mr. Huskisson.] May and 


William IV. — Duke of Wellington, &c., coii- 
tinutd June 26, 

Earl Ch-ey ; marquess of Lansdowne ; lord 
Brougham ; viscount Althoipe ; earl of Dur- 
ham ; viscounts Melbourne, Palmerston, and 
Goderich ; sir James Graham ; lord John 
RusseU, &c Nov. 

[Earl Grey resigns office, owing to a majority 
against him in the lords, on the Reform Bill, 
May 10; but resumes his post] . May 18, 

Viscount Melbourne ; &c. . . . July, 

[Viscount Alelboume's administration dissolved, 
Nov. 1834. The duke of WeUington held the 
seals of office till the return of sir Robert 
Peel from Italy, Dec. 1834.] 

Sir Robert Peel ; lord Lyndhurst ; duke of 

Wellington ; earl of Aberdeen ; &c. Nov. 

and Dec. 

Viscount Melbourne, &c. . . . April, 

Victoria. — Viscount Melbourne, &c., continued 

June 20, 

[Among the subsequent accessions were F. T. 
Baring ; earl of Clarendon ; T. B. Macaulay, 

[Viscount Melbourne resigns, and sir Robert 
Peel receives the queen's commands to form 
a new administration. May 8. This command 
is withdrawn, and on May 10, lord Melbourne 
and his friends return to power] . 

Sir Robert Peel ; duke of Wellington ; lord 
Lyndhurst ; sir James Graham ; earl of Aber- 
deen ; lord Stanley, &c. . Aug. and Sept. 

[Among the accessions were, Sidney Herbert ; 
W. E. Gladstone, &c.] 

Lord John Russell ; viscount Palmerston ; earl 
Grey, &c July, 

[Among the accessions were : earl Granville ; 
Mr. Fox Maule ; earl of Carlisle ; sir Thomas 
Wilde, created lord Truro, <fec.] 

[Feb. 24. Lord John Russell annoimced to the 
commons, and the marquess of Lansdowne 
to the lords, that the ministers had resigned, 
owing to their defeat on Mr. Locke King's 
motion respecting the franchise, the majo- 
rity against them being 48 (loo to 52) ; and 
on March 3, the same personages informed 
parliament, that it having been foimd im- 
possible to construct a coalition mmistry, 
the queen, by the advice of the duke of Wel- 
lington, had called upon her late ministers 
to res\ime office. Lord Stanley {since earl of 
Derby) had been charged by her majesty, in 
the interval, to form a new cabinet, but had 
not succeeded] 

Lord John Russell and his colleagues continued. 


Earl of Derby {late Lord Stanley) ; lord St. Leo- 
nards ; Benjamin Disraeli ; Spencer H. Wal- 
pole ; earl of Malmesbury ; sir John Paking- 
ton ; duke of Northumberland, &c. Feb. 27, 

Earl of Aberdeen ; lord John Russell ; viscount 
Palmerston, &c Dec. 28 









* The duel between lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, Sept. 22, 1809, led to the breaking up of this 


ADMINISTRATIONS of Great Britain, continued. 

On the second reading of the Foreign Con- 
spiracy bill, the government (defeated by a 
vote of censure being passed by a majority of 
19, on the motion of Mr. MUner Gibson) re- 
signed immediately .... Feb. 19, ^58 

Earl of Derby : B. Disraeli ; Spencer Walpole ; 
lord Stanley ; sir F, Thesiger (lord Chelms- 
ford), &c Feb. 26 „ 

[The Derby administration, in consequence of 
a vote of want of confidence in it being 
carried by a majority of 13, June 10, 1859, 
resigned the next day. Earl Granville at- 
tempted to form an administration in vain ; 
and lord Palmerston and lord John Russell 
came into office.] 

PALMEESTON-BnssELL administration — viscount 
Palmerslon; lord John (since earl) Russell, &c. 

June 18, 1S59 

[In this last ministry various changes of offices 
took place ; a fourth seci'etary of state was 
appointed, by a separation of the toar from the 
colonial department. See Secretaries of State.] 
[I'be retirement of Lord J. RusseU, Jan. 24, 
iBss, and a majority in the commons against 
ministers of 157(305 to 148) on Mr. Roebuck's 
motion respecting the conduct of the war, 
led to the resignation of lord Aberdeen and 
his colleagues, Jan. 30 ; the cabinet was re- 
constructed under lord Palmerston."] 
Viscount Falmerstmi; lord Cranworth ; &c. 

Feb 7, i8ss 
[Viscount Palmerston, owing to the secession 
of Sir J. Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. S. 
Herbert, had to reconstruct his ministry.] 
Viscount Palmerston ; lord John Russell ; earl 
of Clarendon ; sir G. Grey ; sir G. C. Lewis ; 
sir W. Molesworth, (fee. . . Feb. 24, ,, 

ADMmiSTRATIVE REFOEM ASSOCIATION" derived its origin from a general opinion 
that the disasters which occun-ed to the army in the Crimea in 1854-5 were attributable to 
the inefficient and irresponsible management of the various departments of the state. The 
association was organised in London, May 5, 1855. A meeting was held in Drury-lane 
theatre, on June 13, and Mr. Layard's motion on the subject in parliament was negatived 
June 18 following. The association was reorganised in 1856, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., becoming 
chairman, but soon became unimportant. See Civil Service. 

ADMIRAL. This distinction does not appear to have been adopted in these realms until 
about the year 1300, but the title was in use some time previously in France. Sir Harris 
Nicolas. Alfred, Athelstan, Edgar, Harold, and other kings, had been previously the com- 
manders of their own fleets. The first French admiral is said to have been appointed 1284. 
The rank of admiral of the English seas was one of great distinction, and was first given to 
William de Leybourne by Edward I. in 1297. Spelman ; Rymer. The first Lord High 
Admiral in England was created by Richard 11. in 1385 : there had been previously high 
admirals of districts — the north, west, and south. This office has seldom been entrusted to 
single hands, the duties being generally executed by lords commissioners. A similar dignity 
existed in Scotland from the reign of Robert III. : in 1673, the king bestowed it upon his 
natural son Charles Lennox, afterwards duke of Richmond, then an infant, who resigned the 
office to the crown in 1703 : after the union it was discontinued. — The dignity of lord high 
admiral of Ireland (of brief existence) was conferred upon James Butler by Henry VIII., in 
May, 1534. The Admiral of the Fleet is the highest rank in the Royal Navy, corresponding 
to that of marshal in the army. "We have now three admirals of the fleet, twenty-one 
admirals, and twenty-seven vice-admirals (1865). ^qq Navy. 

ADMIRALTY, Court of, said to have been erected by Edward III., in 1357 ; a civil 
court for the trial of causes relating to maritime affairs. It was enacted in the reign of 
Henry VIII., that criminal causes should be tried by witnesses and a jury, some of the 
judges at "Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey) assisting. The judgeship of the 
admiralty was constituted in 15 14, and was filled by two or more functionaries until the 
Revolution, when it was restricted to one. Beatson. The judge has usually been an 
eminent doctor of the civil law. In 1844 the criminal jurisdiction of this court was 
removed, and by 20 & 21 Vic. c. 77 (1857) the judge of the Probate court was to be also 
judge of the Admiralty court. Sir John Dodson, the last admiralty judge, died in 1858. 
The jurisdiction of this court was extended in 1861. 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE dates from 15 12, when Henry VIII. appointed commissioners to 
inspect his ships of war, &c. In 1662 the admiralty was first put into commission, the 
great officers of state being the commissioners. During the commonwealth the admiralty 
aflairs were managed by a committee of the parliament; and at the restoration in 1660, 
James, duke of York, became lord high admiral. See succeeding changes below. In 1688-9, 
the admiralty was put into commission, and the board appears to have assembled at admiral 
Herbert's lodgings, in Channel-row, "Westminster, he being at that time first lord. In 
1830, 1832, and 1836 various changes were made in the civil departments, several offices 
being abolished or consolidated with others. In March, 1861, a royal commission recom- 
mended the abolition of the board of admiralty and the appointment of a minister of the 
navy department. 





1660. James, duke of York, lord high admiral, June 6. 
1673. King Charles II , June 14. 

„ Prince Rupert, July g. 
1679. Sir Henry Capel, Feb. 14. 
16801. Daniel Finch, esq., Feb 19. 
1681. Daniel, lord Finch, Jan. 20. 

1683. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, April 17. 

1684. Kino Charles II. 

1685. King Jame.s II., May 17. 

Office in commifdon. 

1689. Arthur Herbert, esq. , March 8. 

1690. Thomas earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 

Jan. 20. 

1692. Charles, lord Comwallis, March 10. 

1693. Anthony viscount.Falkland, April 15. 

1694. Edward Russell, esq. (aft. earl of Orford), May 2. 
1699. John, earl of Bridgewater, June 2. 

1701. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, Apiul 4. 

1702. George, prince of Denmark, lord high ad- 

miral, May 20. 

1708. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, ditto, Nov. 29. 

Office in commission. 

1709. Edward, earl of Orford, Nov. 8. 

1710. Sir John Leake, Oct 4. 

1712. Thomas, earl of Strafford, Sept. 30. 
1714. Edward, earl of Orford, Oct. 14. 
1717. James, earl of Berkeley, March 19. 
1727. George, viscount Torrington, Aug 2. 
1733. Sir Charles Wagner, knt., June 25. 
1742. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, March 19. 
1744. John, duke of Bedford, Dec. 27. 
1748. John, earl of Sandwich, Feb. lo. 
1751. George, lord Anson, June 22. 

1756. Richard, earl Temple, Nov. 19. 

1757. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, April 6. 
„ George, lord Anson, July 2. 

1762. George M. Dunk, earl of Halifax, June ig. 

1763. George Grenville, esq., Jan. i. 

,, John, earl of Sandwich, April 23. 

,, John, earl of Egmont, Sept. 10. 
1766. Sir Charles Savniders, Sept. 10. 

,, Sir Edward Hawke, Dec. 10. 
1771. John, earl of Sandwich, Jan. 12. 

1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel, April i. 

,, Augustus, viscount Kejipel, July 18. 

1783. Richard, viscount Howe, Jan. 28. 
1788. John, earl of Chatham, July 16. 
1794. George John, earl Spencer, Dec. 20. 
1801. John, earl St. Vincent, Feb. 19. 

1804. Henry, viscount Melville, May 15. 

1805. Charles, lord Barham, May 2. 

1806. Hon. Charles Grey, Feb. 10. 

„ Thomas Grenville, esq., Oct. 23. 

1807. Henry, lord Mulgrave, April 6. 
1809. Charles Yorke, esq.. May 10. 

1812. Robert, viscount Melville, March 25. 

1827. William Henry, duke of Clarence, lord 

high admiral, Alay 2, resigned Aug. 12, 1828. 

1828. Robert, viscount Melville, Sept. 19. 
1830. Sir James R. G. Graham, bart., Nov. 25. 

1834. George, lord Auckland, June 11. 

,, Thomas Philip, earl de Grey, Dec. 23. 

1835. George, lord Auckland, April 25. 
,, Gilbert, earl of Minto, Sept. 19. 

1841. Thomas, earl of Haddington, Sept. 8. 
1846. Edward, earl of EUenborough, Jan. 13. 

,, George, earl of Auckland, July 24. 
1849. Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, Jan. 18. 

1852. Algernon, duke of Northuniberland, Feb. 28. 

1853. Sir James Robert George Graham, Jan 5. 
1855. Sir Charles Wood, bart., Feb. 24. 

1858. Sir John Pakiiigton, Feb. 26. 

1859. Edward, duke of Somerset, the present First 

Lord {1865). 

ADMIRALTY, Wliiteliall. " At the south end of Duke-street, AVestminster, was seated 
a large house, made use of for the admiralty office, until the business was removed to 
Greenwich, and thence to Wallingford-house, against Whitehall. " It was relniilt by Eipley 
about 1726 ; the screen was erected, to conceal the ugliness of the building, by the brothers 
Adam, in 1776. — Lord Nelson lay in state in one of the apartments on Jan. 8, 1806 ; and on 
the next day was buried at St. Paul's. 

"ADMONITION to the Parliament," condemning all religions ceremonies but those 
commanded in the New Testament, was published by certain Puritans in 1571. It was 
answered by abp. Whitgift. Its presumed authors, Field and Wilcox, were imprisoned. 

ADRIAN'S WALL (to prevent the irruptions of the Scots and Picts into the northern 
counties of England, then under the Roman government) extended from the Tyne to Solway 
firth, and was eighty miles long, twelve feet high, and eight in thickness, with watch-towers; 
built 121. It was named after its second founder, the emperor Adrian, and was repaired by 
SeVerus, 208. 

ADRIANOPLE, in Turkey, so named after its restorer the emperor Adrian (who died 
July 10, 138). Near here was fought the battle bj' which Constantine gained the empire, 
July 3, 323 ; also, near here the emperor Valens was defeated and slain by the Goths, Aug. 
9, 378. Adrianople was taken by the Turks under Amurath in 1361, and was the seat of 
their empire till the capture of Constantinople in 1453. Mahomet II. was born here in 1430. 
Priestley.- — Adrianople was taken by the Russians on Aug. 20, 1829 ; but was restored at 
the close of the war, Sept. 14, same year. See Turkey. 

ADRIATIC. The ceremony of the doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic sea (instituted 
about 1 1 73), took place annually on Ascension-day. The doge dropped a ring into the sea 
from his bucentam-, or state barge, being attended by his nobility and foreign ambassadors. 
The ceremony was first omitted in 1 797. 

ADULTERATION of Food was the subject of legislation in England in 1267. Much 
attention was drawn to it in 1822, through Mr. Accum's book, popularly called "Death 
in the Pot," and in 1855 through Dr. Hassall's book, " Food and its Adulterations." By an 
act for preventing the adulteration of food, passed in i860, parochial chemical analysts may 
be appointed. 

ADU 13 ^L 

ADULTERY, by the law of Moses (1490 B.C.) was pimished with death, Lev. xx. 10. — 
Lycurgus (884 B.C.) punished the offender as he did a parricide, and the Locrians and Spar- 
tans tore out the offender's eyes. The early Saxons burnt the adulteress, and erected a 
gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the adulterer. The ears and nose were cut off 
iinder Canute, 1031. Ordained to be punished capitally under Cromwell, May 14, 1650 : 
but there is no record of this law taking effect. In New England a law was ordained 
whereby adultery was niade capital to both parties, even though the man were immarried ; 
and several suffered under it, 1662. Hardie. Till 1857 the legal redress against the male 
offender was by civil action for a money compensation ; the female being liable to divorce. 
By 20 & 21 Vic. c. 85 (1857) the " action for criminal conversation" was abolished and the 
"Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes" was established, with power to grant divorces 
for adultery and ill usage. See Divorce. 

ADVENT (adveniens, coming). The season includes four Sundays, previous to Christmas, 
the iirst being the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), before or after. Homilies 
respecting Advent are mentioned prior to 378. Advent Sunday, 1865, Dec. 3 ; 1866, Dec. 2 ; 
1867, Dec. I. 

ADVENTURE BAY, at the S.E. end of Van Diemen's Land, discovered in 1773 by capt. 
Furneaux in his first voyage to the Pacific, and named from his ship Adventure. It was 
visited by captain Bligh in 1788. 

ADVENTURERS, Merchaj^t, a celebrated company of enterprising merchants, originally 
formed for the discovery of territories, and the extension of commerce, by John, duke of 
Brabant, in 1296, was transferred to England in the reign of Edward III. Elizabeth formed 
it into an English corporation in 1564. Anderson. 

ADVERTISEMENTS in Newspapetis, as now published, were not general in England 
till the beginning of the eighteenth century. A penalty of 50?. was inilicted on persons 
advertising a reward with " No questions to be asked" for the return of things stolen, and 
on the printer, 25 Geo. II. 1754. Statutes. The advertisement duty was formerly charged 
according to the number of lines ; it was afterwards fixed, in England, at 3s, 6d. , and in 
Ireland at 2s. 6d. each advertisement. The duty was further reduced, in England, to is. 6d. 
and in Ireland to is. each, in 1833, and was altogether abolished in the United Kingdom, by 
16 & 17 Vic. c. 63 (Aug. 4, 1853).* Advertising Vans, a gi-eat nuisance, were prohibited 
by 16 & 17 Vic. c. 33 (1853). 

ADVOCATE, The King's. This office was instituted about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century ; and the advocate (always a doctor of the civil law) was empowered to prosecute at 
his own instance certain crimes, 1597. The Lord Advocate in Scotland is the same 
as the attorney-general in England. — It was decided in the parliament of Paris, in 1685, 
that the king's advocate of France might at the same time be a judge ; so in like manner it 
was allowed in Scotland, where sir John Nesbit and sir William Oliphant were lord advocates 
and lords of session at the same time. Beatson. — The Advocates' library in Edinburgh was 
established by sir G. Mackenzie in 1682. 

jEDILES, magistrates of Rome, first created 492 B.C. There v/ere three degrees of these 
officers, with functions similar to those of our justices of the peace. The plebeian sediles 
presided over the more minute affairs of the state, the maintenance of order, the reparation 
of the streets, the supply of provisions, &c. Varro. 

jEGATES isles, W. of Sicily : near these, during the first Punic war, the Roman 
consul Lutatius Catuhis gained a decisive victory over the Carthaginian fleet under Hanno, 
March 10, 241 B.C. Peace ensued, the Romans obtaining Sicily and a tribute of 3200 talents. 

iEGINA, a Greek island, a rival of Athens, was humbled by Themistocles, B.C. 485'; and 
taken 455. Its inhabitants, expelled 431, were restored by the Spartans, 404 : they renewed 
war with Athens 388, and made peace, 387. 

jEGOSPOTAMOS, the Goat-river, in the Chersonesus, where Lysander, the Lacedsemouian, 
defeated the Athenian fleet, 405 B.C., and ended the Peloponnesian war. 

jELIA CAPITOLINA, built on the ruins of Jerusalem by the emperor Adrian, 131. 

* On Ofit. 16, i860, tie -whole of the lihretto of MacParren's opera, UoUn Hood, was inserted as an 
advertisement in the Times (4^ columns). 

^M 14 AFF 

iEMILIA, the name given to the provinces of Parma, Modena, and the Romagna, united 
to Sardinia in i860 ; and now part of the kingdom of Italy. 

^NEID, the great Latin epic poem, relating the adventures of jEneas, written about 24 
B.C. by Virgil, who died Sept. 22, 19 B.C., before he had finally corrected the poem. It was 
first printed in 1469, at Rome. 

ENIGMA. Samson's riddle (about 1141 B.C. ; Judges xiv. 12) is the eai-liest on record. 
The ancient oracles frequently gave responses admitting of perfectly contrary interpretations. 
Gale attributes renigmatioal speeches to the Egyptians. In Nero's time, the Romans were 
often obliged to have recourse to this method of concealing truth under obscure language. 
The following epitaph on Fair Rosamond (mistiness of our Henry II. about 1173) is a medi- 
aeval specimen : — " Hie jacet in tomba Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda ; Non redolet, sed 
olet, qu£e redolere solet." 

.lEOLIA, in Asia Minor, was colonised by a principal branch of the Hellenic race : begin- 
ning about 1 124 B.C. The jEolians built several large cities both on the mainland and the 
neighbouring islands ; Mitylene, in Lesbos, was considered the capital. 

.iEOLIAN HARP. Its invention is ascribed to Kircher, 1653, but it was known before. 

jEOLOPILE, a hollow ball with an orifice in which a tube might be screwed, was used in 
the 17th centmy as a boiler for experimental steam-engines. 

jEQUI, an ancient Italian race, were subdued by the Romans, and their lands annexed 
after a conflict, 471-302 B.C. 

.^RAS. See Eras. 

AERATED WATERS. Apparatus for combining gases with water have been patented by 
Thomson in 1807 ; Bakewell in 1832 and 1847 ; Tvlor in 1840, and by several other 
persons. Aerated bread is made by processes patented by Dr. Dauglish, 1856-7. 

AERIANS, followers of Aerius, a presbyter, in the 4th century, who held that there was 
no distinction between a bishop and a presbyter ; that there was no Pascli to be observed by 
Christians ; that the Lent and other fasts should not be observed ; and that prayers should 
not be offered for the dead. Upiphaiiitis. 

AERONAUTICS, and AEROSTATICS. See Flymg, and Balloons. 

^SOP'S FABLES, said to have been written about 619, 571, or 565 B.C. They are, no 
doubt, a compilation from various sources. Phajdrus's Latin paraphrases in Iambics (about 
A.D. 8) are very elegant. 

J5STHETICS (from the Greek aistJiesis, perception), the science of the beautiful (especially 
in art) ; a term invented by Baumgarten, a German philosopher, whose work "^Esthetica" 
was published in 1750. 

ETHIOPIA. ^e& Ethiopia. ^TNA. ^e& Etna. 

jETOLIA, in Greece, a country named after ^Etolus of Elis, who, having accidentally 
killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and settled here. After 
the ruin of Athens and Sparta, the ^tolians became the rivals of the Achseans, and alter- 
nately allies and enemies of Rome. 

The ^tolians join Sparta against Athens B.C. 453 
Subdued by Aiitipater during the Lamian war . 322 
Aid in the expulsion of the Gauls . . . 279 
Invade the Peloponnesus, and ravage Messenia 
(Social War), and defeat the Achajans at 

Caphyaa 220 

Philip V. , of Macedon, invades .^tolia, and takes 
• Thermum — Peace concluded .... 217 
Alliance with Rome 211 

War with Philip, 202 ; deserted by the Romans, 

the ^tolians make peace . . . B.C. 205 
They invite the kings of Macedon, Syria, and 
Sparta, to coalesce with them against the 
Romans ....... 193-2 

Defeat of the allies near Thermopylfe . . . 191 
Conquered by the Romans under Fulvius . . 189 
Leading patriots massacred by the Roman party 167 
Made a province of Rome 146 

AFFINITY. Marriage within certain degrees of kindred was prohibited in almost every 
age and coimtry, but has yet taken place to a considerable extent. See Leviticns, chap, xviii. 
(1490 B.C.). In England, a table restricting marriage within certain near degi-ees was set 
forth by authority, 1563. Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful 
by the 99th canon, in 1603. All marriages within the forbidden degrees are declared to bo 
absolutely void by statute 5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 54, 1835. See Marriage {qf deceased Wi/b's 




AFFIRMATION. See Quakers. The affirmation was altered in 1702, 1721, 1837, and 
in April, 1859.^ — The indulgence was granted to persons who were formerly Quakers, but 
who had seceded from that sect, 2 Vic. 1838 ; and extended to other dissenters by 9 Geo. IV. 
c. 32 (1828), and 18 & 19 Vic. c. 2 (1855). 

AFGHANISTAN, a large country in central Asia, formerly part of the Persian and Greek 
empires, was conquered by the Tartars about 997. 

His son and successor, Timour, died in 1793 ; whose 
son, Zemaun, was dettironed and blinded after 
reigning ten years. Since then the history is a 
series of broils, crimes, and murders. 

Ruujeet Sing, the Sikh chief of Lahore, conquers a 
large part of the country in 1818. 

Dost Mohammed becomes ruler, 

The Mahommedan dynasty, the Ghaznevides, said 

to have ruled from 11 86 to 1206. 
They were conquered by Genghis Elhan about 1221, 

and by Tamerlane, 1398. 
Baber conquered Caubiil in 1523. 
On his death Afghanistan divided between Persia 

and Hindostan. 
The Afghans revolt in 1720 ; invade Persia and take 

Ispahan ; repulsed by Nadir Shah in 1728, who 

subdues the whole of the country, 1737. 
On his assassination, one of his officers, Ahmed Shah, 

an Afghan, forms Afghanistan into an independent 

kingdom, and reigns prosperously, 1747-73. 

[For the Afghan war with England, see India, 1838.] 

Dost Mohammed takes Herat, May 26 ; dies, after 
designating his eldest son. Shir- Ah, his successor. 
May 29, 1863 ; a war of succession ensues. 

The English remain neutral, June, &c. 1863. 

Treachery and anarchy prevailing, June, 1865. 

AFRICA, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient world, and 
the gi'eatest peninsula of the universe ; said to have been first peopled by Ham. For its 
history see Egypt, Carthage, Cyreiw, Abyssinia, Algiers, Morocco, ikc. 

unexplored. His book was published in Nov. 

1857. In Feb. 1858, he was appointed British 

consul for the Portuguese possessions in Africa, 

and left England shortly after. 
The pubUcation of M. du Chaillu's travels in central 

Africa created much controversy and excitement 

in 1 861. 
Second expedition of Dr. Livingstone, March, 1858. 
Captains Speke and Grant announce the discovery 

of the source of the Nile in Lake Nyanza Victoria, 

Feb. 23, 1863. 
[Capt. Speke was accidentally shot by his own gun 

while alone near Bath, Sept. 15, 1864.] 
Sonje Dutch ladies unsuccessfully explore the White 

Nile, and undergo many privations, July, 1863 — 

Carthage subdued by the Romans 146 B.C. ; other 
provinces gained by Pompey, 82. 

N. Africa conquered by the Vandals under 
Genseric, a.d. 429-35, reconquered by Belisarius, 

The Saracens subdue the north of Africa 637 — 709. 

Portuguese settlements begun 1450. 

Cape of Good Hope discovered by Diaz, 1487. 

EngUsh merchants visit Guinea in 1550 ; and EUza- 
beth granted a patent to an African company in 

Dutch colony at the Cape founded, 1650. 

Capt. Stubbs sailed up the Gambia, 1723. 

Bruce commenced his travels in 1768. 

Sierra Leone settled by the English 1787. ' 

Mungo Park, who made his first voyage to Africa, 
May 22, 179s ; and his second voyage, January 30, 
1804, but from which he never returned (see 

Visited by Salt in 1805 and 1809 ; Burckhardt in 
1812 ; Homemann in 1816 ; Denham and Clapper- 
ton in 1S22 ; the brothers Lander in 1830. 

The great Niger expedition (for which parliament 
voted 6i,ooo?.), consisting of the Albert, Wilber- 
force, and Soudan steam-ships, commenced the 
ascent of the Niger, Aug. 20, 1841 ; but when they 
reached Iddah, fever broke out among the crews, 
and they were successively obliged to return, the 
Albert having ascended the river to Egga, 320 miles 
from the sea, Sept. 28. The expedition was, in 
the end, relinquished owing to disease, heat, and 
hardships, and all the vessels had cast anchor at 
Clarence Cove, Fernando Po, Oct. 17, 1841. 

James Richardson explored the great Sahara in 
1845-6, and in 1849 (by direction of the Foreign 
Office) he left England to explore central Afi-ica, 
accompanied by Drs. Earth and Overweg. 
Richardson died, March 4, 1851 ; and Overweg, 
Sept. 27, 1852. 

Dr. Vogel sent out with reinforcements to Dr. 
Barth, Feb. 20, 1853; in April, 1857, said to have 
been assassinated. 

Dr. Barth retm-ned to England, and received the 
Royal Geographical Society's medal. May 16, 1856. 
His travels were published in 5 vols, in 1858. 

Dr. David Livingstone, a missionary traveller, re- 
turned to England in Dec, 1S56, after an absence 
of 16 years, duriug which he traversed a large 
part of the heart of S. Africa, and walked about 
11,000 miles, principally over country hitherto 

Oxford mission. Bishop Mackenzie sent out : dies 

Du Chaillu starts on a fresh expedition, 6 Aug. 1863. 

Dr. Livingstone returns July 23, 1864. 

Death of Dr. W, B. Baikie, at Sierra Leone, Nov. 30 

[He was sent as special envoy to the Negro tribes 
near the Niger by the Foreign Office about 1854. 
He opened commercial relations with Central 

Mr. Samuel Baker discovered a lake, supposed to be 
another source of the Nile, which he named Lake 
Nyanza Albert, March, 1864. 

Dr. Livingstone appointed British consul for Inner 
Africa, March 24, 1865. 

African Association, for promoting the exploration 
of Central Africa, was formed in June, 178S, 
principally by Sir Joseph Banks ; and under its 
auspices many additions were made to African 
geography by Ledyard, Park, Burckhardt, 
Hornemann, &;c. It merged into the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society in 1831. 

Afbican Company (merchants trading to Africa), 
arose out of an association in Exeter, formed in 
1588. A charter was granted to a joint-stock 
company in 161 8; a third company was created in 
1631 ; a fourth corporation in 1662 ; another was 
formed by letters-patent in 1672; remodelled in 
1695. In 1821 the company was aboUshed. 

African Institqtion, founded in London in 1807, for 
the abolition of the slave trade, and the. civilisa- 
tion of Africa. Many schools have been established 
with success, particularly at Sierra Leone. 

AGAPiE {agape, Greek for love, charity), "feasts of diarity," referred to Jude 12, and 
described by Tertullian, of which the first Christians of all ranks partook, in memory of the 


last time when Christ ate Avith his disciples. In consequence of disorders creeping in, these 
feasts were forbidden to be celebrated in churches by the councils of Laodicea (366), and 
Carthage (390). These feasts are still recognised by the Greek church, and are held in their 
original form weekly by the Sandenianiaus, and also in some measure by the Moravians 
and Wesleyans. 

AGAPEMONIANS, a sect which originated with Henry James Prince, an ex-clergjTnan of 
the church of England, who claimed the attributes of omnipotence, and thereby obtained 
great influence over his wealthy dupes in 1845. They professed to live in a state of brotherly 
love, delivering themselves up to innocent amusements, not vexing themselves with the 
cares of ordinary mortals. Various disclosures did not at all confirm these statements. 
They resided in a building called "Agap^mone" (Greek for "the abode of love"), near 
Bridgewater, in Somersetshire.* /% 

AGE. Chronologers have commonly divided the time between the creation and the birth 
of Christ into periods called ages. Hesiod (about 850 B.C.) described the Golden, Silver, 
Brazen, and Iron Ages. See DarTc Ages. 



First Age (from the Creation to the 

Deluge) 4004—2349 

Second Age (to the coming of Abraham 

into Canaan) 2348 — 1922 

Thibd Age (to the Exodus from Egj^pt) 1921 — 1491 

Fourth Age (to the founding of Solo- 
mon's Temple) 1490 — 1014 

Fifth xVge (to the capture of Jeru.salem) 1014 — 588 
Sixth Age (to the birth of Christ) . 588 — 4 

Seventh xVge (to the present time) b.c. 4 — a.d. 1865 

AGE, OF. Varied in different countries. In Greece and Rome twenty-five was full age 
for both sexes, but a greater age was requisite for the holding certain offices : e.g. thirty for 
tribunes ; forty-three for consuls. In England the minority of a male terminates at twenty- 
one, and of a female in some cases, as that of a q\ieen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority of 
Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at eighteen years ; previously to completing 
which age, Henry VIII. had himself assumed the reins of government, in 1509. — A male of 
twelve may take the oath of allegiance ; at fourteen he may consent to a marriage, or 
choose a guardian ; at seventeen he maj' be an executor, and at twenty-one he is of 
age ; but according to the statute of wills, 7 Will. IV. and i Vict. c. 26, 1837, no will 
made by any person under the age of twenty-one years shall be valid. A female at 
twelve may consent to a marriage ; at fourteen she may choose a guardian, and at twenty- 
one she is of age. 

AGINCOUKT (N. France), a village, where Henry V. of England, with about 9000 men, 
defeated about 60,000 French on St. Crispin's day, Oct. 25, 1415. Of the French, whose 
leaders acted with little judgment, there were according to some accounts 10,000 killed, 
including the dukes of Alen9on, Brabant, and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one marshal, 
thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights ; and 14,000 prisoners, among whom 
were the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, and 7000 liarons, knights, and gentlemen. The 
English lost the duke of York, the earl of Suffolk, and about 20 others. St. E^my asserts 
with more probability that the English lost 1600 men. Henry V. soon after obtained the 
kingdom of France. 

AGITATORS (or Adjutators), officers appointed by the English army in 1647, to take care 
of its interests : each troop or company had two. The protector Cromwell was eventually 
obliged to repress their seditious power. At a review he seized the ringleaders of a mutiny, 
shot one instantly, in the presence of his companions and the forces on the ground, and thus 
restored discipline. Hume. — Daniel O'Connell, called the agilator of Ireland, was born in 
1775. He began to agitate at the elections in 1826; was elected for Clare, July 5, 1828 ; 
the election being declared void, he was re-elected July 30, 1829. After the pa.ssing of the 
Catholic emancipation bill, he agitated in vain for the repeal of the union, 1834 to 1843. 
He died May 15, 1847. — Richard Cobden and Johij Bright were the chief Anti-corn-law 
agitators, 1841-45. 

* On May 22, 1850, Thomas Robinson sought to recover the possession of his child from the care of its 
mother (from whom Thomas had separated) ; the application was refused by the vice-chancellor, on the 
ground that the father would instil the doctrines of this sect into the child in educating it, and the court 
held it a duty to " save it from the poUution of the parent's teaching." Several suicides have been com- 
mitted by the deluded females of this sect.— On Aug. 21, 1858, Miss Louisa Jane Nottidge died, having 
transferred her property to Mr. H. J. Prince. Her brother, Mr. Nottidge, by an action, recovered from 
Prince 5728^., as having been fraudulently obtained. Extraordinary disclosures were made during the 
trial, July 25, i860. In the autumn of i860, the R^v. Mr. Price, after several v.iin attempts, succeeded in 
rescuing his wife ft-om the Agapetnone. They h:id both been early supporters of it. 




AGNADELLO (N". E. Italy). Here Louis XII. of France gained a great victory over the 
Venetians, some of whose troops were accused of cowardice and treachery ; May 14, 1509. 
The conflict is also termed the battle of the Rivolta. 

AGlSrOITJi (from agnoia, Greek, ignorance), i. a sect founded by Theophronius of 
Cappadocia about 370 : said to have doubted the omniscience of God. 2. the followers of 
Themistius of Alexandria about 530, who held peculiar views as to the body of Christ, and 
doubted his divinity. 

AGONISTICI (from agon, Greek, a conflict), also termed circutores, a branch of the Donatists 
(lohich see). They preached their heretical doctrines with great boldness in public places, 
and hence incurred the severe persecution of the emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries. 

AGRA (N. W. India), founded by Akbar in 1566, was the capital of the great mogul. See 
Mausoleums. In 1658 Aurimgzebe removed to Delhi. — The fortress of Agra, termed the key 
of Hindostan, in the war with the Mahrattas, surrendered to the British forces, under general 
Lake, Oct. 17, 1803, after one day's siege : 162 pieces of ordnance and 240,000^. were captured. 
— In June, 1857, the city was abandoned to the mutineers by the Europeans, who took 
refuge in the fort, from which they were rescued by major Montgomery and colonel 
Greathed. — Allahabad was made capital of the JST, W. provinces of India, instead of Agra, in 

AGRARIAN LAW (Agraria lex) decreed an equal division among the Roman people of 
all the lands acquired by conquest, limiting the acres which each person should enjoy. It 
was first proposed by the consul Spurius Cassius, 486 B.C., and occasioned his judicial murder 
when he went out of office in 485. It was re-introduced by the tribune Licinius Stolo, 376, 
and by the tribune Tiberius Gracchus, 132 B.C. The law at last proved fatal to the freedom 
of Rome under Julius Cfesar, 60 B.C. Livy ; Vossius. In modern times the term has been 
misinterpreted to signify a division of the lands of the rich among the poor, frequently 
proposed by demagogues, such as Gracchus Babeuf,* editor of the I'ribun du Peuple, in 1794. 

AGRIGOLA'S WALL. See Roman Walls. 

AGRICULTURE. "Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground," 
Genesis iv. 2. The Athenians asserted that the art of sowing corn began with them ; and 
the Cretans, Sicilians, and Egyptians made the same claim. 

Cato the Censor (died 149 b.c.) and Varro (died 28 
B.C.) were eminent Roman writers on agriculture. 
It was brought into England by the Romans about 
A.D. 27. 

Fitzherbert's "Book of Husbandry," printed in 

Tusser's "Five Hundred Points of Husbandry," 

Blythe's "Improver," 1649. 

Hartlib's " Legacy," 1650. 

Jethro T\iirs " Horse-hoeing Husbandry," 1701. 

About the end of the i8th century fallowing was 
gi'adually superseded by turnips and other green 

AGRtcuLTUBA.L SOCIETIES. — The earUest mentioned 
in the British Isles was the Society of Improvers 
of Agriculture in Scotland, instituted in 1723. 
The Dubhn Agricultural Society (1749) gave a 
stinuilus to agriculture in Ireland ; its origin is 
attributed to Mr. Prior of Rathdowney, Queen's 
County, in 1731. The Bath and West of England 
Society established, 1777 ; and the Highland 
Society of Scotland, 1793. County Agricultural 
Societies are now numerous. 

London Board of Agriculture established by act of 
paiiiament, 1793. 

Francis, duke of Bedford, a great promoter of agri- 
culture, died, March 2, 1802. 

Royal Agricultural Society of England established 
in 1838, by noblemen and gentlemen, the chief 
landed proprietors in the kingdom, and incor- 
porated by roya;l charter, 1840. It holds two 

meetings annually, one in London the other in 
the country ; the first country meeting at Oxford, 
in 1839. It awards prizes, and publishes a 
valuable journal. The London meeting at Batter- 
sea in June, 1862, was highly successful. 

" Chambers of Agriculture " were established ill 
France in 1851. 

The Royal Agi-icultural College at Cirencester 
organised, 1842 ; chartered, 1845. 

AoRictTLTUEAL Chemistky. — Sir Humphry Davy 
delivered lectures on this subject (afterwards 
published), at the instance of the Board of Agri- 
culture, in 1812 ; but it excited little attention 
tiU the publication of Liebig's work in 1840, which 
made a powerful impression. Boussingault's 
" Economic Rurale," an equally important work, 
appeared in 1844. The immoderate expectations 
from this study having been somewhat dis- 
appointed, a partial reaction took place. Liebig's 
" Letters on Agriculture " appeared in 1859. 

Agricultural Hall, Islington, N.' London, chiefly 
for the meetings of the Smithfield Club. The 
foundation stone was laid by the president, lord 
Berners, Nov. 5, i86i. A remarkable exhibition 
of dogs was opened here on June 24, 1862 ; and of 
horses and of donkeys', in July, 1864, 1865. 

In Aug. 185 s, a committee presented a report on 
the best mode of obtaining accurate Agricultural 
Statistics, which has not been acted on. There 
were, in 1831, 1,055,982 agi-icultural labourers in 
Great Britain, and in Ireland, 1,131,715. 

* In 1796 he conspired against the directory with the view of obtaining a division of property, and was 





AGRICULTURE, continued. 

The following Table, drawn up by Mr. "William CouUng, C.E., in 1827,* is extracted from the Third 
Report of the Emigration Committee : — 




capable of 



























British Islands 









AGRIGENTUM (now Girgenti), a celebrated city of Sicily, built about 582 B.C. It was 
governed by tyrants from 566 to 470 ; among these were Phalaris (see Brazen Bull) ; 
Alcamanes ; Theron who, with his step-father Gelon, defeated the Carthaginians at Himera ; 
and Thrasydseus, his son, expelled in 470 ; when a republic was established and Agrigeritura 
became opulent and luxurious. 'It was taken by the Carthaginians in 405 B.C., and held, 
except during short intervals, till wrested from them by the Romans in 262 B. c. Erom 
A.D. 825 till 1086 it was held by the Saracens. 

AHMEDNUGGUR (W. India), once capital of a state founded by Ahmed Shah, about 1494, 
which after having fallen into the hands of the Moguls and the Mahrattas, was taken from the 
latter by Arthur WeUesley, Aug. 1 2, 1 803, and finally annexed to the British dominions in 1 8 1 7. 

AID. See Ayde. 

AIR, OR Atmosphere. Anaximenes of Miletus (530 b. c. ) declared air to be a self-existent 
deity, and the first cause of everything created. Posidonius (about 79 B. c.) calculated the 
height of the atmosphere to be 800 stadia. The pressure of air, about 15 lbs. to the square 
inch, was di.scovered by Torricelli A.D. 1645, and was found by Pascal, in 1647, to vary with 
the height. Halley, Newton, and others, up to the present time have illustrated the agency 
and influences of this great power by various experiments, and numerous inventions have 
followed ; among others the Air-gun of Guter of Nuremberg about 1656 ; the Air-pump, 
invented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg about 1650 ; improved by the illustrious 
Boyle in 1657 ; and the Air-pipe, invented by Mr. Sutton, a brewer of London, about 1756. 
The density and elasticity of air were determined by Boyle ; and its relation to light and 
sound by Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The extension of our atmosphere above the sur- 
face of the earth, long considered as about 45 miles, was thought by admiral FitzRoy to be 
only about 9 or 10 miles (1862). — Its composition, about 77 parts of nitrogen, 21 of oxygen, 
and 2 of other matters (such as carbonic acid, watery vapour, a trace of ammonia, &c. ), was 
gradually ascertained by Priestley (who discovered oxygen gas in 1774), Scheele (1775), 
Lavoisier, and Cavendish ; and its laws of refraction were investigated IjyDr. Bradley, 1737. 
Dr. Stenhouse's Air-filters (in which powdered charcoal is used) were first set up at the 
Mansion-house, London, in 1854. In 1858, Dr. R. Angus Smith made known a chemical 
method of ascertaining the amount of organic matter in the air. The researches of Dr. 
Schbnbein, a German chemist of Basel, between 1840 and 1859, led to the discovery of two 
states of the oxygen in the air, which he calls ozone and antozone. See Oxygen, Nitrogen, 
Ozone, Atmospheric Railway, and Pneumatic Despatch. — The force of compressed air has been 
employed in boring the Cenis tunnel, which see. 

* At that period it was computed that the soil of the United Kingdom was annually cropped in the 
following proportions : — 


Brought forward . . 


Inclosed fruit, flower, kitchen, and other 


Pleasure-grounds ..... 
Land depastured by cattle . . . . 
Hedge-rows, copses, and woods . . 
Ways, water, (fee 2,100,000 

Wheat ........ 7,000,000 

Barley and rye 1,950,000 

Potatoes, oats, and beans . . . . 6,500,000 

Turnips, cabbages, and other vegetables . 1,150,000 

Clover, rye-grass, &c. .... 1,750,000 

Fallow 2,800,000 

Hop-grounds 60,000 







21,210,000 Cultivated land . . 46,540,000 

It was reckoned by the Agricultural Committee, that the cultivation of waste lands would yield above 

2o,ooo,ooo(. a year. It was calculated in 1854 that there were in England 32,160,000 acres in cultivation, of 

the annual value of 37,412,000!;. Since that time much laud has been brought into cultivation. See Wheat. 




AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (Aachen), a Eoman city, now in Rhenish Prussia. Here Charle- 
magne was bom 742, and died 814 ; having built the minster (796-804), and conferred many 
privileges on the city, in which fifty-five emperors have since been crowned. The city was 
taken by the French in 1792 ; retaken by the Austrians, 1793 ; by the French, 1794 ; reverted 
to Prussia, 1814. — The first Treat]) of peace sigaed here was between France and Spain, 
when France yielded Franche Comte, but retained her conquests in the Netherlands, May 2, 
1668. — The second, or celebrated treaty, was between Great Britain, France, Holland, 
Germany, Spain, and Genoa. (By it the treaties of "Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 
1678 and 1679, of Eyswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Baden in 1714, of the Triple 
Alliance in 1717, of the Quadruple Alliance in 1718, and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed 
and confirmed.) Signed on the part of England by John, earl of Sandwich, and sir Thomas 
Robinson, Oct. 7, 1748. — A Congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, 
assisted by ministers from England and France, was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, and a conven- 
tion signed, Oct. 9, 1818. The sum then due from France to the allies was settled at 
265,000,000 of francs. 

AJAGCIO. See Corsica. 

AJNADIN (Syria). Here the Mahometans defeated the army of the emperor Heraclius, 
in July, 633. They took Damascus in 634. 

AKERMAN (Bessarabia). After being several times taken, it was ceded to Russia in 18 12. 
Here the celebrated treaty between Russia and Turkey was concluded in 1826, which secured 
for the former the navigation of the Black Sea, recognised the Danubian principalities, &c. 

ALABAMA, a Southern slave state, originally part of Georgia, N". America ; made an 
independent state in 1819 : commercial metropolis, Mobile. It seceded from the Union by 
an ordinance passed Jan. 11, 1861, and was reunited in 1865.* 

ALAND ISLES (Gulf of Botlmia), taken from Sweden by Russians, 1809. See Bomar- 

ALANI, a- Tartar race, invaded Parthia, 75. They joined the Huns in invading the 
Roman empire, were defeated by Theodosius, 379-382. They were subdued by the Visigoths, 
452 ; and were eventually incorporated with them. 

A LARGOS (Central Spain). Here the Spaniards under Alfonso IX., king of Castile, were 
totally defeated by the Moors, July 19, 1195. 

ALBA LONGA, an ancient city of Italy, said to have been founded by Ascanius, son of 
j3Eneas, 1152 B.C. Its history is of doubtfiil authenticity. 

Ascanius, son of ^neas, 1152 B.C. ; Sylvius Pos- 
thumus, 1143; .aineas Sylvius . . B.C. 1114 

Keign of Latinus, 1048 ; Alba, 1038 ; Atys, or 
Capetus, 1002 ; Capys, 976 ; Capetus 

Reign of Tiberinus, 903 ; being defeated in 
battle, near the river Albula, he throws him- 
self into the stream, is drowned, and hence 
this river is now called the Tiber . . . 



Agrippa ; Romulus Silvius, 864 ; Aventinus, 
845 ; Procas, 808 ; Numitor . . . b. c. 

Amulius,f the brother of Numitor, seizes the 
throne, 794 ; kiUed by his grandson, 
Romulus, who restores Numitor . . . 

Romulus builds and fortifies Rome (see Rome) 

Alba conquered by Tullus Hostilius, and in- 
corporated with Rome 665 



ALBANIA, a province in European Turkey, formerly part of the ancient Epirus. The 
Albanians became independent during the decline of the Greek empire. They were success- 
fully attacked by the Turks in 1388. About 1443, under George Castriot (Scanderbeg), they 
bafiled the efforts of Mahomed II. to subdue them till the siege of Scutari in 1478, when 
they partially submitted. Albania became independent under Ali Pacha, of Janina, in 181 2, 
who defeated the Turkish pachas, and governed ably, but cruelly and despotically, till Feb. 
1822, when he and his two sons were slain, after surrendering under a solemn promise of 
safety. A revolt in Albania was suppressed in 1843. 

* The " Alabama," a steam-vesael belonging to the Southern States of North America, was built at 
Birkenhead, and sailed under a false name from the Mersey, July 28, 1862. Under the command of 
captain Semmes it made much havock in the Federal trading vessels. The " Alabama " was attacked and 
sunk by the Federal iron-clad "Kearsage " near Cherbourg, on Sunday morning, June 19, 1864. Part of 
the crew were saved by Mr. John Lancaster in an English yacht. 

t Early traditions state, that when Amulius dethroned his brother, he condemned Ilia, the daughter 
of Numitor, to a life of celibacy, by obUging her to take the vows and oflEioe of a vestal, thereby to assure 
his safety in the usurpation. His object was, however, frustrated ; violence was offered to Ilia, and she 
became the mother of twins, for which Amulius ordered her to be buried alive, and her offspring to be 
throvTO into the Tiber, 770 b.c. But the little bark in which the infants were sent adrift stopped near 
mount Aventine, and was brought ashore by Faustulus, the king's chief shepherd, who reared the children 
as his own, and called them Romulus and Remus. His wife, Acca-Laurentia, was sumamedZw^a,- whence 
arose the fable that Romulus and his brother were suckled by a she-wolf. At sixteen years of age, Romulus 
avenged the wrongs of Ilia and Numitor, 754 B.C., and the next year founded Rome. Varro. 

C 2 


ALBAN'S, ST. (Hertfordshire), near the Roman Verulam, derived its present name from 
Alban, the British protomartyr, said to have been beheaded during the persecution by 
Diocletian, June 23, 286. A stately monastery to his memory was erected by Otfa, king 
of Mercia, about 793, who granted it many privileges. Its superior sat as premier abbot in 
parliament till the dissolution in 1539. It was taken from Cassivelaunus by Julius Caesar, 54 
'B.C., and retaken with much slaughter by Boadicea or Bunduica, queen of the Iceni, a.d. 61, 
On May 22 or 23, 1455, was fought thejirst battle of St. Alban' s, when the Lancastrians were 
defeated, their leader, Edmund duke of Somerset slain, and king Henry VI. taken prisoner, 
by the duke of York and his partisans. In the second battle, on Shrove Tuesday, Feb. 17, 
1461, queen Margaret totally defeated the Yorkists under the earl of "Warwick and rescued 
the king. There was much blood shed in tliese desperate conflicts. St. Alban's was incor- 
porated by Edward VI. iii,i5S3, and disfranchised for bribery, June 17, 1852. St. Alban's 
raid, see United States, 1804. 

ALBANY (or Albainn), the ancient name of the Scottish Highlands. The brother of 
Robert III. of Scotland was made duke of Albany in 1398. Frederick, son of George III., 
was duke of York and Albany. He died Jan. 5, 1827. 

ALBERT MEMORIAL. The Prince Consort died on Dec. 14, 1861, deeply lamented by 
the whole civilised world. A meeting to organise a method of receiving contributions for a 
great national memorial was held at the Mansion-house, Jan. 14, 1862 ; and a large sum 
was quickly subscribed. 36,000/. had been received on March i, and 50,220/. on June ii, 

1862. The nature of the memorial was referred to the queen herself. In a letter to the 
lord mayor, dated Feb. 19, 1862, sir Charles Grey says, on behalf of her majesty, "It would 
be more in accordance with her own feelings, and she believes with those of the countrj' in 
general, that the monument should be directly personal to its object. After giving the 
subject her maturest consideration, her majesty has come to the conclusion, that nothing 
would be more appropriate, provided it is on a scale of sufficient grandeur, than an obelisk 
to be erected in Hyde-park on the site of the Great Exhibition of 185 1, or on some spot 
immediately contiguous to it. Nor would any proposal that could be made be more 
gratifying to the queen herself personally, for she can never forget that the prince himself 
had highly approved of the idea of a memorial of this character being raised on the same spot in 
remembrance of the Great Exhibition." In a second letter the queen expressed her intention of 
personally contributing towards erecting the memorial, that "it might be recorded in future 
ages as raised by the queen and people of a gi-ateful country to the memory of its benefactor." 
Shortly after a committee was appointed to fulfil her majesty's desire. As a suitable block 
of granite could not be obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up. On April 22, 

1863, the queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott for an Eleanor Cross, with a 
spire 150 feet high, accompanied by statues, &c. ; and on April 23, parliament voted 50,000/., 
in addition to the 60.000/. received by voluntary contributions. The sculptors employed 
are M'Dowell, Foley, Theed, John Bell, and Armistcad : material, Sicilian marble. (Jan. 
1865.) Many memorials of the prince have been set up throughout the empire.* 

ALBIGENSES, a name given to various bodies of persons who opposed the doctrines and 
corruptions of the church of Rome, living at Albiga, in Languedoc, and at Toulouse in the 
1 2th century. They were persecuted as Manichseans, 1163, and a crusade (proclaimed by 
pope Innocent III.) commenced against them in 1207. Simon de Montfort (to whom Toulouse 
was given) commanded, and at Beziferes he and the pope's legate put friends and foes to the 
sword, saying, "God will find his own !" At Minerba he burnt 150 of the Albigenses 
alive ; and at La Vaur he hanged the governor, and beheaded the chief people, drowning the 
governor's wife, and murdering other women. He next defeated the count of Toulouse, but 
was himself killed in 1218. Louis VIII. and IX., kings of France, patronised the crusade ; 
count Raymond was subdued in 1229 ; and the heretics were given up to the Inquisition. 
See Waldenses. 

ALBION (probably derived from alUos or alp, white). Britain is said to have been so 
called by Julius Csesar and others, on account of the chalky cliflTs upon its coast. 

ALBUERA (or Albuhera), Estremadura, Spain, where a battle was fought between the 
French, commanded by marshal Soult, and the British and Anglo-Spanish army, under 
marshal, afterwards lord Beresford, May 16, i8ii. The allies obtained the victory, one of 

* Inscription on the "Memorial Cairn" on a high mountain overlooking Balmoral palace: — "To the 
beloved memory of Albert the great and good Prince Consort, erected by his broken-hearted widow, 
Victoria R., 21st Aug. 1S62." Upon another dressed slab, a few inches below the above, is this quota- 
tion :— " He being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time : for his soul pleased the Lord, 
therefore basted he to take him away from among the wicked." — Wisdom 0/ Sulomon, chap. iv. 13, 14. 


the most brilliant achievements of the war. The French loss exceeded 8000 men previously 
to their retreat ; but the allies lost a large number. The chief brunt of the action fell on 
the British ; colonel Inglis, 22 officers, and more than 400 men, out of 570 who had 
mounted a hill, fell, — out of the 57th regiment alone ; the other regiments were scarcely 
better off, not one-third being left standing ; " 1500 unwounded men, the remnant of 6000 
unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant on this fatal hill. " Napier. 

ALBUFERA (Spain, East Central), a lagoon, near which the French marshal Suchet 
(afterwards duke of Albufera) defeated the Spaniards under Blake, Jan. 4, 1812 : this led to 
his capture of Valencia on Jan. 9. 

ALCANTARA, an illustrious Spanish military order of knighthood, established in 11 56. 
The sovereign of Spain has been grand master since 1495. 

ALCAZAR-QUIYER, near Fez, IST. W. Africa, where the Moors totally defeated the 
Portuguese, whose gallant king Sebastian was slain, Aug. 4, 1578. The Portuguese 
disbelieved his death and anxiously expected his return ; this led to the successive appear- 
ance of five impostors. 

ALCHEMY, the forerunner of the science of chemistry : its chief objects being the 
discovery of the philosopher's stone (which was to effect the transmutation of inetals into 
gold), an alkahest or universal menstruum, and the elixir of life. Alchemy is said to be as 
old as the Flood ; yet few writers, from Homer till 400 years after Christ, mention any such 
thing. The alchemists assert that their founder was Heimes Trismegistus (thrice greatest), 
an ancient Egyptian king. — Pliny says, the emperor Caligula was the first who prepared 
natural arsenic, in order to make gold of it, but left it off, because the charge exceeded the 
profit. Others say, the Egyptians knew the secret. Zosimus wrote on the subject about 
410. The Arabians are said to have invented this art, wherein they were vainly followed 
(in the 13th century) by Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Aquinus, and Raymond Lullius, 
by Basil Valentine (born 1394), and by Paracelsus (died 1541), and others.— In 1404 the 
craft of multiplying gold and silver was made felony by 5 Hen. IV. c. 4, which act was 
repealed in 1689. A licence for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals and minerals 
was granted to one Richard Carter, 1476. Rymer's Feed. Dr. Price, of Guildford, in 1782 
published an account of his experiments in this way, and pretended to success : he brought 
his specimens of gold to the king, affirming that they were made by means of a red and 
white powder. Being a fellow of the Royal Society, he was required, upon pain of expulsion, 
to repeat his experiments before Messrs. Kirwan and Wolfe (some say Higgins) ; but after 
much equivocation and delay he took poison and died, Aug. 1783. 

ALCOHOL. Pure spirit of wine or hydrated alcohol was obtained by the distillation of 
fermented liquors by Abucasis in the 12th century ; and the dehydration of this liquor 
was first partially effected by Raymond Lullius in the 13th century by carbonate of potas- 
sium. Alcohol has never been reduced to the solid state, but becomes viscid at very low 
temperatures. In 1820, Faraday and Hennell obtained traces of alcohol by passing olefiant 
gas (bi-carburetted hydrogen) through sulphuric acid ; and in 1862 this process was 
examined and confirmed by Berthelot. See Distillation, Spirits, Brandy, Gin, Rum. 

AL-CORAN. See Koran, MaJiometanism, &c. 

ALDERMAN. The Saxon ealdorman was next to the king and frequently a viceroy : but 
after the settlement of the Danes the title was gradually displaced by that of earl. Aldermen 
are now next in dignity to the mayor. They were appointed in London (where there are 
twenty-six) in 1242; and in Dublin (where there are twenty-four) in 1323. Aldermen 
chosen for life, instead of annually, 17 Richard II. 1394. Present mode of election 
established 11 Geo. I. 1725. Aldermen made justices of the peace 15 Geo. 11. i74i' 

ALDERNEY (English Channel), with Jersey, &c., was incorporated with the kingdom by 
"William the Conqueror, 1066. The "Race" is celebrated for two fatal occurrences; 
William of Normandy, son of Henry I. of England, and many young nobles (140 youths of 
the principal families of France and Britain), were overtaken by a stonn, and all lost, Nov. 
25, 1 120. The British man-of-war Victory, of 100 guns and 1160 men, was wrecked here, 
Oct. 5, 1744 ; the admiral, sir John Balchan, and all his crew perished. Through this strait 
the French escaped after their defeat at La Hogue by admiral Rooke, May, 1692. 

ALDERSHOT CAMP, a moor near Farnham, about 35 miles from London. In April, 
1854, the War office, having obtained a giant of 100,000/., purchased 400° ^cres of land 
for a permanent camp for 20,000 men. Additional land was purchased in 1856. Barracks 




have been since erected for 4000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and several batteries of artillery. 
Great improvements in military cookery were introduced here under the superintendence of 
captain John Grant in 1857. See Cookery.— It was visited by the queen April 19, 1856 ; 
and on July 7 the queen reviewed the troops returned from the Crimea ; and again on the 
i6th, in the presence of both houses of parliament. In 1859, about 15,000 men were 
stationed here. (Cost, up to Feb. i860, said to be 1,291,531^.) An industrial and fine art 
exhibition, furnished by officers and men and their wives, was opened here June 29, and 
closed July 14, 1864. 

ALDINE PRESS, that of Aldus Manutius, at Venice, where were printed many of the 
first editions of the Greek, Latin, and Italian classics, commencing in 1494 with Musaeus, 

ALE, Beer (and Wine) are said to have been invented by Bacchus ; the first in Egypt, 
where the soil was considered unable to produce grapes. Ale was known as a beverage at 
least in 404 B. c. Herodotus ascribes the first discovery of the art of brewing barley-wine to 
Isis, the wife of Osiris. — A beverage of this kind is mentioned by Xenophon, 401 B.C. The 
Eomans and Germans very early learned from the Egyptians the process of preparing a 
liquor from corn by means of fermentation. Tacitus. Ale-houses are made mention of 
in the laws of Ina, king of Wessex (a.d. 688). Booths were set up in England 728, when 
laws were passed for their regulation. Ale-houses were subjected to regulation by 5 & 6 
Edw. VI. c. 25 (1551). By i James I. c. 9 (1603), one full quart of the best, and two 
quarts of small ale were to be sold for one penny. Excise duty on ale and beer was imposed 
by the parliament in 1643, and continued by Charles II. (1660). See Beer, Porter, Wine. 

ALEMANNI, or All Men {i.e. men of all nations), hence AUemand, German. A body 
of Suevi, who took this name, were defeated by Caracalla, 214. After several repulses, they 
invaded the empire under Aurelian, who subdued them in three battles, 270. They were 
again vanquished by Juhan, 356, 357. They were defeated and subjugated by Clovis at 
Tolbiac (or Zulpich), 496. The Suabians are their descendants. 

ALEN^ON (N. France) gave title to a count and duke. 

1268. Peter made count by his father king Louis IX. 
1293. Charles I., of Valois, made count by his bro- 
ther king Philip the Fair. 
1325. Charles II., his son, killed at Crecy. 
1346. Charles III. (his son), became a priest. 
1 361. Peter, his brother. 

1404. John (his son), made duke in 1414, killed at 
Agincourt, 141 5. 

1415. John II. fhis son), intrigued against the king. 

1476. Charles IV. fled after the battle of Pa via in 
1525, and died shortly after of chagrin. The 
duchy was absorbed by the crown. 

ALEPPO (anciently Beroea), a large town, N. Syria, so named by Seleucus Nicator about 
299 B.C. The pachalic of Aleppo is one of the five governments of Syria. It was taken by 
the Turks, a.d. 638, who restored its ancient name Haleb or Chaleb ; by Saladin, 1193 ; and 
sacked by Timour, 1400. Its depopulation by the plague has been frequent ; 60,000 persons 
were computed to have perished by it in 1797. It suff'ered by the plague in 1827, and the 
cholera in 1832. Aleppo suff'ered severely from the terrible earthquakes in 1822 and 1830 ; 
and has often been the scene of fanatical massacres. On Oct. 16, 1850, the Mahometans 
attacked the Christian inhabitants. They burnt everything in their way ; three churches 
were desti'oyed, five others were plundered, thousands of persons were slain, and the total 
loss of property amounted to about a million sterling ; no interference was attempted by the 
pacha or the Turkish soldiers. 

ALESSANDRIA, a city of Piedmont, built in 1168 under the name of Csesarea by the 
Milanese and Cremonese, to defend the Tanaro against the emperor, and named Alessandria 
after pope Alexander III. It has been frequently besieged and taken. The French took 
Alessandria in 1798, but were driven out July 21, 1799. They recovered it after the battle 
of Marengo, in 1800. Alessandiia was strongly fortified by Napoleon. Its works were 
destroyed at the peace in 1814, but a European subscription was commenced in 1856, to 
restore them. 

ALEXANDER, Era of, dated from the death of Alexander the Great, Nov. 12, 323 B.C. 
In the computation of this era, the period of the Creation was considered to be 5502 years 
before the birth of Christ, and, in consequence, the year i a.d. was equal to 5503. This 
computation continued to the year a.d. 284, which was called 5786. In the next year (a.d. 
285), which should have been 5787, ten years were diseai'ded, and the date became 5777. 
This is still used in the Abyssinian era, which see. The date is reduced to the Christian era 
by subtracting 5502 until the year 5786, and after that time by subtractuig 5492, 

"ALEXANDRA CASE." See TWa^s, 1862-64. 




ALEXANDRA PARK, Muswell Hill, London, N., purchased by a company, and named 
after the Prmcess of "Wales, was opened with a flower show, July 23, 1863. A portion of 
the Exhibition of 1862 is to be erected within it. The work, which rapidly proceeded in 
1864, is now suspended (1865). 

ALEXANDRIA (Egypt), the walls whereof were six miles in circuit, was built by 
Alexander the Great, 332 B.C., who was buried here, 322. It became the residence of the 
Greek sovereigns of Egypt, the Ptolemies. 

Ptolemy Soter erects the Museum, the Sera- 

peum, the Pharo, and other edifices, and 

begins the library about .... B.C. 298 
These works completed by his son P. PhUadel- 

phus and his grandson P. Bnergetes . 283-222 

Alexandria taken by Julius Csesax ; when a 

library is burnt .48 

Which Antony replaces by one brought from 

Pergamus 36 

The city restored by Adrian . . . a.d. 122 
Massacre of the youth by CaracaUa, in revenge 

for an old insult 211 

Alexandria supporting the usurper Achilleus is 

taken by Diocletian after a long siege . . 297 
Alexandria disturbed by the feuds between the 

Athanasians and Arians 321 

George of Cappadocia was killed 362, and 

Athanasius finally restored .... 363 
50,000 persons perish by an earthquake . . 365 

Paganism suppressed by Theodosius, when a 

second library is burnt 390 

Alexandria captured by Chosroes II. of Persia, 
616 ; and by Amrou, the general of the caliph 
Omar, who ordered the library to be burnt,* 
■whereby the baths were supplied with fuel 
for six months .... Dec. 22, 640 

Cairo founded by the Saracens ; which tends to 
the decay of Alexandria 969 

Alexandria surprised and plimdered by the 
Crusaders 13^5 

The French invade Egypt and capture Alex- 
andria July, 1798 

A British army under gen. Ralph Abercromby 
land, and defeat the French imder Menou, 

March 21, 1801 

Abercromby dies of his wounds, March 28 ; 
Menou and 10,000 French surrender to 
Hutchinson, who transmit them to France, 

Sept. 1801 

Alexandria taken by the British under Fraser, 
March 20 ; evacuated by them . Sept. 23, 1807 

Kailway to Cairo formed 1851 

ALEXANDRIAN CODEX, a MS. of the Bible in Greek, said to have been written bya 
lady named Thecla, in the 6th century, and to have belonged to the patriarch of Alexandria 
in 1098. It was presented to Charles I. of England in 1628 b}"- Cyrillus Lascaris, patriarch 
of Constantinople, and was placed in the British Museum in 1753. It was printed in fac- 
simile, 1 786-1821. 

ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOLS of Philosophy. The first school arose soon after the 
foundation of Alexandria, 332 B.C. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemies till 
about TOO B.C. It included Euclid (300), Archimedes (287—212), ApoUonius (250), Hippar- 
chus (150), and Hero (150). The second school arose about A.D. 140, and lasted till about 
400. Its most eminent members were Ptolemy, the author of the Ptolemaic system (150), 
Diophantus, the arithmetician (200), and Pappus, the geometer (350). 

. ALEXANDRINES, verses of twelve syllables, first written by Alexander of Paris, about 
1 164, and since called after him. The last line of the Spenserian stanza is an Alexandiine. 
In Pope's Essay on Criticism, this verse is thus happily exemplified : — 

"A needless Alexandrine ends the song, 
■ That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along." 

The longest English poem wholly in Alexandrine verse is Drayton's Polyolbion, published 
in 1612. Chapman's Homer's Iliad (1598) is in this measure. 

ALFORD (N. Scotland), Battle of. General Baillie, with a large body of Covenanters, 
was defeated by the marquess of Montrose, July 2, 1645. 

ALGEBRA : Diophantus, said to be the inventor, first wrote upon it, probably about 
200. It was much cultivated in the 9th century by the Arabs, who brought it into 
Spain. Among its votaries in Italy was Leonardo Bonaccio of Pisa, in 1220. In 1494 
Luca Paciolo published the first printed book on algebra in Europe. Serret. Some of the 
algebraic signs were introduced either by Christophe Rudolph (1522-6) or Michael Stifelius 
of Nuremberg, 1544, and others by Francis Vieta, in 1590, when algebra came into general 
use. Moreri. Descartes applied algebra to geometry about 1637. The binomial theorem 
of Newton, the basis of the doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1668. Dean 
Peacock's "Algebra" is a first-class work, 

ALGERIA. See Algiers. 

* The celebrated saying of Omar—" That if the books agreed with the book of God, they were useless; 
if they disagreed, they were pernicious"— is denied by Mahometans. It is also attributed to Theophilus, 
archbishop of Alexandria (390), and to cardinal Ximenes (1500). 




ALGESIRAS, or Old Gibraltar (S. Spain). By this city, the Moors entered Spain in 
710, and held it till 1343. — Two engagements took place here between the English fleet 
under sir James Saumarez and the united French and Spanish fleets, July 6 and 12, 1801. 
In the first the enemy was victorious, the English losing the Pomjyey ; but their honour was 
redeemed in the latter conflict, the <S'a?i Antonio, 74 guns, being captured. By an unfortu- 
nate error, two Spanish ships fired on each other and took fire ; of 2000 men on board, 250 
were saved by the English. Alison. 

ALGIERS, now Algeria, N. W. Africa ; part of the Ancient Mauritania, which was 
conquered b)- the Romans, 46 B.C. ; by the Vandals, 439 a.d. ; recovered for the empire by 
Belisarius, 534 ; and subdued by the Arabs about 690. 

The town Algiers founded by the Arabs on the General Damremont attacked Constantina 

site of Icosium ..... about 935 
Becoming the seat of the Barbary pirates, it 

is captured by Ferdinand of Spain, 1509; but 

is retaken by Horuc and Hayreddin Bar-, and made the capital of a state ; 

governed by a c7ey, nominally subject to the 

sultan of Turkey 1516 — 20 

The emperor Charles V. loses a fine fleet and 

army in an unsuccessful expedition against 

them 1541 

Algiers terrified into pacific measures by 

Blake, 1655 ; by Du Quesne .... 1683 
In consequence of the continued piracy of the 

Algerines, the city was successfully bom- 
barded by the British fleet, under admiral 

lord Exmouth Aug. 27, 1816 

A new treaty followed, and Christian slavery 

was abolished. 
Algiers surrendered to a French armament 

under Bourmont and Duperr^, after severe 

conflicts; the dey is deposed, and the bar- 
barian government wholly overthrown July 

5, 1830. The French ministry announce their 

intention to retain Algiers permanently. 

May 20, 1834 
The Arab chief, Abd-el-Kader, preaches a holy 

war, becomes powerful, and attacks the 

French, at first successfully . . . 1834-5 
Marshal Clausel defeats the Arabs in two 

battles, and enters Mascara . . Dec. 8, 1836 

ALHAMBRA, a Moorish palace and fortress near Granada, S. Spain, founded by Moham- 
med I. of Granada about 1253. It surrendered to the Christians Jan. 6, 1496. The remains 
have been described in a magnificent work by Owen Jones and Jules Goury, published 
1842-5. There is a fac-simile of a part of this palace in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham. 
The Panopticon {which see) was opened as a circus, &c., under this name, in March 1858. The 
Alhambra Palace Company, incorporated in July 1863, applied for dissolution in Jan. 1865. 

ALI, Sect of, founded by Ali (who married Mahomet's daughter Fatima), about 632. 
He became Mahomet's vizir, 613; and caliph, 655. Ali was called by the prophet, "the 
lion of God, always victorious ; " and the Persians follow the interpretation of the Koran 
according to All, while other Mahometans adhere to that of Abubeker and Omar. Ali was 
assassinated in 6G0.J — This sect is called Shiites and Fatimites. * 

ALIETS'S, OR Foreigners, were banished in 1155, being thought too numerous. In 1343 
they were excluded from enjoying ecclesiastical benefices. By 2 Rich. II. st. i, 1378, they 
were much relieved. When they were to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half 
foreigners, if they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from exercising any trade or 
handicraft by retail, 1483, a prohibition which was relaxed in 1663. The celebrated 

* He, with his suite, embarked at Oran, and landed at Toulon on Dec. 28 following. He was removed 
to the castle of Amboiso, near Tours, Nov. 2, 1848, and released from his confinement by Louis Napoleon, 
Oct. 16, 1852, after swearing on the Koran never to disturb Africa again ; he was to reside henceforward at 
Broussa, in Asia Minor ; but in consequence of the earthquake at tbat place Feb, 28, 1855, he removed to 
Constantinople. In July, i860, Abd-el-Kader held the citadel of Damascus, and there protected many of 
the Chiistians whom he had rescued from the massacres then in perpetration by the Turks. He received 
honours from the English, French, and Sardinian sovereigns. 

t 500 Arabs in a cave refuse to siu-ronder : suffocated by smoke ; said to have been ordered by general 
Peli.ssier, June 18, 1845. 

t Th<; first four successors of Mahomet — Abubeker, Omar, Othman, and Ali, his chief agents in estab- 
lishing his religion and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account he styled the " cutting swords 
of God," all died violent deaths ; and his family was wholly extirpated within thirty years after his own 

(which see) ..... Oct. 13, 1837 
After various engagements Abd-el-Kader sur- 
renders Dec. 22, 1847* 

An insurrection of the Kabyles subdued by the 

French, after several sharp engagements . 1851! 
The government entrusted (for a shore time) 

to prince Napoleon 1858 

The Arab tribes attack the French ; defeated, 

Oct. 31 and Nov, 6, 1859 
Algiers visited by the emperor Napoleon III., 

Sept. i860 
Marshal PeUssier, duke of Malakhoflf, appointed 

governor-general of Algeria . . Nov. i86o 
The emperor promises a constitution securing 
the rights of the Arabs, saying : "I am as 
much emperor of the Arabs as of the French. " 

Feb. 1863 
Insurrection of the Arabs — May; submission 

announced Jvme 15, 1864 

Death of Pelissier— dies May 22 ; marshal 
M'Mahon, duke of Magenta, succeeds him, 

Sept. 8, 1864 
Fresh revolt ; insvirgents defeated by Jolivet, 

Oct. 2, 1864 
The emperor well received during his visit. 

May 3 — June 1865 
More rights and privileges promised to the 
natives July, 1865 




Alien 5z7Z passed, Jan. 1793. Act to register aliens, 1795. — The celebrated baron Gerainb, 
a conspicuous and fashionable foreigner, known as court, was ordered out of England, 
April 6, 1812. — Bill to abolish their naturalisatiju by the holding of stock in the banks of 
Scotland, June, 1820. New registration act, 7 Geo. IV. 1826. This last act was repealed 
and another statute passed, 6 WlH. IV. 1836. The rigour of the alien laws was much 
mitigated by 7 & 8 Vict, c, 66 (1844). — Alien Priories were suppressed in England 
in 1414.* 

ALIWAL, a village in N". "W. India, the site of a battle on Jan. 28, 1846, between the 
Sikh army under sirdar Eunjoor Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces of 
cauuon, and the British under sir H. Smith, 7000 men, with 32 guns. The contest was 
obstinate, but ended in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or drowned in 
attempting to recross the Sutlej. 

ALKALIES (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant from which an alkaline substance 
was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the nature of 
the difference between caustic and mild alkalies in 1736. 

The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed by- 
Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution, London, 
1808. Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816. 

The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in 
Lancashire and Cheshire, are based on the decom- 
position of common salt (chloride of sodium 1, by 
a process invented by a Frenchman named Le 
Blanc, about 1792. 

Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 
1814. Various modifications of these processes 
are now in use. 

"Alkali works " are defined as works for the manu- 
facture of alkali, sulphates of soda, siilphate of 
potash, and in which muriatic gas is evolved. 

Mr. Wm. Gossage's process for condensing muriatic 
acid gas patented in 1836. 

In consequence of the serious injury to vegetation 
produced by the numerous alkali works in Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire, the Alkali act "for the more 
effectual condensation [of 95 per cent.] of muriatic 
acid gas " (or hydrochloric acid) was passed, July 
28, 1863, to come into operation Jan. i, 1864. 

ALKMAER. See Bergen. 

ALLAHABAD (N. W. Hindostan), the "holy city " of the Indian Mahometans, situated 
at the junction of the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabad was succes- 
sively subject to the kings of Delhi and Oude, but in 1803 was wholly incorporated with the 
British posses.sions. By treaty here, Bengal, &c., was ceded to the English in 1765. — 
During the sepoy mutiny several regiments of the East India company rose and massacred 
their officers, June 4, 1857 ; colonel Neil marched promptly from Benares and suppressed 
the insurrection. In' Nov. 1861, lord Canning made this city the capital of the N. W. 


ALLEGORY is as old as language, and abounds in the S'criptures and Homer : see 
Jacob's, blessing upon his sons. Genesis siMx. (B.C. 1689), Psalm Ixxx., and all the prophets. 
Spenser's Faerie Queene (1590) and Bitnyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678) are allegories 
throughout ; Addison's writings in the Spectator (171 1) abomid in allegories. 

ALLIA (Italy), a small river flowing into the Tiber, where Brennus and the Gauls 
defeated the Romans, July 16, 390 B.C. The Gauls sacked Rome and committed so much 
injury that the day was thereafter held to be unlucky (nefas), and no public business was 
permitted to be done thereon. 

ALLIANCE, Treaties of, between the high European powers. The following are the 
princij)al. See Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United Kingdom, &c. 


Of Leipsic . 
Of Vienna . 
The Triple 
Of Warsaw . 
The Grand 
The Hague . 
The Quadruple 
Of Vienna . 

April 9, 


May 27, 


Jan. 28, 


March 31, 


May 12, 


Jan. 4, 


Aug. 2, 


March 16, 



Of Versailles . . 


Of Paris . . . 

Of St. Petersburg 


Of Sweden . . 

Of Toplitz . 

Holy Alliance 

May I, 1756 

July 23, 1785 

May 16, 179s 

April 8, 1805 

March 14, 1812 

March 24,. ,, 

Sept. 9, 1813 
Sept. 26, 1815 


Of England, France, & Turkey 
(at Constantinople) Mar. 12, 1854 

Of England and France rati- 
fied . . . April 3, ,, 

Of Sardinia with the Western 
Powers (at Turin) Jan. 26, 1855 

Of Sweden with the Western 
Powers . . Deo. 19, ,, 

ALLOTMENTS. See Land, note. 

ALL SAINTS' DAY (Nov. l), or All-Hallows, a festival said to have been begun by pope 
Boniface IV. about 607, and celebrated in the Pantheon at Rome, and established by pope 
Gregory IV. (about 830) for the commemoration of all those saints and martyrs in whose 

* " Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our fens, fished our seas, and built our bridges 
and harbours." Smiles, 1S61. 


honour no particular day is assigned. The reformers of the English church, 1549, struck 
out of their calendar altogether a great numher of anniversaries, leaving only those which at 
their time were connected with popular feeling or tradition. 

ALL SOULS' DAY (Nov. 2), a festival of the Roman Catholic church to commemorate 
the souls that are in purgatory, instituted, it is said, at Cluny about 993 or 1000. 

"ALL THE TALENTS " ADMINISTRATION. See GrenviUe Administrations. 

ALMA, a river in the Crimea, near which was fought a great battle on Sept. 20, 1854. See 
Russo- Turkish War and Crimea. The English, French, and Turkish army (about 57,000 
men) moved out of their first encampment in the Crimea on Sept. 19, and bivouacked tor the 
night on the left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (commanded by Prince MenschikofF ), 
mustering 40,000 infintiy, had 180 field-pieces on the heights, and on the morning of Sept. 
20th were joined by 6000 cavalry from Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces, under 
lord Raglan, consisted of 26,000 men ; the French of 24,000, under marshal St. Arnaud. 
At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made ; the river Alma was crossed, while prince 
Napoleon took possession of the village under the fire of the Russian batteries. At 4, after 
a sanguinary fight, the allies were completely victorious. The enemj', utterly routed, threw 
awaj' their arms and knapsacks in their flight, having lost about 5000 men, of whom 900 
were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The loss of the British was 26 officers and 327 men 
killed, and 73 officers and 1539 men wounded (chiefly. from the 23rd, 7th, and 33rd regi- 
ments) ; that of the French, 3 ofiicers and 233 men killed, and 54 officers and 1033 men 
wounded. Total loss of allies, about 3300. 

ALMACK'S ASSEMBLY-ROOMS, King-street, St. James's, London, at first very 
exclusive, were erected by a Scotchman named Almack, and opened Feb. 12, 1765. 

ALMANACS (from the Arabic al mavah, to count).* The Egj^Dtians computed time by 
instruments. The Alexandrians had almanacs. Log calendars were anciently in use. In 
the British Museum and universities are curious specimens of early almanacs. Michael 
Nostradamus, the celebrated astrologer, wrote an almanac in the style of Merlin, 1556. 
Dufresnoy. Professor Aiigustus De Morgan's valuable '^ Book of Almanacs, with an index 
of reference, by which the almanac may be found for every year," was published in March, 
1 85 1. Among the earlier and more remarkable almanacs were 

John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford . 1380 

One in Lambeth palace, written in . . . 1460 

First printed one, published at Buda . . 1472 

First printed in England, by Richard Pynson . 1497 

T3'balt'.s Prognostications 1533 

Almanac Li^geois ...... 1636 

Lilly's Ephemeris 1644 

Poor Robin's Almanac ..... 1652 

British Merlin 1658 

Edinburgh Almanac 1683 

Connaissance des Temps (by Picard) . . . 1699 

Moore's Almanac .... 1698 or 1713 

Lady's Diary 1705 

Season on the Seasons 1735 

Gentleman's Diary 1741 

Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Mas- 

kelyne (materially improved in 1834) . . 1767 
British Imperial Kalendar ..... 1809 

Hone's Every-Day Book 1826 

British Almanac and Companion . . . 1828 
Anniversary Calendar, published by W. Kidd 1832 
Chambers' Book of Days .... 1862 — 3 

ALMANZA (S. E. Spain). Here, on April 25 (0. S. 14), 17 14, the English, Dutch, 
and Portuguese forces under the earl of Galway, were totally defeated by the French and 
Spanish commanded by James Fitzjames, duke of Berwick (illegitimate son of James II.). 
Most of the English were killed or made prisoners, having been abandoned by the 
Portuguese at the first charge. 

ALMEIDA (Portugal), a frontier town, captured by Massena, Aug. 27, 1810. The French 
crossed into Spain, leaving a garrison at Almeida, blockaded by the English, April 6, 181 1. 
Almeida was retaken by Wellington (May 10), who eventually compelled Massena to retire 
from Portugal, his route being tracked by horrid desolation. 

AIjMENARA, a village, N. E. Spain, where, on July 28, 17 10, an English and German 
army defeated the Spanish army suji^orting Philip V., the grandson of Louis XIV. of France. 
Stanhope, the English general, killed the Spanish general, Amezaga, in single conflict, an. 
act almost unexampled in modern warfare. 

• Of Moore's (under the management of Henry Andrews, the able computer of the JSautical Eyihemerii) 
at one time upwards of 430,000 copies were annually sold. He died in 1820. The Stationers' company 
claimed the exclusive right of publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from James I., granting the 
privilege to them and the two universities ; but the monopoly was broken up by a decision of the Court of 
Common Pleas in 1775. A bill to renew the privilege was lost in 1779. The stamp duty on English 
almanacs, first impcsed in 1710, was abolished in August, 1834; since when almanacs have become in- 
numerable, being issued by tradesmen with their goods. Of Foreign Almanacs, the principal are the 
" Almanach de France," first published in 1699, and the " Almanach de Gotha," 1764. 




ALMOHADES, Mahometan partisans, followers of El-Mehidi in Africa, about 1120. 
They subdued Morocco, 1145 ; entered Spain and couk beviile, Cordova,, and Granada, 
1146-56 ; nded Spain till 1232, and Africa till 12/6. 

ALMONER, an office of uncertain origin, anciently allotted to a dignified clergj'man, who 
had the privilege of giving the fir ,t disii from the royal table to the poor, or instead thereot 
an alms in money. By an ancient canon all bishops were required to keep almoners. The 
grand almoner of France {le grand aumonier) was the highest ecclesiastical dignity in that 
kingdom before the revolution, 1789. Queen Victoria's almoner (now the bishop of Oxford) 
or his sub-aliuoner distributes the queen's gifts on Maundy Thursday (which see). 

ALMORAYIDES, Mahometan partisans in Africa, rose about 1050 ; entered Spain by 
invitation, 1086 ; were ovei'come by the Almohades in 1145. 

ALMSHOUSES for aged and infirm persons have been erected by very many public 
companies and benevolent individuals, particularly since the destruction of religious houses 
at the time of the Reformation in the i6th century. A list of them, with useful information, 
will be found in " Low's Charities of London," ed. 1862. 

Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 
161 3 (in gratitude for her escape from an 
arrow-shot) were rebuilt by the Brewers' 
company 1839 

Bancroft's almshouses, Mile End, were erected 1735 

The London almshouses, in commemoration of 
the passing of the Reform Bill, built at 
Brixton 1833 

Numerous almshouses since erected for 
printers, bookbinders, &c. 

Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion alms- 
houses, Westminster 1577 

Emmanuel CoUege, Westminster, founded by 
Lady Dacre 1594 

Whittington's almshouses, founded in 1621, 
were rebuilt near EQghgate-hill by the Mer- 
cers' company 1826 

The Fishmongers' company founded alms- 
houses in 1618, and rebuilt them on Wands- 
worth common 1850 

Haberdashers' almshouses, Hoxton, founded 
by Robert Aske 1692 

ALNEY. A combat is asserted to have taken place between Edmund Ii'onside and Canute 
the Great, on Alney, an island on the Severn, Gloucestershire, in sight of their armies ; 
when the latter was wounded, he proposed a division of the kingdom, the south part falling 
to Edmund. Edmund was murdered at Oxford shortly after the treaty, according to some 
by the treachery of MAxic Streon, and Canute obtained possession of the whole kingdom, 

ALNWICK (Saxon Ealmvic), on the river Alne in Northumberland, was given at the 
conquest to Ivo de Vesco. It has belonged to the Percies since 13 10. Malcolm, king of 
Scotland, besieged Alnwick in 1093, when he and his sons were killed. It was taken by 
David I. in 1136, and attempted in 11 74 by William the Lion, who was defeated and 
taken prisoner. It was burnt by king John in 1215, and by the Scots in 1448. Since 1854 
the castle has been repaired and enlarged with great taste and at xmsparing expense. 

ALPACA (or Paco), a species of the S. American quadruped the Llama, the soft hairy 
wool of which is now largely employed in the fabrication of cloths. It was introduced into 
this country about 1836, by the earl of Derby. An alpaca factory, &c. (covering 11 acres), 
was erected" at Saltaire, near Shipley, Yorkshire, ■% Mr. Titus Salt in 1852. 

ALPHABET. Athotes, son of Menes, is said to have been the author of hieroglyphics, 
and to have written thus the history of the Egyptians, 2122 B.C. Blair. But Josephus 
afiirms that he had seen inscriptions by Seth, the son of Adam ; this is deemed fabulous. 

The Egyptian alphabet is ascribed to Memnon, 

1822 B.C. 

The first letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew 
alphabet was ahph, called by the Greeks alpha, and 
abbreviated by the modems to A. The Hebrew 
is supposed to be derived from the Phoenician. 

Cadmus the founder of Cadmea, 1493 B.C., is said 
to have brought the Phoenician letters (fifteen in 
number) into Greece, viz. : — A, B, T, A, I, K, A, 
M, N, O, n, P, 2, T, r. These letters were 
originally either Hebrew, Phoenician, or Assyrian 
characters, and changed gradually in form till 

they became the ground of the Roman letters, 
now used aU over Europe. Palamedes of Argos 
invented the double characters, 0, X, *, E, about 
1224 B.C. ; and Simonides added, Z, ■*■, H, n, about 
489 B.C. Arundelian Marbles. — When the E was 
introduced is not precisely known. The Greek 
alphabet consisted of i6 letters till 399 (or 403) 
B.C., when the Ionic of 24 characters was intro- 
duced. The small letters, for the convenience of 
writing, are of later invention. The alphabets of 
the different nations contain the following number 
of letters : — 


. 26 


. 26 


. 24 

French . 

. . 25 


. . 42 


. . 22 


. 20 

Russian . 

• 35 


. 28 


. . 27 

Latin . 

. . 22 

Persian . 

- . 32 

Turkish . 


Sansciit . . . 


Chinese radical cha- 

racters . 


ALPHONSINE TABLES, astronomical tables, composed by Spanish and Arab astro- 
nomers, and collected in 1253 under the direction of Alphonsus X. of Castile, surnamed the 


Wise, who is said to have expended upwards of 400,000 crowns in completing the work ; he 
himself wrote Ijhe preface. The Spanish government ordered the work to be reprinted from 
the best MSS. ; three volumes have appeared, 1863-5. 

ALPS, a European range of mountains. Those between France and Italy were passed by 
Hannibal 218 B.C., by the Romans 154 B.C., and by Napoleon I. in a.d. 1800. Roads over 
Mont Cenis and the Simplon, connecting France and Italy, were constmcted by order of 
Napoleon, between 1801-6. See Simplon. A sub-alpine tunnel through Mont Cenis to 
connect Savoy and Piedmont has been in progress since 1857.* In 1859 the " Alpine Club," 
which consists of British travellers in the Alps, published their first work, "Peaks, Passes, 
and Glaciers." 

ALSACE (N. E. France), formerly part of the kingdom of Austrasia, now the departments 
of the Ujjper and Lower Rhine. It was incorporated into the German empire in the loth 
century. A portion was restored to France, 1648, and the whole, including Strasburg, in 
1697. The precinct of Whitefriars, London, called Alsatia, is described in Scott's "Fortunes 
of Nigel." Its privilege of sanctuary was abolished in 1696. 

ALTAR. One was built by Noah, 2348 B.C. {Gen. viii. 20) ; others by Abraham, 1921 
{Gen. xii. 8). Directions for making an altar are given Exod. xx. 24, 1491 B.C. Altars 
were raised to Jupiter, in Greece, by Cecrops, 1556 B.C. He introduced among the Greeks 
the worship of the deities of Egj'pt. Herodotus. The terra "altar" was applied to the 
Lord's table for the first three centuries after Christ (Heb. xiii. 10). Christian altars in 
churches were instituted by pope Sixtus I., a.d. 135 ; and were first consecrated by pope 
Sylvester. The first Christian altar in Britain was in 634. Stow. The church of England 
terms the table on which the elements are placed an altar. Since the time of Elizabeth 
there has been much controversy on the subject, and the Puritans in the civil war destroyed 
many of the ancient stone altars, sub.stituting wooden tables. In 1845 it was decided in 
the Arches Court that stone altars were not to be erected in English churches. 

ALTER EGO {another or second I), a, term applied to Spanish viceroys when exercising 
regal power ; used at Naples when the crown prince was appointed vicar-general during an 
insurrection in July, 1820. 

ALT-RANSTADT (Prussia), where the treaty of peace dictated by Charles XII. of Sweden, 
to Frederick Augustus of Poland, was signed, Sept. 24, 1706. Frederick, deposed in 1704, 
regained the throne of Poland after the defeat of Charles XII., in 1709. 

ALUM is said to have been first discovered at Rocha, in Syria, about 1300 ; it was found 
in Tuscany about 1470 ; was brought to perfection in England by sir T. Challoner, who 
established large alum works near "Whitby in 1608; was discovered in Ireland in 1757; 
and in Anglesey in 1790. Alum is a salt used as a mordant in dyeing ; and also to harden 
tallow, to whiten bread, and in the paper manufacture. It may be made of pure clay 
exposed to vapours of sulphuric acid, and sulphate of potash added to the ley ; but is 
usually obtained by means of ore called alum slate. 

ALUMBAGH, a fort near Lucknow, Oude, India, seized and heroically defended by the 
British under sir James Outram during the mutiny in 1857. He defeated an attack of 
30,000 sepoys on Jan. 12, 1858, and of 20,000 on Feb. 21. He was relieved by sir Colin 
Campbell in March. 

ALUMINIUM, a metal, the base of the earth alumina (clay), which was shown to be a 
distinct earth by Marggraff in 1754, having been previously confounded with lime. Oerstedt 
in 1826 obtained the chloride of aluminium ; and in 1827 the metal itself was first obtained 
by F. Wbhler, but was for some time merely a scientific curiosity, the process being 
expensive. The mode of production was afterwards simplified by Bunsen and others, more 
especially by H. Ste. -Claire Deville, who in 1856 succeeded in procuring considerable quan- 
tities of this metal. It is very light (sp. g. 2-25), malleable, and sonorous ; when pure does 
not laist, and is not acted on by sulphur or any acid except hydrochloric. These qualities 
will render it very useful when improved processes render it cheaper. In March, 1856, it 
was 3Z. the ounce ; in June, 1857, lis. or 12s., and it is now much cheaper (1865). The eagles 
of the French colours have been made of it, and many other ornamental and useful articles. 
Deville's work, "De I'Aluminium," was published in 1859. An aluminium manufactory 
was established at Newcastle in i860, by Messrs. Bell. They obtain the metal from a 

* At first the boring was effected by ordinary machinery ; in i860 steam power was employed; but 
afterwards compressed air was used as a motive power with great success. It is confidently expected that 
the tunnel will be completed in 1870. In 1865 Messrs. Brassey proposed laying down a line of steeply 
incUned railway for 47 miles, to be used till the tunnel is completed. 


French mineral, bauxite. Their aluminium bronze, an alloy of copper and aluminium, 
invented by Dr. John Percy, F.R.S., came into use for watch-cases, &c., manufactured by 
Messrs. Reid of Newcastle, in 1862. 

AMADIS OF Gaul, a Spanish or Portuguese romance, stated to have been written about 
1342 by Vasco de Lobeiro. It was translated and enlarged by De Montalvo, about 1485. 

AMALEKITES (descendants of Amalek, grandson of Esau or Edom, the brother of Jacob) 
attacked the Israelites 1491 B.C., Avhen perpetual war was denounced by God against them. 
They were subdued by Saul about 1079 ; by David, 1058 and 1056 ; and by the Simeonites 
about 715 B.C. 

AMALEI, a city on the gulf of Salerno, Naples, in the 8th century became the seat of 
a republic, and flourished by its commerce till 1075, when it was taken by Roger Guiscard. 
It eventually was incorporated into the kingdom of Naples. The Pisans, in their sack of the 
town in 1135; are said to have found a copy of the Pandects of Justinian, and thus to have 
induced the revival of the study of Roman law in Western Europe. Flavio Gioia, a native 
of Ainalfi, is the reputed discoverer of the mariner's compass, about 1302. 

AMAZON, West India mail steam ship, left Southampton on her first voyage, Friday, 
Jan. 2, 1852, and on Sunday morning, Jan. 4, was destroyed by fire at sea, about no miles 
W. S. W. of Scilly (ascribed to the spontaneous ignition of combustible matter placed near 
the engine-room). Out of 161 persons on board, 102 persons must have perished by fire or 
drowning. 21 persons were saved by the life-boat of the ship ; 25 more were carried 
into Brest harbour by a Dutch vessel passing by ; and 13 others were picked up in the bay 
of Biscay, also by a Dutch galliot, Eliot Warlaurton, a distinguished writer in general 
literature, was among those lost. 

AMAZONIA (S. America) was discovered by Francisco Orellana, in 1540. Coming from 
Peru, he sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic, and observing companies of women 
in arms on its bank, he called the country Amazonia, and gave the name of Amazon to the 
river, which had previously been called Maranon. 

AMAZONS. Three rations of Amazons have been mentioned — the Asiatic, Scythian, and 
African. They are said to have been the descendants of Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, 
where their husbands, having made incursions, were all slain, being surprised in ambuscades 
by their enemies. Their widows resolved to form a female state, and having firmly established 
themselves, tliej' decreed that matrimony was a shameful servitude. Quinttis Curtius. They 
were said to have been conquered by Theseus, about 1231 B.C. The Amazons were constantly 
employed in wars ; and that they might throw the javelin with more force, their right 
breasts were burned off, whence their name from the Greek, a, no, mazos, breast. Others 
derive the name from maza, the moon, whom they are supposed to have worshipped. About 
330 B.C. their queen, Thalestris, visited Alexander the Great, while he was pursuing his 
conquests in Asia ; three hundred females were in her train. Herodotus. 

AMBASSADORS. Accredited agents, and representatives from one court to another, are 
referred to early ages. In most countries they have great privileges ; and in England, they 
and theu" servants are secured against arrest. England usually has twenty-five ambassadors 
or envoys extraordinary, and about thirty-six chief consuls, resident at foreign courts, exclu- 
sive of inferior agents ; the ambassadors and other chief agents from abroad at the court of 
London in 1865 were 47. 

The Russian ambassador's being imprisoned for breasts, to ask his pardon, and then one of them 

debt by a lace-merchant, July 27, 1708, led to the to be itnprisoned three months, and the other 

passing the statute of 8 Anne, for the protection fined, May 12, 1780. 

of ambassadors, 1709. The first ambassador from the United States of 

Two men, convicted of arresting the servant of an America to England, John Adams, presented to 

ambassador, were sentenced to be conducted to the king, June 2, 1785 ; the first from Great 

the house of the ambassador, with a label on their Britain to America was Mr. Hammond, in 1791. 

AMBER, a carbonaceous mineral,* principally found in the northern parts of Europe, of 
great repute in the world from the earliest time ; esteemed as a medicine before the Christian 
era : Theophrastus wrote upon it ; 300 B.C. Upwards of 150 tons of amber have been found 
in one year on the sands of the shore near Pillau. Phillips. 

* Much diversity of opinion stiU prevails among naturalists and chemists, respecting the origin 01 
amber, some referring it to the vegetable, others to the mineral, and some to the animal kingdom ; its 
natural history and chemical analysis affording something in favour of each opinion. It is considered by 
Berzelius to have been a resin dissolved in volatile oil. It often contains delicately-formed insects. Sir D. 
Brewster concludes it to be indurated vegetable juice. When rubbed it becomes electrical, and from its 
Greek name, electron, the ttrm Electricity is derived. 




AMBOISE (C. France). A conspiracy of the Huguenots against Francis II., Catherine de 
Medicis, and the Guises, was suppressed at this place in Jan. 1560. On March 19, 1563, 
the Pacification of Amboise was published, whereby toleration was granted to the Huguenots. 
The civil war was however soon renewed. 

AMBOYNA, one of the Molucca isles, discovered about 1512 by the Portuguese, but not 
wholly occupied by them till 1580. It was taken by the Dutch in 1605. The English 
factors at this settlement were cruelly tortured and put to death, Feb. 17, 1623-4, by the 
Dutch, on an accusation of a conspiracy to expel them from the island, where the two 
nations resided and jointly shared in the pepper trade of Java. Cromwell compelled the 
Dutch to give a sum of money to the descendants of the sufferers. Amboyna was seized by 
tlie English, Feb. 16, 1796, but was restored by the treaty of Amiens, in 1802. It was 
again seized by the British, Feb. 17-19, 1810 ; and again restored at the peace of 1814. 


AMEN", an ancient Hebrew word meaning true, faithful, certain. At the end of a prayer, 
it implies so be it ; at the termination of a creed, so it is. It is used in the Jewish and 
Christian assemblies, at the conclusion of prayer. See i Cor. xiv. 16 (a.b. 59). 

AMENDE Honorable, in France, in the 9th century, was an infamous punishment 
inflicted on traitors and sacrilegious persons : the offender was delivered into the hands of 
the hangman : his shirt was stripped off, a rope put about his neck, and a taper in his hand ; 
he was then led into court, and was obliged to beg pardon of God and the country. Death 
or banishment sometimes followed. 

AMERCEMENT, in Law, a fine assessed for an offence done, or pecuniary punishment at 
the mercy of the court : thus differing from a fine directed and fixed by a statute. By 
Magna Charta a freeman cannot be amerced for a small fault, but in proportion to the offence 
he has committed, 9 Henry III. 1225. 

AMERICA,* the great Western Continent, is about 9000 miles long, with an area of about 
13,668,000 square miles. It is now believed to have been visited by the Norsemen or 
Vikings in the lotli and nth centuries ; but the modem discovery is due to the sagacity 
and courage of the Genoese navigator, Christopher Columbus,+ who, after having his scheme 
long contemptuously rejected, sailed on his first expedition from Palos in Andalusia on 
Friday, Aug. 3, 1492, with vessels supplied by the sovereigns of Spain. 

Columbus lands on Guanahani, one of the Baha- 
mas ; takes possession of it in the name of 
Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile, and names 
it San Salvador . . . Friday, Oct. 12, 1492 

He discovers Cviba, Oct. 28 ; and Hispaniola 
(now Hayti), where he builds a fort, La Navi- 
dad Dec. 6, ,, 

He returns to Spain, March 15 ; sails from Cadiz 
on his second expedition, Sept. 25 ; discovers 
the Caribbee isles,— Dominica, Nov. 3 ; Gua- 
daloupe, Nov. 4 ; Antigua, Nov. 10 ; founds 
Isabella in Hispaniola, the first Christian 
citv in the New World . . . Dec. , 1493 

He discovers Jamaica, May 3 ; and Evanefelista 
(now Isle of Pines), June 13 ; war with the 
natives of Hispaniola 1494 

He visits the various isles ; and explores their 
coasts ........ 1495-6 

Returns to Spain to meet the charges of his 
enemies June 11, 1496 

Cabot (sent out by Henry VII. of England) dis- 
covers Labrador on the coast of North Ame- 
rica [he is erroneously said to have dis- 
covered Florida, and also Newfoundland, 
and to have named it Prima Vista] June 24, 1497 

Columbus sails on his third voyage, May 30 ; 
discovers Trinidad, July 31 ; lands on Terra 
Firma, without knowing it to be the new 
continent, naming it Isla Santa . Aug. i, 1498 

Ojeda discovers Surinam, June ; and the gulf 
of Venezuela 1499 

* The name is derived from Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine merchant, who died in 1512. He accom- 
panied Ojeda in his voyage on the eastern coasts in 1498 ; and described the country in letters sent to his 
friends in Italy. He is charged with presumptuously inserting " Tierra de Amerigo " in his maps. Ir\'ing 
discusses the question in the Appendix to the Life of Columbus, but comes to no conclusion. Humboldt 
asserts that the name was given to the continent in the popular works of Waldseemiiller, a German geo- 
grapher, without the knowledge of Vespucci. To America we are indebted, among other things, for 
maize, the tiirkey, the potato, Peruvian bark, and tobacco. 

f Christoforo Columbo was bom about 1445 ; first went to sea about 1460 : settled at Lisbon in 1470, 
where he married Felipa, the daughter of Perestrello, an Italian navigator ; whereby he obtained much 
geographical knowledge. He is said to have laid the plans of his voyage of discovery before the republic 
of Genoa, in 1485, and other powers, and finally before the court of Spain, where at length the queen 
Isabella became his patron. After undergoing much ingratitude and cruel persecution from his own 
followers and the Spanish court, he died on May 20, 1506 ; and was buried with much pomp at Valladolid. 
His remains were transferred, in 1513, to Seville; in 1536 to San Domingo; and in Jan. 1796 to the 
Havanna, Cuba. The original inscription on his tomb is said to have been : " A Castilla y & Leon Nuevo 
Mundo di<5 Colon." "To Castile and Leon Colon gave a New World." Humboldt says beautifully, that the 
8ucees3 of Columbus was " a conquest 0/ refieciion! " 




AMERICA, continued. 

Vicente Yanez Pinzon discovers Brazil, South 
America, Jan. 26 ; and the river Maraiion (the 
Amazon) ; Cabral the Portuguese lands in 
Brazil (see Brazil) .... May 3, 1500 
Gaspar Cortereal discovers Labrador . . ,, 
Columbus is imprisoned in chains at San Do- 
mingo by Bobadilla, sent out to investigate 
into his conduct, May; conveyed to Spain, 
where he is honourably received Dee. 17, „ 
Columbus sails on his fourth voyage, May 9 ; 
discovers various isles on the coast of Hon- 
duras, and explores the coast of the isthmus, 
July, &c. ; discovers and names Porto Bello, 

Nov. 2, 1502 
Negro slaves imported into Hispaniola . 1501-3 

Worried by the. machinations of his enemies, he 
returns to Spain, Nov. 7; his friend, queen 
Isabella, dies .... Nov. 20, 1504 
He dies while treated with base ingratitude by 

the Spanish government . . May 20, 1506 

Soils and Pinzon discover Yucatan . . . „ 
Ojeda founds San Sebastian, the first colony on 

the mainland 1510 

Subjugation of Cuba by Velazquez . . . 1511 
The coast of Florida discovered by Ponce de 

Leon . . • 1512 

Vasco de Balboa crosses the isthmus of Darien, 

and discovers the South Pacific Ocean . . 1513 
Grijalva penetrates into Yucatan, and names it 

New Spain 1518 

I'a.'isage of Magellan's Straits by him . . 1520 
Conquest of Mexico by Fernando Cortes . 1519-21 
Pizarro discovers the coast of Quito . . . 1526 
He invades and conquers Peru . . . 1532-5 
Cartier, a Frenchman, enters the Gulf of St. 

Lawrence, and sails up to Montreal . 1S34-5 
Grijalva's expedition, equipped by Cortes, dis- 
covers California 1535 

Mendoza founds Buenos Ayres, and conquers 

the adjacent country ,, 

Chili conquered by Valdivia 1541 

Orel] ana sails down the Amazon to the sea . . ,, 
Louisiana conquered by De Soto . . . ,, 
Eebellion in Peru — tranquillity estabUshed by 

Gasoa 1548 

Davis's Straits discovered by him . . . 1585 
Ealeigh establishes the first English settlement 

— at Roanoke, Virginia , 

Falkland isles discovered by Davis . . . 1592 
De Monts, a Frenchman, settles in Acadia, now 

Nova Scotia 1604 

Jamestown, in Virginia, the first Enghsh settle- 

ment on the mainland, founded by lord de la 

Warr 1607 

Quebec founded by the French .... 1608 
Hudson's bay discovered by him . . . , 1610 
The Dutch build Manhattan, or New Amster- 
dam (now New York) on the Hxidson . . 1614 
Settlement in New England begun by capt. 

Smith „ 

New Plymouth built by the banished English 

nonconformists 1620 

Nova Scotia settled by the Scotch under sir 

Wm. Alexander 1622 

Delaware settled by the Swedes and Dutch . 1627 
Massachusetts, by sir H. Boswell . . . ,, 

Maryland, by lori Baltimore 1632 

Connecticut granted to lord Say and Broke in 
1630; but no English settlement was made 

here till 1635 

Rhode Island settled by Roger Williams and his 

brethren, driven from Massachusetts . . ,, 
New Jersey settled by the Dutch, 1614, and 
Swedes, 1627 ; granted to the duke of York, 
who sells it to lord Berkeley .... 1664 
New York captured by the English . . . „ 
Carolina settled by the English .... 1669 
Pennsylvania settled by William Penn, the 

celebrated Quaker 1682 

Louisiana settled by the French . . . „ 

The Mississippi explored 1699 

The Scotch settlement at Darien (1698-9) aban- 
doned 1700 

New Orleans built 1717 

Georgia settled by general Oglethorpe . . 1732 
Kentucky, by colonel Boon . . . . . 1754 
Canada conquered by the Enghsh, 1759-60; 

ceded to Great Britain 1763 

American war — declaration of independence by 
the United States, 1776; recognised by Great 

Britain 1783 

Louisiana ceded to Spain, 1762 ; transferred to 

France, 1800 ; sold to the United States . 1803 
Florida ceded to Great Britain, 1763 ; taken by 
Spain, 1 78 1 ; to whom it is ceded, 1783; ceded 

to the United States 1820 

Revolution in Mexico — declaration of indepen- 
dence 1821 

Revolutions in Spanish America ; independence 
established by Chili, 1810 ; Paraguay, 181 1 ; 
Buenos Ayres, and other provinces, 1816 ; 

Peru 1826 

[See United States, Mexico, and other states, 
throughout the volume.] 

AMERICA, British. See British America. 

AMERICA, Central, including the states of Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Costa Rica, which see, declared their independence Sept. 21, 1821, and separated 
from the Mexican confederation, July 21, 1823. The states made a treaty of union between 
themselves March 21, 1847. There has been among them since much anarchy and blood- 
shed, aggravated gi-eatly by the irruption of American filibusters under Kenny and "Walker, 
1854-5. In Jan. 1863, a war began between Guatemala (afterwards joined by Nicaragua) and 
San Salvador (afterwards supported by Honduras). The latter were defeated at Santa Rosa 
June 16, and San Salvador was taken Oct. 26 ; the president of San Salvador, Barrios, fled ; and 
Carrera, the dictator of Guatemala became predominant over the confederacy. — Population, 
1859, about 2,355,000. See Nicaragua, Darien, and Panama. 

AMERICA, South. See Brazil, Argentine, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, &c. 

"AMERICA," an American yacht, schooner-built, 171 tons burthen. On Aug. 22, 1851, 
at Cowes regatta, in a match round the Isle of Wight for a cup worth 100^., open to 
all nations, she came in first by 8 miles, due to her superior construction on the wave 

AMERICANISMS : a useful dictionary of these expressions was compiled by John R. 
Bartlett, and first published in 1848. 


AMETHYST, the ninth stone upon the breastplate of the Jewish high priest ; and on it 
was engraved the name Issachar. It is of a rich violet colour. One worth 200 rix-doUars, 
having been rendered colourless, equalled a diamond in lustre, valued at 18,000 gold 
crowns. De Boot, Hist. Gemmarum. — Anieth3'sts discovered at Kerry, in Ireland, in 1775. 

AMIENS, an ancient city in Picardy (N. France) : the cathedral was built in 1220. It 
was taken by the Spanish and English Sept. 25, 1597. The preliminary articles of the 
memorable peace between Great Britain, Holland, France, and Spain, fifteen in number, 
were signed in London by lord Hawkesbury and M. Otto, on the part of England and 
France,"Oct. i, 1801 ; and the definitive treaty was subscribed at Amiens, on March 27, 1802, 
by the marquess of Cornwallis for England, Joseph Bonaparte for France, Azara for Spain, 
and Schimmelpenninck for Holland. — War was declared again in 1803. 

AMMONIA, the volatile alkali, mainly produced by the decomposition of organic sub- 
stances. Its name is ascribed 1;o its having been procured from heated camel's dang near 
the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya. The discovery of its being a compound of nitrogen 
and hydrogen is ascribed to Joseph Priestley in 1774. By the recent labours of chemists the 
o.dde of the once hypothetical metal ammonium, and ammonium amalgam, have been 
formed ; and specimens of each were shown at the Royal Institution in 1856 by Dr. A. W. 
Hofmann, who has done veiy much for the chemical history of ammonia. 

AMMONITES, descended from Ben-Animi, the son of Lot (1897 B.C.). They invaded 
the land of Canaan and made the Israelites tributaries, but they were defeated by Jephthah, 
1 143 B.C. They again invaded Canaan in the reign of Saul, with an intention to put out the 
right eye of all those they subdued ; but Saul overthrew them, 1095 B.C. They were after- 
wards many times vanquished ; and Antiochus the Great took Kabbah their capital, and 
destroyed all the walls, 198 B.C. Josephus. 

AMNESTY (a general pardon after political disturbances, &c.) was granted by Thrasy- 
bulus, the Athenian patriot, after expelling the thirty tyrants with the assistance of only 
thirty friends, 403 B.C. Acts of amnesty-were passed after the civil war in 165 1, and after 
the two rebellions in England in 1715 and 1745. — After his victorious campaign in Italy, 
Napoleon III. of France granted an amnesty to all political offenders, Aug. 17, 1859. An 
amnesty, with certain exemptions, was granted to the vanquished southern states of 
North America by president Johnson, May 29, 1865. 

AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL, asserted traditionally to have been established at Ther- 
mopylae by Amphictyon, for the management of all affairs relative to Greece. This cele- 
brated council, composed of twelve of the wisest and most virtuous men of various cities of 
Greece, began 1498 [1113, Clinton] B.C. Other cities in time sent also chosen citizens to 
the council of the Amphictyons, and in the age of Antoninus Pius, they were increased 
to the number of thirty. Suidas. Its immediate office was to attend to the temples and 
oracles of Deli:)hi. Its interference caused the Sacred wars, 595 — 586, and 356—346. 

AMPHION, a British frigate, of 38 guns, blown up while riding at anchor in Plymouth 
Sound, and the whole of her crew then on board, consisting of more than two hundred and 
fifty persons, officers and men, perished Sept. 22,- 1796. Butler. 

AMPHITHEATRES, said to have been first constructed by Curio, 76 B.C., and Julius 
CjEsar 46 B. c. In the Roman amphitheatres, which were vast round or oval buildings, the people 
assembled to see the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other exhibitions. They were 
generally built of. wood, but Statilius Taurus made one of stone, under Augustus Csesar. 
See Coliseum. The amphitheatre of Vespasian (capable of holding 87,000 persons) was built 
between A. D. 75 and 80; and is said to have been a regular fortress in 13 12. The amphi- 
theatre at Verona was next in size, and then that of Nismes. 

AMPHITRITE, the Ship. See Wrecks, Aug. 30, 1833. 

AMPUTATION, in surgery, was greatly aided by the invention of the tourniquet by 
Morel, a French surgeon in 1674 ; and of the flap-method by Lowdham of Exeter in 1679. 

AMSTERDAM (Holland). The castle of Amstel was commenced in iioo; the build- 
inct of the city in 1203. Its commerce was greatly increased by the decay of that of Antwerp 
afFer 1609. The exchange was built in 1634 ; and the noble stadthouse in 1648 ; the latter 
cost three millions of guilders, then a large sum. It is built upon 13,659 piles. Amsterdam 
surrendered to the king of Prussia, when that prince invaded Holland, in favour of the 
stadtholder, in 1787. The French were admitted without resistance, Jan. 18, 1795. The 
Dutch government was restored in December, 1813. The crystal palace for an industrial 
exhibition was opened by prince Frederick of the Netherlands Aug. 16, 1864. 


AMULETS, OR Ckakms, employed from tlie earliest times. Amulets were made of the 
wood of the true cross, about 328. They have been sanctioned in modern times by 
medical men — witness the anodyne necklace, &c. 

AMYLENE, a colourless, very mobile liquid, first procured by M. Balard of Paris in 1844 , 
by distilling fousel oil (potato-spirit) with chloride of zinc. The vapour was employed 
instead of chloroform first by Dr. Snow in 1856. It has since been tried in many hospitals 
here, and in France. The odour is more unpleasant than chloroform, and more vapour must 
be used. It is, however, thought less dangeroiis. 

ANABAPTISTS. The sect arose about 1521, and was known in England before 1549. 
John of Leyden, Muncer, Storck, and other German enthusiasts, about the time of the 
Reformation, taught that infant iDaptism was a contrivance of the devil, that there is no 
original sin, that men have a free will in spiritual things, and other doctrines still more wild 
and absurd. They committed many violences, and in 1534 seized Miinster, calling it Mount 
Zion, and declared one Mathias, a baker, to be the king of Zion. Their enthusiasm led 
them to the maddest practices, and they at length rose in arms rmder pretence of gospel 
liberty. Miinster was taken June 24, 1535, and the chiefs of the Anabaptists were put to 
death. — On Jan. 6, 1661, about 80 anabaptists in London appeared in arms, headed by their 
preacher, Thomas Venner, a Avine-cooper. They fought desperately, and killed many of the 
soldiers brought against them. Their leader and sixteen others were executed, Jan. 19 and 
21. Annals of England. — For the modern Anabaptists see Ba^ptists. 

ANACREONTIC VERSE, commonly of the jovial or bacchanalian strain, named after 
Anacreon of Teos, the Greek Ij^ric poet, whose odes are much prized. He is said to have 
been choked by a grape-stone in his eighty-fifth year, about 514 B.C. His odes have been 
frequently translated; Thomas Moore's celebrated version was published in 1800. 

AN.iESTHETICS. See Chloroform, Ether, Amylcne, Kerosolene. Intense cold is also 
emploj'^ed in deadening pain. 

ANADOLIA (Asia Minor), comprises the ancient Lycia, Caria, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, 
Paphlagonia and Phrygia, which see. 

ANAGRAMS, formed by the transposition of the letters of a name or sentence : as army 
from Mary, are said to have been made by ancient Jews, Greeks, &c. On the question put 
by Pilate to Our Saviour, "Quid est Veritas f (what is truth?) we have the remarkable 
anagram, ''Est vir qioi adesf" (themanwho is here). Another good one is ''Horatio Nelson," 
and " Honor est a Nilo " ("there is Honour from the Nile"). — The French are said to have 
introduced 'the art as now practised, about the year 1560, in the reign of Charles IX, 

AN AM. See Anoiam. 

ANASTATIC PRINTING. See Printing, 1841. 

ANATHEMA, among the Jews, was the devoting some person or thing to destruction, 
as in the case of Jericho {Joshua vi. 17). The word occurs i Cor. xvi. 22. Anathemas were 
used by the primitive churches, 387. See Excommibnication. 

ANATOMY (Greek, cutting up). The study of the human body was part of the philo- 
sophical investigations of Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle ; and it became a branch of medical 
art binder Hippocrates, about 420 B. c. Erasistratus and Herophilus rs\z.j be regarded as 
the fathers of anatomy ; they were the first to dissect the human form, as anatomical 
research had been previously confined to animals : it is mentioned that they practised upon 
the bodies of living criminals, about 300 and 293 B.C. Galen, who died A. D. 193, was a 
great anatomist. In England, the schools were supplied with subjects unlawfully exhumed 
from graves ; and until lately, the bodies of executed criminals were ordered for dissection. * 
Pope Boniface VIII. forbade the dissection of dead bodies, 1297. The first anatomical 
plates, designed by Titian, were employed by Vesalius, about 1538. Leonardo da Vinci, 
Raphael, and Michael Angelo, studied anatomy. The great discoveries of Harvey were 

* By 32 Henry VIII., c. 42 (1540X surgeons were gi-anted four bodies of executed malefactors for 
" anatUomyes," which privilege was extended in following reigns : but in consequence of the crimes com- 
mitted by resurrection-men in order to supply the surgical schools (robbing churchyards and even com- 
mitting murder, see Burking), a new statute was passed in 1832, which abated the ignominy of dissection 
by prohibiting that of executed murderers, and made provision for the wants of surgeons by permitting, 
under certain regulations, the dissection of pei-sons dying in workhouses, (fee. The act also appointed 
inspectors of anatomy, regulated the schools, and required persons practising anatomy to obtain a 
licence. It repealed the clause of the act of 1828, which directed the dissection of the body of an executed 



made in 1616. William and John Hunter -were great anatomists; they died in 1783 and 
1 793- Qnain's and Wilson's large anatomical jilates were published in 1842. Comparative 
anatomy has been treated systematically Ly Cnvier, Owen, Midler, Huxley, and others. 
The anatomy of plants has been studied since 1680, See Botany, 

ANCHORITES. See Monachism. 

ANCHORS are of ancient use, and the invention belonj^s to the Tuscans. Pliny. The 
second tooth, or fluke, was added by Anacharsis, the Scythian (592 B.C.) Strdbo. Anchors 
Avere first forged in England a.t>. 578. Those of a first-rate ship of war (four) will weigh 99 
cwt. each, costing 450Z. P/iilUi's. The Admiralty anchor was introduced about 1841. 
Improved anchors were made by Pering and Rodgers about 1831 ; by Porter 1846 ; by 
Costell 1848 ; by Trotman 1853 ; and by several other persons. Trotmau's is attached to 
the Queen's yacht the Fairy. The anchors of the Great Eastern are of enormous size. An 
act for the proving and sale of chain cables and anchors, was passed in 1864. 

ANCIENT HISTORY commences in the Holy Scriptures, and in the history of 

Herodotus about 1687 b.c. It is considered as ending with the destruction of the Roman 

empire in Italy, a.d. 476. Modern history begins with Mahomet (a.d. 622), or Charle- 
magne (768). 

ANCIENTS. See Councils. 

ANCONA, an ancient Roman port on the Adriatic. The mole was built by Trajan, 
A.D. 107. After many changes of rulers Aucona was finally annexed to the papal states in 
1532, In 1798 it was taken by the French ; but Avas retaken by the Austrians in 1799. 
It was occupied bj'' the French in 1832 ; evacuated in 1838 ; after an insurrection it was 
bombarded and captured by the Austrians, June 18, 1849. The Marches (comprising this 
city) rebelled against the Papal government in Sept. i860. Lamorici^re, the papal general, 
fled to Ancona after his defeat at Castelfidardo, but was compelled to surrender himself, the 
city, and the garrison, on Sept. 29. The king of Sardinia entered soon after. 

ANCYRA, in ancient Galatia, now Angora or Engour, Asia Minor. A council was held 
here in 314. Near this city, on July 28, 1402, Timour or Tamerlane defeated and took 
prisoner the sultan Bajazet, and is said to have conveyed him to Samarcand in a cage. 

ANDALUSIA (S. Spain), a province forming part of the ancient Lusitania and Bretica. 
The name is a corruption of Vandalitia, acquired in consefjuence of its having been held by 
the Vandals from 419 to 421, when it was acquired by the Visigoths. The latter Avere 
expelled by the Moors in 711, who established in it the kingdom of Cordova, Avhich they 
retained till their final overthrow in 1492. 

ANDERNACH, Rhenish Prussia, once an imperial cit5\ Near here, the emperor Chai-les 
the First, while attempting to deprive his nephews of their inheritance, Avas totally defeated 
by one of them, Louis of Saxony, Oct. 8, 876. 

ANDORRA, a small republic in the Pyrenees, bearing the title of "the valleys and 
sovereignties of Andorra," was made independent by Charlemagne about 778, certain rights 
being reserved to the bishop of Urgel. The feudal sovereignty, Avhich long appertained to 
the counts of Foix, reverted to the French king, Henry IV., in 1589 ; but Avas given up in 
1790. On March 27, 1806, an imperial decree restored the old relations between Andorra 
and France. The republic is noAV governed by a council elected for life ; but the magistrates 
are appointed alternately by the French government and the Spanisli bishop of Urgel. The 
population Avas about 18,000, in 1850. Gniberf. 

ANDRfi'S Execution. See United States, 1780! 

ANDREW, ST., said to have been martyred by crucifixion, Nov. 30, 69, at Patra?, in 
Achaia. The festiAval Avas instituted about 359. Andrew is the titular saint of Scotland, 
OAving to Hungus, the Pictish prince, having dreamed that the saint was to be his friend in 
a pending battle Avith the Northumbrians. St. Andrew's cross ( x ) appeared in the air 
during the fight, and Hungus conquered. The collar of an order of knighthood, founded on 
this legend, is formed of thistles (not to be touched) and of rue (an antidote agwinst poison) ; 
the motto is N^emo me impune lacessit (No one assails me with impunity). The institution of 
the order is attributed to A chains about 809 ; its revival is due to king James V. in 1540, 
and to James II. of England in 1687. See TJiistlc. The Russian order of St. Andrew was 
instituted in 1698 by Peter I. 

ANDREW'S, St. (E. Scotland). Here Robert Bruce held his first parliament in 1309 ; 
and here AVishart was burnt by archbishop Beaton, Avho liimself was murdered liere in 


1546. The university w<as founded ill 141 1 by bishop Wardlaw. The bishopric originated 
M'ith the establishment of Christianity in Scotland. Sir R. Sibbahl's list of the bishops of 
St. Andrew's commences with Killach, 872. Tlie see became archiepiscopal in 1470, and 
ceased soon after the Eevolutiou, 1689. St. Andrew's is now a post-revolution bishopric, 
re-instituted in 1844. See Bisliops, 

ANDEtrSSOV, Peace of (Jan. 20. 1667), between Russia and Poland, by which the 
latter lost the greater part of her conquests among the Cossacks. 

AiSTEilOMETER (Greek, anemos, the wind), a measurer of the strength and velocity of 
the wind, was invented by Wolfius, in 1709. The extreme velocity was found by Dr. Lind to 
lie 93 miles x^er hour. Osier's and Whewell's anemometers were highly approved of in 1844, 

ANEROID, See Barometer. 

ANGEL, an ancient gold coin, weighing four ])ennyweights, was valued at 6s. 8^. in the 
reign of Henry VI., and at 105. in the reign of Elizabeth, 1562. The ancjelot, a gold coin, 
value half an angel, Avas struck at Paris when held by the English, in 143 1. Wood. 

ANGELIC KNIGHTS of St. Geokge. This order is said to have been instituted 
in Greece, 456. The Angclici were instituted by the emperor Angelus Comnenus, 1191. 
— The Anqelicce, an order of nuns, was founded at Milan by Louisa Torelli, 1534. 

ANGERS (AV. Central France), formerly the Roman city Juliomagus, possessing an amphi- 
Iheatre ; afterwards Andegarum, the capital of the county of Anjou, ^oliicJi see. It was 
frequently besieged, and many councils were held in it between 453 and 1448, relating to 
(^^clesiastical discipline. 

ANGERSTEIN GALLERY. See National Gallery. 

ANGLESEY, called by the Romans Mona (N. Wales), the seat of the Druids, who were 
massacred in great numbers, when Suetonius Paulinus took the isle, 6r. It was conquered 
l)y Agricola, in 78 ; occupied by the Normans, 1090 ; and with the rest of Wales was annexed 
by Edward I. in 1284. He built the fortress of Beaumaris in 1295. The Menai suspension 
Tu'idge was erected 1818-25, ^^'^^ the Britannia tubular bridge 1849-50. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH. See Church of England. 

ANGLING. Its origin is uncertain ; allusion is made to it by the Greeks and Romans, 
and in the Bible; Amos, iv. 2 (787 e.g.) 

Oppian wrote liis " Halieutics," a Greek epic 
poem on Fishes and Fishing, probably about 
A.D. 198. 

In the book on " Ilaickynge and Huntynge," by Juliana 
Berners or Barnes, prioress of Sopwith, near St. 

Albans, " emprinted at Westmestre by Wynkyn 
de Worde," in 1496, is " The Treatise of fyssliyng 
Kith CM Avgle. 
Izaac Walton's "Complcai Angler " was first published 
in 1653. 

ANGLO-SAXONS, or Axgles, derive their name from a village near Sleswick, called 
Anglen, whose population (called Angli by Tacitus,) joined the first Saxon freebooters, 
lilast Anglia was a kingdom of the heptarchy, founded by the xingles, one of whose chiefs, 
Uffa, assumed the title of king, 571 ; the kingdom ceased in 792. See Britain. Cffidmon 
paraphrased part of the Bible in Anglo-Saxon about 680 ; a translation of the gospels was 
made by abbot Egbert, of lona, 721 ; of Boethius, Orosius, &c., by Alfred, 888. The Anglo- 
Saxon laws were printed by order of government, in 1840. 

ANGOLA (S. W. Africa), settled by the Portuguese soon after the discovery, by Diego 
Cam, about i486. Loanda, their capital, was built 1578.- Their authority over the interio]' 
is very limited. 

ANGORA. See Ancyra. 

ANGOULEME, capital of the old province of Angov.mois, Central France, W., was a 
bishopric in 260. After sharing the fortunes of the country, Angouleme became an inde- 
pendent county about 856. It was united to the French crown in 1308. It was held bj' 
the English, 1360 to 1372, in the reign of Edward III. The count of Angouleme became 
king of France as Francis I. in 15 15. 

ANGRIA'S Fort. See India, 1756. 

ANHALT, HotrsE of, in Germany, deduces its origin from Berenthobaldus, whomade 
war upon the Thuringians in the sixth century. In 1606, the principality was divided 
among the four sons of Joachim Ernest, by the eldest, John George. Tims began the four 

I) 2 


lu'imches — Aulialt-Uessau (descended from John-George) ; Beniboiirg,* extinct, 1863 ; 
Plotsgau or Coethen, extinct, 1847 ; and Zerhst, extinct, 1793. The princes of Auhalt 
became dnkes in 1.809. 

Duke OF Anh ALT (SH6jec<,4 181,824). •^«""> 1"'^ ^o"« Pi"'nce Frederic, bom April 29, 

Leopold (born Oct. i, 1794', became duke of Anhalt- 1831. 
Dessau, 1817, and of Aiihalt-Bernbourg 1863. 

ANHOLT, Island of, Denmark, was taken possession of by England, May 18, 1809, in 
the French war, on account of Danish cruisers injuring British commerce. The Danes 
made an attempt to regain it with a force which exceeded 1000 men, but were gallantly 
repulsed by the British force not amounting to more than 150, March 27, 181 1, 

ANILINE, a basic oily body discovered in 1826 by Unverdorben among the products of 
distillation of indigo. Beehamp, in 1856, obtained it from benzole by the successive treat- 
ment of this substance with concentrated nitric acid and reducing agents. The scientific 
relations of aniline have been carefully examined by several chemists, more especially by 
Dr. A. "W. Hofmaun. It was long known to yield a series of coloured compounds, but it was 
only in '1856 that Mr. W. A. Perkin showed how a violet oxidation-product (mauve) could 
be applied in dyeing. Aniline is now manufactured upon a large scale for the commercial 
production of " Mauve" and "Magenta" (rosaniline), and several other colouring matters. 

ANIMALCULiE. Leeuwenhoek's researches in 1677 produced the most astonishing 
revelations. His Arcana Natures was published at Leyden in 1696. The great Avorks of 
Ehrenberg of Berlin, on the Infusorial Animalculre, &c., were issued 1838-57. Pritchard's 
Infusoria, ed. i860, is a valuable summary of oiir present knowledge of animalculfe. 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM was introduced by father Hehl, a Jesuit, at Vienna, about 
1774 ; and had its dupes in France and England in about i7S8-89.t See Mesmerism. 

ANIMALS, Cruelty to. The late Mr. Martin, M.P., as a senator, zealously laboured 
to repress this odious offence ; and a society in London, which was established in 1824, 
effects much good this way. See Crueltij to Animals Society. Jlr. Martin's act passed 
3 Geo. IV. (1822). Similar acts Avere passed in 1827, 1835, 1837, 1849, and 1854. Dogs 
were forbidden to be used for draught by 2 & 3 Vict. c. 47 (1839). 

ANJOU, a province in France, was inherited by Henry II. of England from his father 
Geoffrey Plantagenet, coimt of Anjou, who married the empress Matilda in 1127. It was 
taken from his son John by Philip of France in 1205 ; was reconquered by Edward III., but 
relinquished by him in 1360 ; and Avas given by Charles V. to his brother Louis with the 
title of duke. It afterwards became an appanage of the French croAATi. The \iniversity 
was formed in 1349. 


of Naples, 1433 ; his daughter, Margaret, 
man-led Henry VI. of England, 1445 ; he was 
expelled from Anjou by Louis XL, 1474, and 
his estates confiscated. 
Francis, duke of Alen<;on, brother to Henry IIL 
of France, became duke of Anjou ; at one 
time he favoured the protestants, and vainly 
offered marriage to Elizabeth of England, 
1581-82; died 1584. 

1360. Louis I. invested by the pope with the 

dominions of Joanna of Naples, 1381 ; his 

invading army destroyed by the plague, 1383 ; 

he dies, 1384. 
1384. Louis II., his son, receives the same grant, 

but is also unsuccessful. 
Louis III., adopted by Joanna as heir; dies 

1434. Kegiiier or Renfie (a prisoner) declared king 

ANJOU, OR Beaug:^, Battle of, betAveen the English and French ; the latter com- 
manded by the dauphin of France, March 22, 1421. The English Avere defeated : the duke 
of Clarence was slain by sir Allan Swinton, a Scotch knight, and 1 500 men perished on the 
field ; the earls of Somerset, Dorset, and Huntingdon Avere taken prisoners. Beaug^ was 
the first battle that turned the tide of success against the English. 

ANNAM, OR Anam, an empire of Asia, to the east of India, comprising Tonquin, Cochin 
China, part of Cambodia, and various islands in the Chinese Sea ; said to have been 
conquered by the 234 b.c, and held by them till a.d. 263. In 1406 they recon- 

* Alexander, the last duke of Anhalt-Bernbourg, (bom March 2, 1805 ; duke, March 24, 1834 ;) died 
without issue, Aug. 22, 1863, when his duchy reverted to the duke of Anhalt-Dessau. 

t It was a pretended mode of curing all manner of diseases by means of sympatlietic affection between 
the sick person and the operator. The effect on the patient was supposed to depend on certain motions of 
the fingers and features of the operator, he placing himself immediately before the patient, whose eyes 
were to be fixed on his. After playing in this manner on the imagination and enfeebled mind of the sick, 
and performing a number of distortions and grimaces, the cure was said to be completed. Hehl, for a 
short time associated with Mesmer, but they soon quaiTelled. — Mr. Perkins (who died in 1799) invented 
" Metallic Tractors for collecting, condensing, and applying animal magnetism;" but Drs. Falconer and 
Ilaygarth put an end to his pretensions by performing many wonders with a pair of wooden tractors. 


quered it, but abandoned it in 1428. After mucli anarcliy, bishop Adran, a French 
missionary, obtained the friendship of Louis XVI. for his pupil Gia-long, tlie son of tlie 
nominally reigning monarch, and with the aid of a few of his countrymen established Gia- 
long on the throne, who reigned till his death in 1821, when his sou became king. In 1859 
war broke out with the French, who defeated the arm}' of Annam, 10,000 strong, about 
April 22, when 500 were killed. On June 3, 1S62, peace was made ; three provinces were 
ceded to the French, and toleration of the Christians granted. An insurrection in these 
]>rovinces against the French, begun aboirt Dec. 17, 1862, was suppressed in Feb. 1863. 
Ambassadors sent from Annam with the view of regaining the ceded provinces arrived at 
Paris in Sept. 1863, had no sirccess. A new treaty with France was concluded July 26, 
1864, which established a French protectorate, toleration for Christian missionaries, &c. 

ANNATES. See First Fridls. 

ANNO DOMINI, a.I)., the year of Our Lord, of Grace, of the Incarnation, of the Cir- 
cumcision, and of the Crucifixion (Trabeationis). The Christian era commenced Jau. i, in 
the middle of the 4th year of the 194th Olympiad, the 753rd year of the building of Rome, 
and in 4714 of the Julian period. It is now held that Christ was born Friday, April 5, 
4 B.C. This era was invented by a monk, Dionysius Exiguus, about 532. It was intro- 
duced into Italy in the 6th century, and ordered to be used by bishops by the council of 
Chelsea, in 816, but not generally employed for several centuries. Charles III. of Germany 
was the first who added "in the year of our Lord" to his reign, in 879. 

"ANNOYANCE JURIES," of Westminster, chosen from the householders in conformity 
with 27 Eliz. c. 17 (1585), were abolished in 1861. 

ANNUAL REGISTER, a summary of the history of each year (beginning with 1758, and 
continued to the present time), was commenced by R. & J. Dodsley. (Edmund Burke at 
first wrote the whole work, but afterwards became only an occasional contributor. Prior.) 
The somewhat similar but more elaborate work, the "Annuaire des Deux Mondes," began in 
Paris in 1850. 

ANNUALS, the name given to richly bound volumes, containing poetry, tales, and essays, 
by eminent authors, illustrated by engravings, published annually. They were imitations 
of similar books in Germany, and first appeared in London in 1823. The duration of the 
chief of these publications is here given : 

Forget-me-not (Ackerman's) . . . 1823 — 48 

Friendship's Offering 1824—44 

Literary Souvenir (first as " the Graces ") 1824 — 34 

Amulet 1827—34 

K^eepsake 1828—56 

Hood's Comic Annual 1830 — 38 

ANNUITIES, OR Pensions, were first granted in 15 12, when 20I. were given to a lady 
of the court for services done ; and 61. 13s. 4rZ. for the maintenance of a gentleman, 1536. 
12,1. 6s. 8d. deemed comipetent to support a gentleman in the study of the law, 1554. An 
act was passed empowering the government to borrow one million sterling upon an annuity 
of fourteen per cent., 4 — 6 "Will. & Mary, 1691-3. This mode of borrowing soon afterwards 
became general among civilised governments. An annuity of iZ 2s. iicl. -per annum, accu- 
mulating at loiMT cent, compound interest, amounts in 100 years to 20,oooZ. The Govern- 
ment Annuities and Life Assurances Act was passed in 1864, for the benefit of the Avorking 
classes ; since it enables the government to grant deferred annuities on condition that the 
sum required may be payable in small instalments. 

ANNUITY TAX : a tax levied to provide stipends for ministers in Edinburgh and 
Montrose, and which caused much disafitection, was abolished in i860, and other provisions 
made for the purpose. These, however, have proved equally unpalatable. 

ANNUNCIATION of the Virgin Mary, the 25th of March, Lady-day {wUch see). 
A festival commemorating the tidings brought to Mary by the angel Gabriel [Luke i. 26) : its 
origin is referred variously by ecclesiastical writers to the fourth and seventh century. The 
religious order of the Annunciation was instituted in 1232, and the 'niilitary order, in Savov, 
by Amadeus, count of Savoy in memory of Amadeus I., who had bravely defended Rhodes 
against the Turks, 1355. 

ANOINTING, an ancient ceremony observed at the inauguration of kings, bishops, and 
other eminent personages. Aaron was anointed as high priest, B.C. 1491; and Saul, as king, 
B.C. 1095. Alfred the Great is said to have been the first English king anointed, a.d. 871 ; 
and Edgar of Scotland, 1098. — The religious rite is derived from the epistle oi James, ch. v. 
14, about A.D. 60. Some authors assert that in 550, dying persons, and persons in extreme 
danger of death, were anointed with consecrated oil, and that this was the origin of Extreme 
Unction (one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic church). 

AXO 38 A XT 

ANONYMOUS LETTEIJS. The sending of auoiiymou.s letters denouncing pcrson.s, or 
flemanding moncj', or using threats to obtain money, was made felony by the Black Ael, y 
Geo. I. (1722). ^i:e ThrcateniiKj Letters, 

ANTAJX'IDAS, Tkace of. In 387 n.c. Antalcidas the Lacediemonian made peace witii 
Artaxerxcs of Tersia, strongly in favour of Sjjarta, and generally in favour of Greece, but 
giving up the cities of louia to the king. 

ANTARCTIC POLE, the opposite to the north or arctic pole. See Southern Continent. 

ANTEDILUVIANS. According to the tables of Mr. AVliiston, the nimiber of people in 
the ancient world, as it existed previous to the Flood, reached to the enormous amount of 
549,755 millions in the year of the world 1482.* 

ANTHEMS, OK Hymns (see Hymns). Hilary, bishop of Poictiei-s, and St. Ambrose were 
the first who composed them, about the middle of the foui-th centuiy. Lcnrjlet. They were 
introduced into the church service in 386. Balccr. Ignatius is said to have introduced 
them into the Greek, and St. Ambrose into the Western Church. They were introduced 
into the Reformed churches in queen Elizabeth's reign, about 1565. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI (caters of human flesh) have existed in all ages of the woild. 
Homer says that the Cyclops and Lestrygones were such ; and the Essedonian Scythians 
were so, according to Herodotus. Diogenes asserted that we might as ■\\ell eat the flesh of 
men as that of other animals ; and the practice still exists in Africa and the South Sea 
Islands. The annals of Milan assert that a ililanesc woman, named Elizabeth, had an 
invincible inclination to human flesh ; she enticed children to her house, and killed and 
salted them ; and on a discovery being made, she was broken on the wheel and burnt, in 
15 19. Cannibals were detected in Perthshire about 1339. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY {anthrupos, Greek, man) fur promoting the science of 
man and mankind, held its first meeting on Feb. 24, 1863. Dr. James Himt, president, in 
the chair. The "Anthropological Review" first came out in May, 1863. 

ANTICHRIST (opponent of Christ), the name given by St. John (i Ep. ii. 18) to him 
whom St. Paid calls the Man of Sin (2 Thess. ii. 3), who, as some assert, at the latter end 
of the world, is to appear very remarkably in opposition to Christianity. + 

ANTI-CORN-LAW LEAGUE, an association formed for the purpose of procuring the 
repeal of the laws charging duty on the importation of foreign corn. Sec Corn-Lav:s. 1 L 
sprang from various metropolitan and provincial a.ssociations (1834-8), headed by Messrs. C. 
Yilliers, R. Cobdcn, J. Bright, &c. See Protectionists. 

The Anti-Corn-Law League funned at Man- ; Baziwr at Covent- Garden opened . . Mays, 'S-13 

Chester Sept. 18, 1838 , Great Manchester ineethig, at wliich the 

Meetings held in various places March «fc April, 184X1 League proposed to rai.'jo a (piarter of a 

E.xcited meeting at Manchostcr . May 18, ,, \ million sterling .... Dec. 23, ,. 

A bazaar held at Manchester, at which the . The Corn Imjiortation Bill having passed,. Juno 

League realised lo.oooL . . . Feb. h, 1842' 26 ; the League is formally l?i«»o^4•erf,• and Mr. 

About 600 deputies connected with provincial | t'obden vs'as rewarded by a nationiil suli- 

asRociations assemble in I,oudoxi, J'eb. — Aug. „ ; scription, amounting to nearly 80,000'. 

The League at Manchester proposed to raise ! July 2, 1846 

50,000!., to depute lecturers throughout the -Appointment of the Derby ministry, a revival 

counti-y, and to print pamphlets Oct. 20, „ ' of the Anti-Com-Law League was proposed 

rii-st meeting at Drury-lane Theatre, March 15, 1843 •■ at a meeting held at Manchester, and a sub- 

fecries of monthly meetings at C'ovent-Garden, | scription for the purpose was opened, which 

eommenced Sept. 28; and great free-trade 1 produced withhi half an hour 27, 520?. Mar. 2, i85-j 

meeting .at Manchester Nov. 14, 1843, and [Subsequently, the reconstruction of the League 

Jan. 22, 1845 i was deemed to be unnecessary.] 

* Buniet has supposed that the first human pair might have left, at the end of the first centuiy, ten 
nuirried couples ; ancl from these, allowing them to multiply in the same decuple proportion .as the first 
])nir did, would rise, in 1500 years, a greater number of persons than the e.arth was of holduig. 
He therefore suggc-it.s a quadniplo multiplication only ; and then exhibits the following table of increase 
during the first sixteen centuries that preceded the Flood (at least ten times the present number of 
mankind) :— 

t to I \'. . -,560 

II. . . . . 40 VI. . . T0,2.)0 

III. . i6<3 I Vll. 40,960 
ini 0.40 I VIII. . . iGj, 

t liis reign, it is sui>poseil, \vill eoiitinuo three years and a half, duruig which time there will be a 
persecution. This is the opinion of the Koinaii Catholics ; but the Protestants, as they differ from them, 
so they differ among themselves. Grotius and Dr. Hammond suijposc the time to be past, and the cha- 
racters to be furnished in the jiersons of C.abgula, Simon Magus, .and the Guo.stics. Some have believed 
the pojie to be the true .\ntichrist, as at the council held .at (iap, in 1603. Many consider that the king- 
dom of .\ntiobrist comprchonds all who are ojiposod to ("'hrist, openly or secretly. 

M. . 



. 10,485,760 


XIV. . 

XV. . 



• =,''84,354,560 

Xll. . 

■ • 41,943,040 


• '0,7371418,240 


ANTIETAM CREEK, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, IT. S. Here was fought a terrible, 
battle on Sept. 17, 1862, between the Federals under general M'Clellan and the Confederates 
tinder Lee. The latter after his Adctory at Bull Hun or Manassas, Aug. 30, having invaded 
Maryland, was immediately followed by M'Clellan. On the l6th Lee was joined by Jackson, 
and at five o'clock next morning the conflict began. About 100,000 men were engaged, and 
the conflict raged with great fury from daylight to dark. The Federals were repeatedlv 
repulsed ; but eventually "the Confederates retreated and repassed the Potomac on Sept. iS 
and 19. The loss of the Federals was estimated at 12,469 ; of the Confederates, 14,000. 

ANTIGUA, a West India Island, discovered by Columbus in Nov. 1493 ; settled by ths 
English in 1632 ; made a bishopric, 1842. Poiralation in 1861, 36,412. 

ANTILLES, an early name of the West Indies, ^cMcJi sec. 

ANTIMONY, a white brittle metal. Compounds of this mineral were early known, and 
a[)plied. It was used as paint to blacken both men's and women's eyes, as appears from 
2 kinr/s ix. 30, and Jeremiah iv. 30, and in eastern countries it is used to this day. When 
mixed with lead it forms printing type metal. Basil Yalentine wrote on antimony about 
1 4 10. Priestley. 

ANTINOMIANS (from the Gree\ anti, against, and 7iomos, law), a name given by Luther 
(in 1538) to John Agricola, who is said to have held "that it mattered not how wicked a 
man Avas if he had but faith." (Opposed to Rom. iii. 28, and v. i, 2). He retracted in 
1540. Tliese doctrines were condemned by the British parliament, 1648. 

ANTIOCH, Syria, built by Seleucus, 300 B.C., after the battle of Ipsus, in such grandeur 
as to acquire the name " Queen of the East." Here the disciples were first called Christians, 
A.D. 42 (Acti xi. 26). Antioch was taken by the Persians, 540 ; by the Saracens about 638 ; 
recovered for the Eastern emperor, 966 ; lost again in 1086 ; retaken by the Crusaders in 
1098, and held by them till 1268, when it was captured by the Sultan of Egj'pt. It was 
taken from the Turks in the Syrian war, Aug. i, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, but restored at the 
peace.— The Era of Antioch is much used by tlie early Christian writers of Antioch and 
Alexandria ; it placed the Creation 5492 years r.c. 

ANTIPODES. Plato is said to be the first who thought it possible that antipodes existed 
(about 368 B.C.). Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, legate of pope Zachary, is said to have 
tleuounced a bishop as a heretic for maintaining this doctrine, a.d. 741. The antipodes of 
England lie to the south-east of New Zealand, near Antipodes Island. BrooJces. 

ANTI-POPES, rival popes elected at A-arious times, especially by the French and Italian 
factions, from 1305 to 1439. In the article Popes, the Anti-popes are printed in italics, 

ANTIQUAEIES. A college of antiquaries is said to have existed in Ireland 700 
years b.c. 

A society was founded by arclibishop Parker, Cam- 
den, Stow, and others in 1572. Spelman. 

Ai-iplication was made in 1589 to Elizabeth for a 
charter, but her death ensued, and her successor, 
James I., was far from favouring ihe design. 

The Society of Antiquaries revived, 1707 ; received 
its charter of incorporation from George II., 1751 ; 
and apartments in Somerset-house granted to it 
in 1777. Its Memoirs, entitled Archwologia, first 
published in 1770; present jji-esident, earl Stan- 
hoj)e, elected, 1846. 

Biitish Archa3ological Association founded Dee. 

1843; the Archajological Institute of Great 

Britain was formed by a seceding part of the 

Association, 1845. Journals are published by 

both societies. 
Society of Antiquaries of Edinbui'gh founded in 

Since 1845 many county archaeological societies 

have been formed in the United Kingdom. 
The Society of Antiquaries of France (1814) began iu 

1005 as the Celtic Academy. 

ANTI-TRINITARIANS. Theodotus of Byzantium is supposed to have been the first 
who advocated the simple humanity of Jesus, at the close of the second century. _ This 
doctrine, advocated by Arius about 318, spread widely after the Reformation, when it was 
adopted by Ltelius and Faustus Socinus. Bayle. See Atians, Socinians, Unitarians. 

ANTIUM, maritime city of Latium, now Porto d'Anzio, near Rome, after a long struggle 
ibr independence, became a Roman colony, at the end of the great Latin war, 340-338 e.g. 
Tt was mentioned by Horace, and was a favourite retreat of the emperors and wealthy 
Romans, who erected many villas in its vicinity. The treasures deposited in the temple of 
Fortune here were taken by Octavius Cjesar during his war with Antony, 41 b. c. 

AKTWERP, the principal sea-port of Belgium, is mentioned in history in A.D. 517. It 




Wi\s a small republic in the cleventli century, 
till the wars of the i6th and 17th centuries. 

Its fine exchange built in 1531 j 

Taken after a long siege by the prince of Pai-ma 1 585 j 
Truce of Antwerp (between Spain and United 

Provinces) 1609 

Much injured by the imposition of a toll on the [ 

Scheldt by the treaty of Mtinster . . . 1648 | 
After Marlborough's victory at Ramillies, 

Antwerp sm-renders without firing a shot j 

June 6, 1706 ' 
The Ban-ier treaty concluded here Nov. 16, 1715 ! 
Taken by marshal Saxe ...... 1746 

Occupied by the French . . 1792-3,1794-1814 

Civil war between the Belgians and the House 

of Orange. See Belgium . . . 1830-31 

The Belgian troops, having entered Antwerp, 

were opxJosed by the Dutch garrison, who. 

It was the first commercial city in Europe 

after a dreadful conflict, being driven into 
the citadel, cannonaded the town with red- 
hot balls and shells, doing immense mischief 

Oct. 27, 1830 
The citadel bombarded by the French, Dec. 4 ; 

suiTcndered by gen. Chas.s^ . . Dec. 23, 1832 
The exchange burnt ; and valuable archives, 

&c. destroyed .... Aug.' 2, 1858 

Proposal to strengthen the fortifications adopted 

Aug. 1859 
A Fine Art fete held . . . Aug. 17-20 1861 
j Groat Napoleon wharf destroyed by fire, loss 25 
t lives and about 400,000/. . . Dec. 2 „ 

Great fete at the opening of the port by the 
aboUtion of the Scheldt dues . . Aug. 3, 1863 

APATITE, mineral plios])hate of lime. About 1856 it began to be largely employed as 
manure. It is abundant in Norway, and in Sombrero, a small West India island. 

APOCALYPSE, OE Rea'ELATion, written by St. John in the isle of Patmos about 95. 
Ircnceus. Some ascribe the authorship to Cerinthus, the heretic, and others to John, 
the presbyter, of Ephesus. In the first centuries many churches disowned it, and in the 
fourth century it was excluded from the sacred canon by the council of Laodicea, but was 
again received by other councils, and confirmed by that of Trent, held in 154S, et seq. 
Although the book has been rejected by Luther, Michaelis, and others, and its authority 
questioned in all ages, from the time of Justin Martyr (who wrote his first Apology for 
the Christians in a.d. 139), yet its canonical authority is still almost universally ac- 

APOCRYPHA. In the preface to the Apocrypha it is said, " These books are neyther 
found in the Hebrue nor in the Chalde." JBiblc, 1539. The history of the Apocrypha 
ends 135 B.C. The books were not in the Jewish canon, were rejected at the council of 
Laodicea aboxit A.D. 366, but were received as canonical by the Roman Catliolic church, at 
the council of Trent on April 8, 1546. Parts of the Apocrypha are read as lessons by 
the Anglican church. 

1 Esdras, from about B.c 

2 Esdras ,, 

Judith „ 

445 I Wisdom of Solomon . . * * 
, . . * * Ecclesiasticus (John) 300 or 180 
, . . 734-678 Baruch . . . * * . 

„ . . 656 Song of the Three Children * * 

, • . . 510 I History of Susannah . * . * ; 

There are also Apocryphal writings in connection with the New Testament. 

Bel and the Dragon . . * * 
Prayer of Manasses b. c. 676 

1 Maccabees, about . . 323-135 

2 Maccabees, from about . 187-161 

APOLLINARISTS, followers of ApoUinaris, a reader in the church of Laodicea, who taught 
(366) that the divinity of Christ was instead of a soul to him ; that his flesh was pre- 
existent to his appearance upon earth, and that it was sent down from heaven, and conveyed 
through the Virgin, as through a channel ; that there were two sons, one born of God, the 
other of tlie Virgin, &c. These opinions were condemned by the council of Constanti- 
nople, 381. 

APOLLO, the god of the fine arts, medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, had many 
temples and statues erected to him, particularly in Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His most 
splendid temple was at Delphi, built 1263 13. c. See Delphi. His temple at Daphne, built 
434 B. c. , during a period in which pestilence raged, was burnt A. x>. 362, and the Christians 
were accused of tlie crime. LengleL The statue of Apollo Belvedere, discovered in the 
remains of Autium, in Italy, in 1503, was purchased by pope Julius II., who placed it in 
the Vatican. 

APOTyLONlCON", an elaborate musical instrument, constructed on the principle of the 
organ, was invented by Messrs. Flight and Robsou, of St. Martin's lane, Westminster, and 
exhibitedby tliem first in 1817, Timbs. 

APOSTLES (Greek cqmstolos, one sent forth). Twelve were appointed by Christ, 31 ; 
viz. Simon Peter and Andrew (brothers), James and John (sons of Zebedee), PhUip, Nathanael 
(or Bartholomew), Matthew (Levi), Thomas, James the Less (son of Alphfeus), Simon the 
Canaanite and Jude or Thaddseus (brothers), and Judas Iscariot. Matthias was elected in 
the room of Judas Iscariot, 33 {Acts \.) ; aud Paul and Barnab;is were appointed by the Holy 
Spirit, A.D. 45 {Acts xiii. 2). 


APOSTLES' CREED, a summary of the Christian faith, attributed to the apostles, is 
mentioned by Ruffinus, 390, and is generally believed to have been gradually composed 
a great while after their time. Irenseus, bishop of Lyons (a.d. 177), gives a similar creed. 
Its repetition in piTblic worship was ordained in the Greek church at Autioch, and in the 
Roman church in the nth century, whence it passed to the Church of England. 

APOSTOLICI, a sect which arose at the end of the 2nd century ; they renounced 
marriage, wine, flesh, meats, &c. A second sect was founded by Segarelli about 126 1. 
They wandered about, clothed in white, with long beards, dishevelled hair, and bare heads, 
accompanied by women wliora they called their spiritual sisters, preaching against the 
growing corruption of the church of Rome, and predicting its downfall. They renounced 
baptism, the mass, purgatory, &c., and by their enemies are accused of gross licentiousness. 
Segarelli was burnt alive at Parma in 1300 during a crusade against his followers, who w-ere 
all dispersed in 1307. 

APOTHECARY (literally a keeper of a storehouse). On Oct. 10, 1345, EdAvard III. 
settled six pence ^jer diem for life on Coursus de Gaugeland, " Apothecarius London," iov 
taking care of him during his severe illness in Scotland. Rymer's Fcadcra. Apothecaries 
were exempted from serving on juries or other civil offices in 1712. The London Apothecaries' 
Company was separated from the Grocers' and incorporated 1617. Their hall was built in 
1670 ; and then- practice regulated and their authority extended over all England, by 55 
Geo. III. c. 19 (1815), amended by 6 Geo. IV. c. 133 (1825). The Botanical Gardenat 
Chelsea was left by sir Hans Sloane to the company of Apothecaries, Jan. 1753, on condition 
of their introducing every year fifty new plants, until their number should amount to 2000. 
The Dublin guild was incorporated, 1745. See Plmrmacij. 

APOTHEOSIS, a ceremony of the ancient nations of the world, by which they raised 
their kings and heroes to the rank of deities. The deifying a deceased emperor was begun at 
Rome by Augustus, in favoiu- of Julius Ceesar, B.C. 13. TilUmont. 

APPEAL, OR Assize op Battle. By the old laAV of England, a man charged with 
murder might fight with the appellant, thereby to make proof of his guilt or innocence. In 
1 81 7, a young maid, Mary Ashford, Avas believed to have been violated and murdered by 
Abraham Thornton, who, in an appeal, claimed his right by his Avager of battle, which the 
court alloAved ; but the appellant (the brother of the maid) refused the challenge, and the 
accused escaped, April 16, 1818. This laAV was immediately afterwards struck fi-om oft" the 
statute-book, by 59 Geo. III. (1819). 

APPEALS. In the time of Alfred (a.d. 869-901), appeals lay from courts of justice to the 
king in council ; but being soon overwhelmed Avith appeals from all parts of England, he 
framed the body of laAVs Avhich long served as the basis of English jurisprudence. The house 
of lords is the highest court of appeal in civil causes. Courts of appeal at the Exchequer 
Chamber, in error from the judgments of the King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, 
Avere regulated by statutes in 1830 and 1831. Appeals from English tribunals to the pope 
were first introduced about 1151 ; Avere long vainly opposed, and Avere finally abolished by 
Henry VIII. in 1534. See Privy Council. 

APPENZELL, a Swiss canton, thrcAV off the feudal supremacy of the abbots of St. Gall 
early in the 15th century, and became the thirteenth member of the Swiss confederation 
ill 1513- 

APPIAlSr "WAY, an ancient Roman road, made by Appius Claudius Csecus, Avhile 
censor, 312 B.C. 

APPLES. Several kinds are indigenous to England ; but those in general use have been 
brought at various times from the continent. Richard Harris, fruiterer to Henry VIIL, is 
said to have planted a great number of the orchards in Kent, and Lord Scudamore, ambas- 
sador to France in the reign of Charles I., planted many of those in Herefordshii'e. Ray 
reckons 78 varieties of apples in his day (1688). 

APPRAISERS. The valuation of goods for another was an early business in England ; 
and so early as 1283, by the statute of merchants, "it Avas enacted that if they valued tlie 
goods of parties too high, the appraisers should take them at such price as they have limited. " 
In 1845 their annual licence Avas raised from los. to 405. 

APPRENTICES. Those of London Avere obliged to Avear Wue cloaks in summer, and 
blue gOAvns in Avinter, in the reign of queen Ehzabeth, 1558. Ten pounds Avas then a great 
apprentice fee. From tAventy to one hundred pounds Avere given in the reign of James I. 
Stow's Survey. The apprentice tax, enacted 43 Geo. III. 1802. An act for the protection 


of apprentices, &c., was passed in 1851, The term of seven years, not to expire till tlio 
apprentice was 24 years old, required by the statute of Elizabeth (1563), was abolished in 
1814. The apprentices of London have been at times very riotous ; they rose into insurrection 
against foreigners on Evil May-day, which see. 

APPIIOPEIATION CLAUSE, or the Irish Tithe Bill of 1835, brought fonvard by lord 
John Russell, whereby any snijilus revenue that might accrue by the Avorking of the act was 
to be appi'opriated for the education of all classes of the peojile. The clause was adopted by 
the commons but rejected by the loids in 1835 and 1836, whereupon it was totally 

APPROPRIATIONS (property taken from the church), began in the time of William I., 
the parochial clergy being tlien commonly Saxons, and the bishojis and higher clergy 
Normans. These impoverished the inferior clergy to enrich monasteries, which Avem 
generally possessed by the concpieror's friends, Wliei'e the churches and titlies were so 
appropriated, the vicar had only such a com])etency as the bishop or superior thought lit ti> 
iiUow. Pope Alexander IV. complained of this as the bane of religion, the destruction of 
the church, and a poison that had infected tlie A\hole nation. Pardon. 

APRICOT, Primus Armoiiaca, iirst planted in England about 1540, by the'gardener of 
Henry \lll. It originally came from Asia ilinor. 

APRIL, the fourtli month of our year, the second of the ancient Romans. 

APTERYX (wingless), a bird, a native of New Zealand, first brought to this country in 
1813, and deposited in the collection of the earl of Derby. Fossil specimens of a gigantic 
species of this bird (named Uuiornis) were discovered in New Zealand by Mr. Walter llantcll 
in 1843, and since. 

APULIA, a province in S. E. Italy, conquered liy the Normans, whose leader Guiscard 
leceived the title of duke of Apulia from pope Nicholas II. in 1059. After man)' changes 
of masters, it was absorbed into the kingdom of Naples, in 1265. 

AQUARII, a sect said to have been founded by Tatian in the 2nd century, who forbore 
the use of wine even in the sacrament, and used nothing but water, during persecution when 
they met secretly in the night, for fear of discovery. For this they Averc censured by 
Cyprian (martyred 258). 

AQUARIUM on AciUAVivArJU.\r, a vessel containing water (marine or fresh) in which 
animals and plants may co-exist, mutually supporting each other ; snails being introduced 
as scavengers. In 1S49, Mr. N. B. Ward succeeded in growing sea-weeds in artificial sea- 
water ; in 1850, Mr. R. Warington den^onstrated the conditions necessary for the growth of 
animals and plants in jars of water ; and in 1853 the glass tanks in the Zoological Gardens, 
Regent's Park, were set up under the skilful direction of Mr. D. Mitchell. In 1854, Mr. 
Gosse published "The Aquarium." Mr. W. Alford Lloyd, late of Portland-road, Loudon, 
by his enterprise in collecting specimens did much to increase the value and interest of 
aquaria. The great aquarium (50 yards long and 12 wide) at the Jardin d'Acclimatation at 
Paris, was constructed under his direction in i860. 

AQUATINT. See Engraving. 

AQUEDUCT, an artificial Avatercourse on an inclined ])liuie. No remains of Greek 
aqueducts exist. Appius Claudius advised and constnicted the first Roman aqueduct, as well 
as the Aj}2nan way, about 312 B.C. Aqueducts of every kind were among the wonders of 
Rome. Livy. There are now some remarkable aqueducts in Europe : that at Lisbon is of 
great extent and beauty ; that at Segovia has 129 arches ; and that at Versailles is three 
miles long, and of immense height, with 242 arches in three stories. The stupendous 
aqueduct on the EUesmere canal, in England, is 1007 feet in length, and 126 feet high ; it 
was completed by T. Telford, and opened Dec. 26, 1805. The Lisbon aqueduct was com- 
pleted in 1738, and the Croton aqueduct, near New York, was constructed between 1837 and 
1842. The aqueduct to supply Marseilles with water was commenced in 1830. 

AQUILEIA (Istria), made a Roman colony about 180 B.C., and fortified a.d. 168. 
Constantine II. Avas slain in a battle with Constans, fought at Aipiileia towards the close of 
^larch 340. Maximus defeated and slain bj^ Theodosius, near Aquileia July 28, 388. 
Theodosius defeated Eugenius and x\rbogastcs, the Gaul, near Aquileia, and remained sole 
emperor, Sept. 6, 394. Eugenius was ]>ut to death, and Arbogastes died by his own hand, 
mortified by his overthroAV. St. ^\mbrose held a synod here in 381. In 452 Aquileia Avas 
almost totally destroyed by Attila the Hun, and near it in 489 Theodoric and the Ostrogoths 
totally defeated Odoacer, the king of Italy. 


AQUITAINE, <a province (S.W. Friincc). Subdued by the Yisigotlis, 418, iuid taken 
IVoni them by Clovis in 507. Henry II. of England inherited it from his mother, 1152. It^vas 
erected into a principality for Edivard the Black Prince in 1362 ; but was annexed to France 
in 1370. The title of duke of Aquitaine was taken by the crown of England on the 
com [uest of this duchy by Henry V. in 141 8. The province was lost in the reign of Henry A" 1 . 

AlJzVBIA (W. Asia). The terms Pdrcca (stony), FdU (happy), and Dcserla are said to 
have been applied to its divisions by Ptolemy, abont A.D. 140. The Arabs claim descent 
JVom Ishmael, the eldest son of Abraham, born 19 10 B.C., Gen. xvi. The country was unsnc- 
cessfully invaded by Gallus, the Roman governor of Egypt, 24 B.C. In a.d. 622, the Arabians 
under the name of Saracens, followers of Mahomet (born at Mecca, 570), their general and 
proxihet, commenced their course of conquest. See Maliomctanism. The Arabs greatly favoured 
literature and the sciences, especially mathematics, astronomy, and chemistry. To them we 
owe our ordinary numerals and arithmetical notation. The Koi'an was written in Arabic 
^622-632). The Bible was printed in Arabic in 1671. 

ARABIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAINMENTS (or looi Tales) were translated into French 
by tialland, and published in 1704 ; but their authenticity was not acknoAvlcdged till many 
years after. The best English translation from the Arabic is that of Mr. E. W. Lane, pub- 
lished in 1839, with valuable notes and beautiful illustrations. 

ARABICI, a sect which sprung up in Arabia, whose distinguishing tenet was, that the 
soul died with the body, and rose again with it, 207. 

ARAGON, part of the Roman Tarraconensis, a kingdom, N. E. Spain. It was 
conquered by the Carthaginians, who were expelled by the Romans abont 200 B.C. It jiar- 
took of the fortunes of the country, but became an independent monarchy in 1035. Sec 
under /S^jauz. 

ARAM, the ancient name of Syria, wlikh sec. 

ARANJ UEZ (Central Sxiain), contains a fnie royal palace, at which several important 
treaties were concluded. On March 17, 1808, an insurrection broke out here against Charles 
IV. and bis favourite, Godoy, the prince of peace. The former was compelled to abdicate in 
favour of his son, Ferdinand VII. 

ARBELA. The third and decisive battle between Alexander the Great and Darius 
Codomanus decided the fate of Persia, Oct. i, 331 B.C., on a plain in A.ssyria, between Arbela 
and Gaugamela. The army of Darius consisted of 1,000,000 foot and 40,000 horse; the 
Macedonian army amounted to only 40,000 foot and 7000 horse. Airian. The gold and 
silver found in the cities of Susa, Persepolis, and Babylon, Avhich fell to Alexander from thin 
victory, amounted to thirty millions sterling ; and the jewels and other precious spoil, 
belonging to Darius, sufficed to load 20,000 mules and 5000 camels. Plutarch. 

ARBITRATION. Submission to arbitration was authorised and made equivalent in 
Ibice to the decision of a jxiry, by 9 & 10 "Will. III. (1698). Submissions to arbitration may 
be made rules of an}^ court of laAV or equity, and arbitrators may compel the attendance of 
Avitnesses, 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 42 (1833). See Ouzel Galley. The Common Law Procedure 
Act (1854) authorises the jxidges of su]5erior courts to order compulsory arbitration ; and, by 
an act passed in 1859, railway companies may settle disputes with each other by arbitration. 

ARBUTUS. The Arluius And recline, oriental strawberry-tree, was brought to England 
from the Levant about 1 724. 

ARCADES, OR Walks arched over. The principal in London are the Burlington - 
arcade, opened in March, 1819 ; and the Lowther-arcade, Strand, opened at the period of the 
Strand improvements. See Strand. Exeter Change, London, Avas rebuilt and opened in 
1845. See Exeter Change. The Royal-arcade, Dublin, opened June, 1820, ivas burnt to the 
ground, April 25, 1837. 

ARCADIA, in the centre of the Peloponnesus, Grcci'C. The Ai'cadians regarded their 
nation as the most ancient of Greece, and older than the moon (Proselsnl, which word 
Doderlein conjectures to mean Pre-Hellenic). They were more simple in their manners and 
moderate in their desires than the other Greeks, from whom they were separated by 
mountains. Pelasgus is said to Lave taught them to feed on acorns, as being more nutritious 
tiian herbs, their foi'mer food ; for which they honoured him as a god, 152 1 B.C. Arcadia 
bad twenty-fivo kings, wlioso history is altogether faltuloun. 

is abolished by the Thebans ; Megalopolis 

founded by Epaminondas 371 

The Arcadians make alliance with Athens, and 
arc defeated bj' Archidamus .... 367 


ARCADIA (continued). 

Magna Gvfecia, in S. Italy, said to have been I beaten by the women of the country, in the 

colonised by Arcadians under CEnotrus, about | absence of their husbands (?) . . B.C. 

1710 B.C. ; and under Evander . . B.C. 1240 1 Ari.stocrates I. (of Orchomenus) is put to death 

Pelasgus begins his reign 1521 for offering violence to the priestess of Diana 

Supposed institution of the Lupercalia, in Aristocrates II. stoned to death, and a republic 
honour of Jupiter by Lycaon ; reigned. . 1514 established 

Areas, from whom the kingdom received its | The supremacy of Sparta (acknowledged 560 1 

name, and who taught his subjects agricul- 
ture and the art of spinning wool . . . 1514 

Lyciean games instituted, in honour of Pan . 1320 

Agapenor appears at the head of the Ai'cadians 
at the siege of Troy (Homer) .... 1194 I Arcadia, having joined the Achsean league, on 

The Lacedajmonians iuvade Arcadia, and arc its suppression becomes part of the Roman 

I empire 146 

ARCH, It a]"iiieavs in early Egyptian and Assyrian architecture. The oldest arch in 
Europe is probably in the Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, constnicted under the early kings, 
about 588 B.C. The Chinese bridges, which are very ancient, are of gi'eat magnitude, aud 
are built with stone arches similar to those that have been considered a Roman invention.* 
The Triumphal arches of the Romans formed a leading feature in their architecture. The 
arch of Titus (a.d. 80), that of Trajan (114), and that of Coustantine (312), were magnificent. 
The arches in our parks in London were erected about 1828. The JMarble Arch, which 
formerly stood before Buckingham Palace (whence it was removed to Cumberland-gate, 
Hyde Park, in 185 1) was modelled from the arch of Constantiue. See Hyde Park. 

ARCHANGEL (N. Russia), a city, is thus named from a nionasteiy founded here, and 
dedicated to St.' Michael in 1584. The jjassage to Archangel was discovered by the English 
navigator Richard Chancellor in 1553, and it was the only seaport of Russia till the formation 
of the docks at Cronstadt, aud foundation of St. Petersburg in 1703. The dreadful fire here 
by which the cathedral and upwards of 3000 houses were destroyed, occurred in June, 1793. 

ARCHBISHOP (Greek archiepisco2>os), a title given in the 4th and 5th centmies to the 
bishops of chief cities, such as Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople, who pre- 
sided over the other metropolitans and bishops in the districts attached to those places. The 
word is first found in the Apology against the Arians by Athanasius, who died 373. The 
Eastern archbishops have since been styled j^air/arc/w.f Riddle. 

ARCH-CHAMBERLAIN. The elector of Brandenburg was appointed the hereditary 
arch-chamberlain of the German Empire by the golden bull of Charles IV. iu 1356, and in 
that quality he bore the sceptre before the emperor. 

ARCH-CHANCELLORS M-ere appointed under the two first races of the kings of France 
C418 — 986), and when their territories were divided, the archbishops of Mentz, Cologne, and 
Treves became arch-chancellors of Germany, Italy, and Aries. 

ARCHDEACON. The name was early given to the first or eldest deacon, who attended 
on the bishop without any power ; but since the council of Nice, his function is become a 
dignity, aud set above that of priest, though anciently it was quite otherwise. The ap- 
pointment in these countries is referred to 1075. There ai'e seventy-one archdeacons iu 
England (1865), and thirty- three in Ireland. The archdeacon's court is the lowest in eccle- 
siastical polity : an appeal lies from it to the consistorial court, by 24 Henry VIII. (1532), 

* The new bridge of Chester, whose span is 200 feet, was commenced in 1829. The central arch of 
London Bridge is 152 feet ; and the three cast iron arches of Southwark bridge, which rest on massive stone 
piers and abutments are, the two side ones 210 feet each, and the centre 240 feet : thus the centre arch 
exceeds the admired bridge of Sunderland by four feet iu the span, and the long-famed Rialto at Venice, 
by 167 feet. See Bridges. 

t In these realms the dignity is nearly coeval with the establishment of Christianity. Before the 
S.axons came into England there were three sees : London, York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk ; but soon after 
the arrival of St. Austin he settled the metropolitan see at Cantei'bm-.y, 602. See CanUrbunj. Vork 
continued archiepiscopal ; but London and Caerleon lost the dignity. Caeileon was found, previously, to 
be too near the dominions of the Saxons ; and iu the time of King Arthur the archbishopric was transferred 
to St. David's, of which St. Sampson was the 26th and last Welsh archbishoii. See St. David's. The 
bishoprics in Scotland were under the jurisdiction of the archbishop of York until the erection of the 
archiepiscopal sees of St. Andrew's and Glasgow, in 1470 and 1491; these last were discontinued at the 
Revolution. Seo Glasgow and St. Andreic's. The bishop of Moray, &c., is now (1865) styled /"ruaMS. The 
rank of archbishop was of early institution in Ireland. See Ferns. Four archliishoprics were constituted 
in Ireland, 1151, namely, Armagh, CAshel, Dublin, and Tuam ; until then the archbishop of Canterbur\- 
had jurisdiction over the Irish as well as English bishops, in like manner as the archbishop of York had 
jurisdiction over those of Scotland. Of these four archbishoprics two were reduced to bishoprics, namely, 
Cashel, and Tuam, conformably with the statute 3 & 4 Will. IV. 1833, by which also the number of sees in 
Ireland was to be reduced (as the incumbents often of them respectively died) from twenty- two to twelve, 
the present numbe;-. See i?(i/io^«, C'li.sAci, Taam ; Fuliium, dc. 




AIICIIERY. Plato ascribes the invention to Apollo, by whom it was communicated to 
the Cretans. Ishmael "became an archer" {Gen. xxi. 20), 1892 b.o. The Philistine 
archers overcame Saul (i Sam. xxxi. 3), 1055 B.C. David commanded the use of the bow 
to be taught (2 Sam. i. 18). Aster of Amphipolis, having been slighted by Philip, king of 
Macedon, at the siege of Methone, 353 B.C., shot an arrow, on which was written " Aimed 
at Philip's right eye," which struck it and put it out ; Philip threw back the arrow with 
these Avords : "If Philip take the town, Aster shall be hanged." The conqueror kept his 

Archery introduced into England previously to 

Harold and his two brothers were killed by 
aiTOws shot from the cross-bows of the Nor- 
man soldiers at the battle of Hastings in 

Richard I. revived archery in England in iigo, 
and was himself killed by an arrow in . 

The victories of Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356), 
and Agincourt (141 5), were won chiefly by 

Fom- thousand -archers surrounded the houses 

of parliament, ready to shoot the king and 
the members, 21 Richard II. (Stmo.) 

The citizens of London formed into com- 
panies of archers in the reign of Edward 
III. ; and into a-corporate body by the style 
of " The Fraternity of St. George," 29 Henry 

Roger Ascham's " Toxopldlus, the School of 
Shooting," published in . . . 

See Artilkry Company, Toxophilites, d:c. 


ARCHES, Court of, the most ancient consistory court, chiefly a court of appeal from 
inferior jurisdictions within the province of Canterbury ; it derives its name from the church 
of St. Mary-le-Bow {Sanda Maria de Arcuhun), London, where it was held ; and whose top 
is raised on stone pillars built archwise. Cowell. Appeals from this court lie to the judicial 
committee of the privy council, by statute, 1832. 

ARCHITECTURE (from the Greek arcJii-tekion, chief artificer), ornamental building. 
The five gi'eat orders of architecture are, — the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian {Greek} ; — the 
Tuscan and Composite {Roman). The Gothic began to prevail in the ninth century. See 
the Orders res'pectively and GotMc. 

The Pyramids of Egypt, begtm about . B.C. 1500 

Solomon's Temple, begun 1004 

Birs Nimrond, in Assyi'ia about . . . 900 

.The Doric order begins about . . . . 650 

Doric Temple at Jigina 550 

Temple of Jupiter and Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, 

founded 616 

Babylon built 600 

The Ionic order begins about . . . 500-420 
The Corinthian order begins . . . .33s 
Choragic Monument of Lysikrates . . . 335 
Architecture flourishes at Athens . . 480-320 
Erechtheum at Athens 450-420 

The Parthenon finished . . . .B.C. 438 

The Pantheon, &c. , built at Rome . a.d. 13 
The Colosseum (or Coliseum) .... 70 

Hadrian builds temples at Rome, &c. . . . 117 

Diocletian's palace at Spalatro .... 284 

Basilicas at Rome ...... 330-900 

St. Sophia, at Constantinople, begun . . 532 
Rock-cut temples in India— Caves of EUora . 500-800 
Canterbury cathedral, founded . . . . 602 

Mosque of Omar, at Jerusalem .... 637 

York Minster, begun about 741 

St. Peter's, Rome 1450-1626 

St. Paul's, London 1675-1710 


Vitruvius, about . 

Born. Died. 
B.C. 27 


William of Wickham . 1324—1405 
Michael Angelo Buo- 
narotti . . . 1474 — 1564 

A. PaUadio 
Inigo Jones . 
Bernini . 
Christopher Wren 
J. Vanbrugh 

Bom. Died. | 

. 1518 — 1580 James Gibbs . 

. 1572 — 1652 R. and J. Adams. 

. 1598— 1680 A. W. Pugin . 

. 1632 — 1723 C. Barry 

. 1670 — 1726 1 

Boi-n. Died. 

■ 1674— 1754 
. 1728— 1794 
. 1811 — 1852 
• 179s — i860 

An Architectural Club was formed in 1791. An Architectural Society existed in London in 1808. 
The Royal Institute of British Architects was founded in 1834— Earl de Grey, president, 1835-61. 
The Architectural Society, estabUshed in 1831, was united to the Institute in 1842. The Architectural 
Association began about 1846. 

ARCHON'S. "When royalty was abolished at Athens, in memory of king Codrus, killed in 
battle, 1044 B.C. (or 1070), the executive government was vested in elective magistrates 
called archons, whose oflice continued for life. Medon, eldest son of Codrus, was the first 
archon. The office was limited to ten years, 752 B.C., and to one year 683 B.C. 

ARCOLA (Lombardy), the site of battles between the French under Bonaparte, and the 
Austrians under field-marshal Alvinizi, fought Nov. 15 — 17, 1796. The result was the loss 
on the part of the Austrians of 18,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners, four flags, 
and eighteen guns. The loss of the French was estimated at 15,000. They became masters 
of Italy. In one of the contests Bonaparte was in most imminent danger, and was only 
rescued by the impetuosity of his troops. 

• The long-low was six feet long, and the aiTow three feet ; the usual range from 300 to 500 yards. 
Robin Hood is said to have shot from 600 to 800 yards. A Persian hero, Arish, is sfcited to have shot over 
between 400 and 500 miles, as related by Ferdousi ! The cross-bow was fixed to a stock, and discharged 
with a trigger. 


ARCOT (East Indies). Tlii« city (fonndecl 1716) was taken by colonel Clive, Aug. 31, 
1751 ; was retaken, but again surrendered to colonel C'oote, Feb. 10, 1760. Besieged by 
llyder All, when the British under colonel Baillie suffered severe defeats, Sept. 10 and 
Oct. 31, 1780. Arcot has been subject to Great Britain since i8or. See India. 

ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. See Korth-West Passage and FranUins EvjiedUion. 

ARDAGH, an ancient prelacy in Ireland, founded by St. Patrick, who made his nephew, 
^lell, the first bishop, previously to 454. This prelacy was formerly held with Kilmore ; but 
.since 1742 it has been held iii commendam with Tuam (vhicli see). It was united with 
Kilmore in 1839, and with Elphin in 1841. 

ARDFERT and AGHADOE, bishopricks in Ireland long united ; the former was called 
the bishoprick of Kerry ; Ert presided in the 5th century. William Fuller appointed in 
1663, became bishop of Limerick in 1667, .since when Ardfert and Aghadoe have been united 
to that prelacy. Near the cathedral an anchorite tower, 120 feet high, the loftiest and finest 
in the kingdom, suddenly fell, 1770. 

ARDOCH. See Grampians. 

AREIOPAGUS OR AREOPAGUS, a venerable Greek tribunal, .said to have heard causes 
in the dark, because the judges should be blind to all but facts, instituted at Athens about 
1507 B.C. Arund. Marbles. The name is derived from the Greek Arieos pagos, the hill of 
Mars, through the tradition that Mars was the iirst who was tried there for the murder of 
Ilalirrhotius, who had violated his daughter Alcippe. The powers of this court were enlarged 
by Solon, about 594 i;.r., biit diminished by the jealousy of Pericles, 461 B.C. Paul preaclied 
on Mars' hill, .v.i). 52 {Acts xvii.). 

AREZZO, near the ancient Arretium, or Aretinum, an Etrurian city, which made peace 
with Rome for 30 years, 308 B.C., was besieged by the Galli Senones, about 283 B.C., who 
defeated the Roman army Metellus sent to its relief — a disgrace avenged signally by Dolabella. 
Arezzo was an ancient bishopric : the cathedral was founded in 1277. It is renowned a.s 
the birthplace of Mfecenas, Petrarch, Yasari, and other eminent men. Michael Angclo was 
born in the vicinity. 

ARGAUM, in the Deccan, India, where sir A. A\'ellesley, on Nov. 29, 1803, thoroughly* 
defeated the rajah of Berarand the Mahratta chief Scindiah, who became in con.sequencc quite 
sub,servient to the British, 

ARGENTARIA, Alsace (now Colmau, N. E. France), where the Roman emperor Gratian 
totally defeated the Alemanni, and secured the peace of Gaul, 378. 

ARGENTINE (on LA PLATA) CONFEDERATION, S. America, 14 provinces, Thi.s 
country was discovered by the Spaniards in 15 15 ; settled by them in 1553, and formed part 
of tlie gi-eat vice-royalty of Peru till 1778, when it became that of Rio de la Plata. It joined 
the insurrection in 181 1, and became independent in 1816. It was at war with Brazil from 
1826 to 1828, for the possession of Uruguay, which became independent as Monte- Video, 
and at war with France from 1838-40. Buenos Ayres seceded in 1853, and was reunited in 
1859. An insurrection began in San Juan, in Nov. i860, and was suppressed in Jan. i86r. 
J. Urquiza, elected president, Nov. 20, 1853, was succeeded by Dr. S. Derqui, Feb. 8, i860. 
Gen. B. Mitre, elected for six years, assumed the president's office, Oct, 12, 1862. In April, 
IS'iS, Lopez, president of Paraguay, made an alliance with Buenos Ayres, declared war 
against ilitre, and invaded the Argentine territories, Ma}'. ]\Iitre made an alliance with 
Brizil. Population in 1859, about 1,171,800. See Buenos Ayres for the disputes with 
that state. 

ARGINUS.E ISLES, between Lesbos and Asia Minor ; near these Conon and the 
Athenian fleet defeated the Spartan admiral Callicratidas, 406 B.C. 

ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION, 1263 b.c. (1225, Clinfon), undertaken by Jason to 
avenge the death of his kinsman Phryxus, and recover his treasures seized by his murderer, 
..Eetes, king of Colchis. The ship in which Phryxus had sailed to Colchis having been 
adorned with the figure of a ram, it induced the poets to pretend that the journey of Jason 
v.'as for the recovery of the golden fleece. This is the first naval expedition on record. 
Alany kings and heroes accompanied Jnson, ship was called .4 ?(/o, from its btiilder. 






Sparta becomes superior to Argos . b. c. 493-490 
Themistocles an exile at Argos . . . .471 
The Argives destroy Mycente and regain their 


Peloponnesian war — Argos long neutral ; but 

joins Athens 

The aristocratical party makes peace with 

Sparta, and overthrows the democratical 

government 417 

A reaction — alliance with Athens resumed . 395 
Pyrrhus of Macedon slain while besieging 

Argos 272 

Argos long govei'ned by tyrants supported by , 

Macedon ; it is freed and joins the Achsean 

league 229 

Subjugated by the Romans .... 146 
Argos taken from the Venetians . . a.d. 168O 
Taken by the Turks 1716, who held it until . 1826 
United to Greece under King Otho (see Greece) 

Jan. 25, 1833 

ARGOS, the most ancient city of Greece, said to have been founded eitlier by Inachus, 
1S56 B.C., or his son, Phoroneiis, 1807, received its name from Argns, the fourth of the 
Inachida;, 171 1 B.C. 

Reign of Triopas ; Polycaon seizes part of the 

kingdom, and calls it after his wife, Messenla 

B.C. 1552 
Gelanor, last of the Inachidaj, deposed by 

Dana\is, an Egyptian . ' . . . . 1475 
Feast of \hQ Flambeaux, instituted in honour of 

Hypermnestra, who saved her husband, Lyn- 

ceus, son of ^Egyptus, on his nuptial night, 

while her forty -nine sisters sacrificed theirs, 

at the command of their father, Danaus . 1425 

T^ynneus dethrones Danaus 1425 

The kingdom divided by the brothers Acrisius 

and Prcetus . . . . 1344(1313. CI.) 

Perseus, gi-andson of Acrisiu.", leaves Argos, 

and founds Mycenae (which see) . ... 1313 
The Heraclidai retake the Peloponnesus, and 

Temenus seizes Argos 1102 

Pheidon's prosperous rule .... 770-730 
The Argives fine Sicyon and jEgiua for helloing 

Cleomenes of Sparta, with whom they ai'e at 

war 514 

ARGYLE (W. Scotland), Bisitonuc of, founded about 1200, Evaldus being the first ; the diocese was previously part of the see of Dunkeld ; it ended with the abolition 
of episcopacy in Scotland, 1688. Argyle and the Isles is a post-revolution bishopric, 1847. 
See Bislio]}rics. 

AEIAISr, OR Aeyax (in Sanskrit signifying noble, warlike), a term now frequently 
npplied to the hypothetical Indo-Germanic family of nations. 

ARIANS, the followers of Arius of Alexandria, who preached against the divinity of 
Christ, about 315, and died iu 336. The controversy was taken up by Constantiue, who 
presided at the council of Mce, 325, when the Ariaus were condemned ; but their doctrine 
prevailed for a time iu the East. It was favoured by Constantius II. 341 ; aud carried into 
Africa under the Vandals in the 5th century, and into Asia under the Goths. Servetus 
publi.shed his treatise against the Trinity, 1531, and was burnt, 1553. See Athanasian 
Creed. Leggatt, an Arian, was burnt at Smithfield in 16 14. 

AEISTOTELIAj^ philosophy : the most comprehensive system ever devised by man. 
Aristotle was born at Stagyra (hence termed the Stagyrite), 384 B.C. ; was a pupil of Plato 
from 364 to 347 ; became preceptor of Alexander, sou of Philip of Macedon, iu 342 ; and died 
in 322. He divided the circle of knowledge into Metaphysics and Logic, Physics, including 
part of the science of mind, and Ethics. His philosophy was too much exalted by the 
schoolmen during the middle ages, and too much depreciated after the Reformation. His 
works on natural science contain a vast collection of facts and an extraordinary mixture of 
sound and chimerical opinions. To him is attributed the assertion that natm'e abhors a 
vacuum, an opinion now maintained by some eminent modern philosophers. 

ARITHMETIC is said to have been introduced from Egypt into Greece by Thales, about 
600 B.C. The Chinese used the abacus at an early period. It is asserted that the ancient 
Hindus adopted a system having ten as a basis. 

The oldest treatise upon arithmetic is by Euclid 

(7th, 8th, and gth books of his ELemenU), 

about B.C. 300 
The sexagesimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was 

used A.D. 130 

Piophantus, of Alexandria, was the author of 

thirteen books of arithnretioal questions (of 

which six are now extant) . . . about 156 
Xotation by nine digits and zero, known at 

least as early as the sixth century in Hindo- 

stan— introduced from thence into Arabia, 

about 900 — into Europe, about 980 — into 

France, by Gerbert, 991— into Spain, 1050— 

into England 1253 

ARIZONA, a territory of the United States, originally part of New Mexico, was organised 
Feb. 24, 1863 ; capital, Tucson, 

The date iu Caxton's Mirrovj' of the World, 
Arabic characters, is 

Arithmetic of decimals invented 

John Shirwood bishop of Durhana's LvaIus 
Arithmo Machince," printed at Rome . . . 

First work printed in England on arithmetic 
(de Arte Si'.pputandi) was by Tonstall, bishop 
of Durham 

The theory of decimal fraetion.9 was perfected 
by Napier in his Rhahdologia, in . 

Cocker's Arithmetic appeared in . . _ . • 

Xystrom's Tonal system with 16 as a basis pub- 




AUK 48 A KM 

AKK. ]\lount Ai-arat is venerak-d by the Aniieiiians, from a beliLf of its being the place 
on which Noah's ark rested, after the universal deluge, 2347 B.C. But Apamea, in Phrygia, 
claims to be the spot ; and medals have been struck there with a chest on the waters, and 
the letters NOE, and two doves : this place is 300 miles west of Ararat. The ark was 300 
cubits in length, fifty in breadth, and thirty high ; but most interpreters suppose this cubit 
to be about a foot and a-half, and not the geometrical one of six. 

ARKANSAS, originally part of Louisiana, purchased from France by the United States 
in 1803, was admitted into the Union, 1836, and seceded from it May 6, 1861. Several 
battles were fought in this state in 1862. C'apital, Little Rock. 

ARKLOW (in Wicklow), where a battle was fought between the insurgent Irish, amount- 
ing to 31,000, and a small regular force of British, which signally defeated them, June 10, 
1798. Tlie town was nearly destroyed by the insurgents in May previous. — Native gold was 
discovered in Arldow, in Sept. 1795. Phil. Trans, vol. 86. 

ARLES, an ancient town in France, in 879 the capital of the kingdom of Aries or Lower 
Burgundy. Here are the remains of a Roman amphitheatre, capable of holding between 
20,000 and 30,000 persons. English bishops are said to have been^present at the council 
held here against the Donatists, 314. 

ARMADA, THE Invincible. The famous Spanish armament, so called, consisted of 130 
ships of war, besides transports, &o., 2650 great guns, 20,000 soldiers, 11,000 sailors, and 
2000 volunteers, imder the duke of Medina Sidonia, and 180 priests and monks. It sailed 
from the Tagus, May 28-30, 1588, and arrived in the channel, July 19, 1588, and was 
defeated the next day by Drake and Howard. Ten fire-ships having been sent into the 
enemies' fleet, they cut their cables, put to sea and endeavoured to return to their rendezvous 
between Calais and Gravelines : the English fell upon them, took many ships, and admiral 
Howard maintained a running fight from the 2 1 st July to the 28th, obliging the shattered fleet 
to bear away for Scotland and Ireland, where a storm dispersed them, and the remainder of 
the armament returned by the North Sea to Spain. The Spaniards lost fifteen capital ships 
in the engagement, and 5000 men ; seventeen ships were lost or taken on the coast of Ireland, 
and iipwards of 5000 men were drowned, killed, or taken prisoners. The English lost but 
one ship. About one-third of the armament returned to Spain. 

ARMAGH, in N. Ireland, of which it was the metropolis from the 5th to the 9th century, 
was the first ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, founded by St. Patrick, its first bishop, about 
444, who is said to have built the first cathedral 450. Six saints of the Roman calendar 
have been bishops of this see. In the king's books, by an extent taken 15 James I., it is 
valued at 400Z. sterling a year ; and until lately, was estimated at 15,000?. jier annum. The 
see was re-constituted (see Pallium) in 1151. Bcatson. Armagh was ravaged by the Danes 
on Easter-day, 852, and by O'Neilin 1564. 

ARMAGNACS, a political party in France, followers of the duke of Orleans, derived their 
name from his father-in-law, the count of Armaguac. About 3500 of this party were 
massacred at Paris in May, 1418, by their opponents, the followers of the duke of Burgundy. 

ARMED NEUTRALITY, the confederacy of the northern powers against England, 
formed by the empress of Russia in 1780 ; ended in 1781. The confederacy was renewed, 
and a treaty ratified in order to. cause their flags to be respected by the belligerent powers, 
Dec. 16, 1800. The principle that neutral flags protect neutral bottoms being contrary to 
the maritime system of England, the British caliinet remonstrated, war ensued, and Nelson 
and Parker destroyed the fleet of Denmark before Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. This event 
and the murder of the emperor Paul of Russia led to the dissolution of the Armed 

ARMENIA, Asia Minor. Here Noah is said to have resided when he left the ark, 2347 
B.C. Armenia, after forming part of the Assyrian, Median, and Persian empires, became 
subject to the Greek kings of Syria, after the defeat of Antiochus the Great, 190 B.C.; the 
Romans established the kingdoms of Armenia Major and Minor, but their influence over 
them was frequently interrupted by the aggressions of the Parthians. The modern Christian 
kincfdom of Armenia arose about 1080 in the rebellion of Philaretus Brachancius against the 
Greek emperor. It lasted amid many struggles till the 14th century. In all their political 
troubles the Armenians have maintained the profession of Christianity, Their church is 
governed by patriarchs, not subject to Rome. Since 1715 an Armenian convent has existed 
at Venice, where books on all subjects are printed in the Armenian language. 




ARMENIA, continued. 

City of Arfcaxaita built . . . . B.C. i86 
Autiochus Bpiplianes invades Armenia . . 165 
Tigranes the Great reigns in Armenia Major . 95-60 
Becomes king of Syria, and assumes the title 

of " King of Kings " 83 

Defeated by LucuUus, 69; he lays his crown at 

the feet of Pompey 66 

His son, Artavasdes, reigns, 54 ; he assists 
Pompey against Julius Caesar, 48; and the 
Partuians against Marc Antony ... 36 
Antony subdues, wnd sends him loaded with 

silver chains to Egypt 34 

Artaxias, his son, made king by the Parthians 33 
Deposed by the Bomans, who enthrone Ti- 
granes II 20 

Armenia subjected to Parthia . . a.d. 15 
Reconquered by Germanicus, grandson of Au- 
gustus 18 

After many changes Tiridates is made king by 

the Romans 58 

The Parthian conquerors of Armenia are ex- 
pelled by Trajan 115 

Severus makes Volagarses king of part of 
Armenia 199 

Christianity introduced, between . , 100-200 

Armenia added to the Persian empire . . 312 

Tiridates obtains the throne through Dio- 
cletian, 286; is expelled by Narses, 294; 
restored by Galerius 298 

On his death, Armenia becomes subject to 
Persia, 342 ; is made neutral by Rome and 
Persia, 384 ; who divide it by treaty . . 443 

Armenia conquered and reconquered by the 
Greek and Persian sovereigns . . S77-687 

And by the Greek emperors and the Mahom- 
medans 693-1065 

Leon VI., last king of Armenia, taken prisoner 
by the Saracens, 1375 ; released ; he dies at 
Paris 1393 

Overrun by the Mongols, 1235 ; by Timour, 
1383 ; by the Turks, 1516 ; by the Persians, 
1534 ; t>y the Turks 1583 

Shah Abbas, of Persia, surrenders Armenia to 
the Turks, but transports 22,000 Armenian 
families into his own states . . . . 1589 

Overrun by the Russians 1828 

Surrender of Erzeroum .... July, 1829 
(See Syria and Russo-Turhish War.) 

ARMENIAN ERA, commenced on the gtli of July, 552 ; the ecclesiastical year on 
the nth August. To reduce this last to our time, add 551 years, and 221 days ; and in 
leap years subtract one day from March i to August 10. The Armenians used the old 
Julian style and months in their correspondence with Europeans. 

ARMILLARY SPHERE, an instrument devised to give an idea of the motions of the 
heavenly bodies. It is commonly made of brass, and disposed in such a manner that the 
greater and lesser circles of the sphere are seen in their natural position and motion ; the 
whole being comprised in a frame. It is said to have been invented by Eratosthenes, about 
255 B.C. ; and was employed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers. 

ARMINIANS (OE Remonstkants) derive their former name from James Arminius (or 
Harmensen), a Protestant divine, of Leyden, Holland (died, 1609); the latter name from 
his followers having presented a Eemonstrance to the States-General in 1610. They 
separated from the Calvinists, considering Calvin's views of grace and predestination in 
opposition to free will too severe. A lierce controversy raged to 1625, when the Arminians, 
who had been exiled, returned to their homes. Their doctrines were condemned in 1619, 
at the synod of Dort (which see). The Calvinists were then sometimes styled Gomarists, 
from Gomar, the chief opponent to Arminius. James I. and Charles I. favoured the doc- 
trines of the Arminians, which still prevail largely in Holland and elsewhere. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS became hereditary in families at the close of the 12th centary. 
They took their rise from the knights painting their banners with different figures, and were 
employed by the crusaders, in order at fii'st to distinguish noblemen in battle, iioo. 
The hues to denote colours in arms, by their direction or intersection, were invented by 
Columbifere in 1639. Armorial bearings were taxed in 1798, and again in 1808. The armo- 
rial bearings of the English sovereigns are given under the article England. 

ARMORICA, now Brittany, N. France, was conquered by Julius Ctesar, 56 B.C. Many 
Gauls retired there and preserved the Celtic tongue, a.d. 584. See Brittany. 

ARMOUR. That of Goliath is described (about 1063 B.C.) i Sam. xvii. 5. The warlike 
Eiuropeans at first despised any other defence than the shield. Skins and padded hides were 
first used ; and brass and iron armour, in plates or scales, followed. The first body armour 
of the Britons was skins of wild beasts, exchanged, after the Roman conquest, for the well- 
tanned leathern cuirass. Tacitus. This latter continued till the Anglo-Saxon era. 
Hengist is said to have had scale armour, A.D. 449. The Norman armour formed breeches 
and jacket, 1066. The hauberk had its hood of the same piece, 1 100. John wore a sjirtout 
over a hauberk of rings set edgeways, 1199. The heavy cavalry were covered with a eoat of 
mail, Henry III. 1216. Some horsemen had vizors, and scull-caps, same reign. Armour 
became exceedingly splendid about 1350. The armour of plate commenced 1407. Black 
armour, used not only for battle, but for mourning, Henry V. 1413. The armour of Henry VII. 
consisted of a cuirass of steel, in the form of a pair of stays, about 1500. Armour ceased 
to reach below the knees, Charles I. 1625. In the reign of Charles II. officers wore no other 



armour than a largo gorget, whicli is commemorHted in the diminutive ornament known at 
the present day. Mcyrick. 

AEMS. The club was the first offensive weapon ; then followed the mace, battle-nxe, 
pike, spear, javelin, sword and dagger, bows and arrows. Pliny asciibes the invention of 
the sling to the Phoenicians. See articles on the various weapmis throxigliout the volume, 

ARMS. See Armorial hearings and Heraldry. 

ARMS' BILL, for the repression of crime and insurrection in Ireland, was passed Oct. 15, 
1831. It was a revival of the expired statiites of George III. The guns registered under 
tliis act throughout the kingdom at the close of the first year scarcely amounted to 3000, 
and the number was equally small of all other kinds of arms. The new Arms' bUl passed 
Aug. 22, 1843. It has been since renewed, but has not been rigidly enforced. 

ARMY. Ninus and Semiramis had armies amounting to nearly two millions of fighting 
men, 2017 B.C. The first guards and regular troops as a standing army were formed by 
Saul, 1093 B.C. Eusebius. The army of Xerxes invading Greece is said to have been 
1,700,000 foot and 80,000 horse : 480 B.C. One of the first standing armies of which we 
have any account, is that of Philip of Macedon. The army which Darius opposed to 
Alexander the Great (332 B.C.) is set down as between 750,000 and a million. The first 
standing army which existed as such, in modern times, was maintained in France by 
Charles VII. in 1445. The chief European nations have had in their service the following 
armies: Spain, 150,000 men; Great Britain, 310,000; Prussia, 350,000; Turkey, 450,000 ; 
Austria, 500,000 ; Russia, 560,000 ; and France, 680,000. Estimated number in Europe in 
1863, 6,000,000 soldiers, 1,000,000 horses, 11,000 guns. 

ARMY, British, mainly arose in the reign of Charles II. in 1661, in consequence of the 
extinction of feudal tenures. The first five regiments of British infantiy were established 
between 1633 and 1680. James II. established several regiments of dragoon guards (1685-8). 
In 1685 the army consisted of 7000 foot and 1700 cavalrJ^ Standing amiies were introduced 
by Charles I. in 1638 ; they were declared illegal in England, 31 Charles II. 1679 ; but one 
was then gradually forming, which was maintained by "William III. 1689, when the Mutiny 
Act was passed. See Regiments. Gross's "History of the British Army " was publi.shed in 
1 801. The effective rank-and-file of the army actually serving in the pay of Great Britain 
on the 24th Dec. 1800, amounted to 168,082 ; and the estimates of the whole army in that 
year were 17,973,000/. The militia, volunteer, and other auxiliary forces were of immense 
amount at some periods of the war ending in 1815. The strength of the volunteer corps 
was gi-eatest between the years 1798 and 1804, in which latter year this species of force 
amounted to 410,000 men, of whom 70,000 were Irish; and the militia had increased to 
130,000 men, previously to the regular regiments being recruited from its ranks in 1809. 
The following are statements of the effective military strength of the United Kingdom at 
the periods mentioned, and of the sums voted for military expenditure : 

1780, Time of war : troops of 
the line 

1800, War 

1810, War : army including 
foreign troops 

1815, Last year of the war . 

1820, Time of peace; war in- 
cumbrances . . . 

1830, Peace .... 

1840, Peace . . . . 

1850, Peace .... 

1852, Peace (except KaflSr war) 101,937 

1854, War with Bussia 


Sum voted. 






















Sum voted. 

1855, War with Russia . 

1856, War with Russia (effec- 

tive men 154,806) . . 206,836 14,545,059 
(Sept. 5, 1856, reduced to 125,000 men, 

exclusive of the Indian army.) 
,859, Prospect of European ) g 13,300,000 

war m April— June (m f /riuYjtv.^^J^l y!^,r^ 

Great Britain) . . j ^^"^^ *^°«^ ""^ ^°'"^> 

i860, War with China . . 235,852 14,842,000 
1861, . . . . . . 212,773 14.168,621 

1862 ,, 

1863, (With Indian army) . . 220,918 15,060,237 


Original Estimate 1854-5 Actual Charge 1854-5 

Army .... £6,287,486 . . . £7,167,486 . 

Navy 7,487,948 . ... 10,417,309 . 

Ordnance .... 3,845,878 . . . 5,986,662 . 
Transports (increase in Xavy) 3,582,474 

Total. . .£17,621,312 £27,153,931 

Volunteers in Great Britain in 1S62, stated to be 167,291. 

Eitimate for 1855-6 






* Besides this national army, 14,950 foreign troops were voted for the service of the year 1855-6; and 
the English militia was called out, and increased to the number of 130,000 men, thus forming a total of 
3'3>S95) exclusive of 20,000 TurkisJa auxiliaries taken into British p.iy. 




ARMY, BiUTiSH, continued. 


English .... 


Irish .... 

Life Guards. 

Horse Guards. 

Foot Guards. 










Total . . . 

810 . 





The Ai'my Service Acts : 12 & 13 Vict. c. 37 
(June 21, 1847), a^nd 18 Vict. c. 4 . Feb. 27, 1S55 

The Mutiny Act is passed annually; alterations 
■were made in this Act and in tlie Articles of 
War in 1855. See Militia and Volunteers. 

03icers in the service of the East India Com-, 
pany to have the same rank and precedence 
as those in the regular army . April 25, „ 

The office of Master-General of the Ordnance 
abolished^ and the civil administration of the 
Arnrv and Ordnance vested in the hands of 
Lord Panuun-c, the Minister of War May 25, ,, 

Examination of staff olhoers ijrevious to their 
ajipointment ordered . . . April 9, 1857 

The army largely recruited in 1857 and 1858, in 
consequence of the war in India. 

The East India Company's army was transferred 
to the Queen 1859 

Much dissatisfaction arose in that army in con- 

sequence of no bounty being granted ; and 
threatenings of mutiny appeared, which 
sub-^ided after an arrangement was made 
granting discharge to who desired it. 
See Iiulia 1859 

Examination of candidates for the Military 
Academy, previously confined to pupils from 
Sandhurst, was thrown open, 1855 ; the prin- 
ciple of this measure was affirmed by the 
House of Commons by vote . April 26, 1858 

By 22 (fe 23 Vict. c. 42, provision made for a re- 
serve force, not to exceed 20,000 men, who 
had been in her majesty's service . . . 1859 

Flogging virtually abolished in the ai-my : First 
class soldiers to be degraded to second class 
before being liable to it . . . Nov. 9, , , 

A report of a commission in 1858 causes great 
sanitary improvements in the army, barracks, 
&c., under direction of Mr. Sidney Herbert 1859-60 

ARMY OF Occupation. The allied power.';, Au.stria, Russia, and Prussia, by the treaty 
signed Nov. 20, 1815, established the bomidavies of France, and stipulated for the occupa- 
tion of certain fortresses by foreign troops for three years, to the intense disgust of the 

AROMATICS. Acrou of Agrigentum is said to have been the first who caused great fii-es 
to be made, and aromatics to be thrown into them, to purify the air, by which means he put 
a stop to the plague at Athens, 473 b. c. No^iv. Did. 

ARPINUM (S. Italy), celebrated as the birthplace of Cicero, Jan. 3, 106 r.c. ; many 
remains still bear his name. 

ARQUEBUS. Qee Fh-e Arms. 

ARQUES (N. France). Near here the League army, commanded by the due de Mayeune, 
was defeated by Henry IV. Sept. 21, 1589. 

ARRACAlSr, a province of N.E. India. Arracan, the capital, was taken by the Bunnese, 
1783 ; and taken from them by general Morrison, April i, 1825. The subjugation of the 
whole province soon followed. 

ARRAIGNMENT consists in reading the indictment by the officer of the court, and 
calling upon the prisoner to say whether he is guilty or not guilty. Formerly, persons who 
refused to plead in cases of felony were pressed to death by AS'eights placed upon the breast. 
A person standing mute was declared convicted by an act passed 1772 ; but in 1827, the 
court was directed to enter a plea of "not guilty" in such cases. See Mute. 

ARRAS (N.E. of France), the ancient Atrebates, the seat of a bishop since 390. 
Here a treaty was concluded between the king of France and duke of Burgundy, when the 
latter abandoned his alliance with England, Sept. 22, 1435. Another treaty was concluded 
by Maximilian of Austria with Louis XL of France, whereby the counties of Burgundy and 
Artois were given to the dauphin as a marriage portion ; this latter was entered into in 
1482. Velly. Arras was held by the Austrians from 1493 till 1640, when it was taken by 
Louis XIII. 

ARRAY. On Dec. 23, 1324, Edward 11. directed the bishop of Durham to make 
"arraier" his men-of-arms, horse and foot, and cause them to proceed to Poi'tsmouth ; 
thence to proceed to the war in Gascony. Ry^mr's Fccdcra. Hallara says that this was the 
earliest commission of array that he could find, and that the latest was dated 1557. The' 

E 2 



attempt of Charles I. to revive commissions of array in 1642, founded on a statute of Henry 
IV., was strenuously opposed as illegaL 

ARREST FOR Debt, The persons of peers, members of parliament, &c., are protected 
from arrest. See Ambassadors ; Ferrars' Arrest, 

Statute abolishing arrest for debt on mesne 
process, except in cases wherein there is 
gi'ound to show that the defendant designs 
to leave the country, 2 Vict. , Aug. . . 1838 

By 7 & 8 Vict. c. 96, the power of imprison- 
ment even upon final process, that is judg- 
ment debts, is abolished if the sum does not 
exceed 20!. exclusive of costs, 1844 ; and by 
9 & 10 Vict. c. 95, the judge has no power to 
punish, except in case of fraud or contempt 
of court 1846 

By the Absconding Debtors' Arrest Act, ab- 
sconding debtors owing 20J. and upwards are 
liable to arrest 1851 

Clergymen performing divine service privi- 
leged, 50 Edw. Ill 137 

Seamen privileged from debts under 20!- by 

30 Geo. II 1756 

Barristers privileged from arrest whil going 

to, attending upon, and returning from court, 

on the business of their clients. 
By statute 29 Charles II. no arrest can be made, 

nor process served, upon a Sunday. This 

law was extended by William III. 
Vexatious arrests prevented by act, May, 1733. 

Prohibited for less than lol. on process, 1779 : 

and for less than lol. . . . _ July, 1827 
Arrests for less than 20^ were prohibited on 

mesne process in Ireland, in June . . 1829 

ARRETINUM. See Arezzo. 

ARSENAL, a gi-eat military or naval repository. The largest in this countiy is at "Wool- 
wich, which see. 

ARSENIC, a steel-gray coloured brittle metal, extremely poisonous, known in earl}' 
times. Brandt, in 1733, made the first accurate experiments on its chemical nature. The 
heinous crimes committed by means of this mineral obliged the legislature to enact regula- 
tions for its sale, 14 Vict. cap. 13, June 5, 185 1. The sale of all colourless preparations of 
arsenic is regulated by this act. In 1858 Dr. A. S. Taylor asserted that green paper- 
hangings prepared from arsenic were injurious to health ; which appears to be true, although 
doubted by some chemists. See Cacodyl. 

ARSENITE Schism. See Eastern Church, 1255. 

ARSON was punished with death by the Saxons, and remained a capital crime on the 
consolidation of the laws in 1827, 1837, and 1861. If any house be fired, persons being 
therein, or if any vessel be fired, with a view to murder or plunder, it shall be death, statute 
I Vict., July, 1837. 

ARSOUF (Syria), Battle of, in which Richard I. of England, commanding the Christian 
forces, reduced to 30,000, defeated Saladin's army of 300,000 Saracens and other infidels, on 
Sept. 3 or 7, 1 191. Ascalon surrendered. Richard marched to Jerusalem, 1192. 

ARTEMISIUM, a promontory in Euboea, near which indecisive conflicts took place 
between the Greek and Persian fleets for three days; 480 B.C. The former retired on hearing 
of the battle of Thermopylae. 

ARTESIAN "WELLS (from Artesia, now Artois, in France, where they frequently occur) 
are formed by boring through the upper soil to strata containing water, which has percolated 
from a higher level, and which rises to that level through the boring tube. The fountains 
in Trafalgar square and government offices near have been supplied since 1844 by two of 
these wells (393 feet deep). At Paris the Crenelle well (1798 feet deep), was completed in 
1841, after eight years of exertion, by M. Mulot at an expense of about i2,oooZ., and the 
well at Passy, which it is said will supply sufficient water for neai'ly 500,000 persons, was 
begun in 1855, and completed in i860 by M. Kind. Messrs. Amos and Easton completed 
an artesian well for the Horticultural Society's garden in 1862. It yielded 880,000 gallons 
of water, at the temperature of 81° Fahr., in twenty-four hours. The well at Kissingen was 
completed in 1850. Artesian wells are now becoming common. 

ARTICHOKES are said to have been introduced from the East into "Western Europe in 
the isth century, and to have reached England about 1502. 

ARTICLES OF Religion. In June 8, 1536, after much disputing, the English clergy 
in convocation published "Articles decreed by the king's highness" Henry VIII., who 
published in 1539 the " Statute of Six Articles," viz. transubstautiation, communion in one 
kind, vows of chastity, private masses, celibacy of the clergy, and auricular confession. In 
155 1 forty-two were published without the consent of parliament. These forty-two were 
modified and reduced to Thirty-nine in Jan. 1563 ; and they received the royal authority 
and the authority of parliament in 1571. The Lambeth Articles, of a more Calvinistic 
character, attempted to be imposed by archbishop "Whitgift, were withdrawn in consequence 


of the displeasure of queen Elizabeth, 1595. One liundred and four articles were drawn up 
for Ireland bj"- archbishop Usher in 1614. On the union of the churches, the Irish adopted 
the English articles. See Perth Articles. 

ARTICLES OF Wak were decreed in the time of Richard I. and John. Those made by 
Richard f I. in 1485 appear in Grose's "Military Antiquities." The Articles of War now in 
force are based upon an act, passed by "William III. in 1689, to regulate the army about to 
engage in his continental warfare. 

ARTIFICERS and Manufacturers. Their affairs were severely regulated by the 
statutes of 1349, 1351, 1360, 1562. They were pi-ohibited from leaving England, and those 
abroad were outlawed, if they did not return within six months after the notice given them. 
A fine of looZ,, and imprisonment for three months, were the penalties for seducing them 
from these realms, by 9 Geo. II. (1736) and other statutes, which were repealed in 1824. 

ARTILLERY, a term including properly all missiles : now applies to cannon. The first 
piece was a small one, contrived by Schwartz, a German cordelier, soon after the invention 
of gunpowder, in 1330. Artillery was used, it is said, by the Moors of Algesiras, in Spain, 
iu the siege of 1343 ; it was used, according to our historians, at the battle of Crecy, in 1346, 
when Edward III. had four pieces of cannon, which gained him the battle. "We had artillery 
at the siege of Calais, 1347. The Venetians first employed artillery against the Genoese at 
sea, 1377. Voltaire. Said to have been used by the English at Calais in 1383, Cast in 
England, together with mortars for bomb-shells, by Flemish artists, in Sussex, 1543. 
Rymer's Fcedera. Made of brass 1635 ; improvements by Browne, 1728. — See Cannon, 
Bombs, Carronades (under Carron), Mortars, Howitzers, Petard, Rockets, Fire-arms. The 
Royal Artillery regiment was established in the reign of Anne. 

ARTILLERY COMPANY of London, Honourable, instituted in 1585, having ceased, 
was revived in 1610. It met for military exercise at the Artillery ground, Finsbury, where 
the London Archers had met since 1498. (See Archery.) In the civil war, 1641-8, the 
company took the side of the parliament, and greatly contributed towards its success. The 
company numbered 1200 in 1803 and 800 in 1861. Since 1842 the officers have been 
appointed by the Queen. On the decease of the duke of Sussex in 1843, the Prince Consort 
became colonel and captain-general. He died Dec. 14, 1861, and the Prince of "Wales was 
appointed his successor Aug. 24, 1863. 

ARTISTS' FUND was established in 1810 to provide allowances for sick, and annuities 
for incapacitated members. 

ARTS. In the 8th century, the whole circle of sciences was composed of seven liberal 
arts — grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. Harris. _ The 
Royal Society of England {wJiich see) obtained its charter April 2, 1663. The Society pf 
Arts, to promote the polite arts, commerce, manufactures, and mechanics, was instituted in 
1754 ; it originated in the patriotic zeal of Mr. Shipley, and of its first president, lord Folke- 
stone. — Fine Arts. The first public exhibition by the artists of the British metropolis took 
place in 1760, at the rooms of the Society of Arts, and was repeated there for several years, 
till, in process of time, the Royal Academy was founded. See Royal Academy. The Society 
of British Artists was instituted May 21, 1823 ; and their first exhibition was opened April 
19, 1824. The Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts was founded in Dec. 1858. 
See British Institution ; National Gallery . 

ART-UNIONS began in France and Germany early in the present century. The first in 
Britain was established at Edinburgh ; that in London was founded in 1836, and chartered 
in 1846, when these unions were legalised. Every subscriber is entitled to prints, and has 
the chance of drawing prizes. 

ARUNDEL CASTLE (Sussex), built by the Saxons about 800. The duke of Norfolk 
enjoys the earldom of Arundel, as a feudal honour, by inheritance and possession of the 
castle, without any other creation. Philip Howard, son of the attainted duke of Norfolk, 
was made earl of Arundel, by summons, as possessor of this castle, 1580. It was thoroughly 
repaired by a late duke at a vast expense. 

ARUNDELIAN MARBLES, called also Oxford Marbles ; one containing the chronology 
of ancient history from 1582 to 355 B.C., and said to have been sculptured 264 B.C. They 
consist of 37 statues, 128 busts, and 250 inscriptions, and were found in the isle of Paros, in 
the reign of James I., about i6io. They were collected by Mr. "W. Petty, purchased by 
lord Arundel, and given by his grandson Henry Howard, afterwards duke of Norfolk, to the 
univcnsity of Oxford in '1667 ; and are therefore called also Oxford Marbles. The 



characters of the inscriptions are Greek. There are .two translations : hj Selden, 1628': by 
Pricleaux, 1676. A variorum edition of the inscriptions, hy Maittaire, appeared in 1732, 
and a fine one by Chandler in 1763. See KidcVs Tracts; and Porson's Treatise, 1789, 

ARUSPICES. See Harusjnces. 

AS, a Roman weiglit and coiu : when considered as a weight, it was a pound ; when a 
coin, it had different weights, but always tlie same value. In the reign of Servius, the as 
weighed a pound of brass ; in the first Punic war, it weighed two ounces, 264 B.C. ; in the 
second Punic war, one ounce, 218 B.C. ; and afterwards half an ounce ; its value was about 
three farthings sterling. 

ASAPH, ST. (N. Wales), a bishopric founded by Kentigern, bishop of Glasgow. On 
returning into Scotland about 560, he left a holy man, St. Asaph, his successor, from whom 
the see takes its name. It is valued in the king's books at 187/. lis. 6d. By an order in 
council, 1838, the sees of St. Asaph and Bangor were to have been united on the next 
vacancy in either ; and the bishopric of Manchester was to have been then created. This 
order was annulled in 1846, and the two sees still exist. Present income, 42CX5Z. See 


Samuel HorBley, died Oct. 4, i8o6. 
William Cleaver, died May 15, 1815. 
John Luxmoore, died Jan. 21, 1830. 

1S30. William Carey, died Sept. 13, 1846. 

1846. Thomas Vowler Short (present bishop, 1865). 

ASBESTOS, a native fossil stone, which may be split into threads and filaments, and 
which is endued with the property of remaining unconsumed in fire. Cloth was made of it 
by the Egyptians {Herodotus), and napkins in tiiu time of Pliny, 74 ; and also paper. The 
spinning of asbestos known at Venice, about 1 500. Porta. 

ASCALON (Syria), a city of the Phili-stines, shared the fate of Phccnicia and Judca. The 
Egyptian army was defeated here by the Crusaders, under Godfrey of Bouillon, Aug. 12, 
1099. Ascalon was besieged by the latter in I148, taken in 1153 ; and again in 1191. Its 
fortifications were destroyed for fear of the Crusaders by the Sultan in 1270. 

ASCENSION, an island in the Atlantic ocean, 800 miles N. W. of St. Helena, discovered 
by the Portuguese in 1501 ; and taken possession of by the English in 1815. 

ASCENSION DAY, also called Holy Thursday, when the church celebrates the ascension 
of our Saviour, the fortieth day after his resurrection from the dead. May 14, 33 ; first com- 
memorated, it is said, 68. Ascension day, 1866, May 10; 1867, May 30 ; 1868, May 21. 

ASCULUM, now Ascoli, a city of the Picentes, Central Ital)^, E. Near it, Pyrrhus of 
Epirus defeated the Romans, 279 B.C. In 268 B.C., the whole country of the Picentes was 
subdued by the consul Sempronius. In 1190 a.d. Andrea, the general of the em])eror 
Henry VI., who was endeavouring to wrest the crown of Naples from Tancred, was defeated 
and slain. 

ASHANTEES, a warlike tribe of negroes of "West Africa. In 1807 they conquered 
Fantee, in which the British settlement Cape Coast Castle is situated. On the death of tlic 
king, who had been friendly to the English, hostilities began ; and on Jan. 21, 1824, the 
Asliantees defeated about 1000 British under sir Charles M'Carthy at Accra, and brought 
away his skull with others as trophies. They were totally defeated, Aug. 27, 1826, by col. 
Purdon. The governor of Cape Coast Castle began a war with the Asliantees in spring of 
1863. The British troops suflered much through disease ; and the war was suspended by 
the government in IVIay, 1864. 

ASHBURTON TREATY, concluded at Wa.shington, Aug. 9, 1842, by Alexander, lord 
A.shburton, and John Tyler, president of the United States : it defined the boundaries of 
the respective countries between Canada and the state of Maine, settled the extradition of 
criminals, &c. 

ASHDOD, or Azotus, the seafof the worship of the Pluenician god Dagon, Avhich fell 
down before the ark of the Lord : captured by the Pliilistines from the Israelites, about 
1 141 B.C. (i Sam. v.). 

ASHDOWN, or Assendunc, now thought to be Aston, Berks, where Ethelred and his 
brother Alfred defeated the Danes in 871. 

. ASHMOLEAN LIBRARY (book.s, manuscripts, coins, &c.), was presented to the 
university of Oxfonl by Eli.ns A.shmole, the herald and nntiipiary, about 1682. It included 




the collections of the Tradescaiits, to whom he was executor. He died at Lambeth in 1692. 
The Ashmolean Society, Oxford (scientific), was established in 1828. 

ASHTASOTH, a Phoenician goddess, occasionally worshipped by the Israelites (see 
Judges ii. 13) about 1406 B.C., and even by Soloinon, about 984 B.C. (i Kings xi. 5). 

ASH- WEDNESDAY, the first day of Lent, which in early times began on the Sunday 
now called the fii'st in Lent. Pope Felix II L, in 487, first added the four days preceding 
the old Lent Sunday, to raise the number of fasting days to forty ; Gregory the Great (pope, 
590) introduced the sprinkling of ashes on the first of the four additional days, and hence 
the name of Dies Cinerum, or Ash-Wcdnosday. At the Eeformation this practice was 
abolished, "as being a mere shadow, or vain show." 

ASIA, the largest division of the globe, so called by the Greeks, from the nymph Asia, 
the daughter of Oceanns and Tetliys, the wife of Japhet. Asia was the first quarter of the 
world peopled : here the law of God was first promulgated ; here many of the greatest 
monai'chies of the earth had their rise ; and hence most of the arts and sciences have been 
derived. Its early history is derived from Herodotus, who relates the wars of Crcesus, Cyrus, 
and others. See China, India, Persia, and the other countries. 

ASIA MINOR (now Anatolia), comprised the Ionian colonies on the coast, the early 
seats of Greek civilisation, and the coimtries Mysia, Phrygia, Lycia, Bithynia, Caria, Lydia, 
Cappadocia, Galatia, &c., with the cities Troy, Ephesus, Smyrna {all ivhich see). From the 
time of the rise of the Assyrian monarchy, about 2000 B.C., to that of the Turks under 
Osman, Asia Minor Avas the battle-field of the conquerors of the world. 

First settlement of the Ionian Greeks, about B.C. 1043 
Asia Minor subdued by the Medes . about 711 
Conquered by Cyrus .... about 546 
Contest between the Greeks and Persians begins 544 
Asia Minor conquered by Alexander . . 332 

Contended for by his successors ; separate 
kingdoms established .... 321-278 

Gradually acquired by the Romans B.C. i88 to A.D. 15 

Possessed by the Persians 6og 

Partially recovered by the emperor Basil . . 874 

Invaded by Timour 1403 

Taken from the Greek emperor, and established 
as an empire by the Turks under Mahomet I. 141 3 

ASIATIC SOCIETIES. The " Asiatic Society of Bengal," at Calcutta, was established 
by sir WiUiam Jones in 1784, "the bounds of its investigation to be the geographical limits 
of Asia." The ' ' Royal Asiatic Society, " which has several branches in India, was founded 
in 1823. It established the " Oriental Translation Fund" in 1828, which has piiblished 83 
volumes of Eastern literature (1865). 

ASKESIAN SOCIETY (from the Greek asMsis, exercise), instituted in March, 1796, by 
a number of young men for discussing philosox^hical subjects. Its founders were the after- 
wai'ds celebrated Wm. Allen, Wm. Pliillips, Alex. Tillochj Luke Howard, "W. H. Pepys, and 
others. In 1806 it merged into the Geological Society. 

ASPERNE AND EssLiNG, near the Danube and Vienna, where a series of desperate con- 
flicts took place between the Austrian army under the archduke Charles, and the Frencli 
under Napoleon, Massena, &c., on May 21-22, 1809, ending in the defeat of Napoleon ; the 
severest check that he had yet received. The loss of the former exceeded 20,000 men, and 
of the latter 30,000. The daring marshal Lannes was killed ; the bridge of the Danube was 
destroj'ed, and Napoleon's retreat endangered ; but the success of the Austrians had no 
beneficial effect on the subsequent prosecution of the war. 

ASPHALT, a solid bituminous substance, which in nature probably derived its oi'igin 
from decayed vegetable matter. The artificial asphalt obtained from gas-works began to be 
used as pavement about 1838. Claridge's patent asphalt was laid do\Vn in Trafalgar-square, 
Jan. 1864. 

ASPROMONTE, Naples. Here Garibaldi was defeated, Wounded, and taken prisoner 
Aug. 29, 1862, having injudiciously risen against the French occupation of Rome. 

ASSAM (N. E. India) came iinder British dominion in 1825, and was surrendered by 
the king of Ava, in 1826. The tea-plant was discovered here by Mr. Bruce in 1823. A 
superintendent of the tea-forests Was appointed in 1836, the cultivation of the plant haviug 
been recommended by lord William Bentinck, in 1834. The Assam Tea Company was 
established in 1839. The tea was much in use in England in 1841. Chinese labour has 
been introduced, and the growth of tea is enormously increasing. 

ASSASSINATION PLOT, said to have been formed by the earl of Aylesbury and 
others to assassinate William III., near Richmond, Surrey, and restore James II. Its 
object would have been attained, Feb. I4, 1695-6, but for its timely discovery by 


ASSASSIN'S, OR AssAssiNiANS, a band of fanatical Mahometans, collected by Hassan- 
ben-Sabah, and settled in Persia about 1090. In Syria they possessed a large tract of land 
among the mountains of Lebanon. They murdered the marquis of Montferrat in 1192 ; 
Lewis of Bavaria in 1213 ; and the khan of Tartary in 1254. They were conquered by the 
Tartars in 1257 ; and were extirpated in 1272. The chief or king of the corps assumed the 
title of "Ancient of the Mountain," and " Old Man of the Mountain." * They trained up 
young people to assassinate such persons as their chief had devoted to destruction. HinaiiU. 
From this fraternity the word assassin has been derived. 

ASSAY OF Gold and Silver originated with the bishop of Salisbury, a royal treasurer in 
the reign of Henry I. Du Cange. But certainly some species of assay was practised as 
early as the Roman conquest. Assay was established in England 1354 ; regulated 13 "Will. 
III. 1 700, and 4 Anne, 1705. Assay masters appointed at Sheffield and Birmingham, 1773. 
The allo}'^ of gold is silver and copper, that of silver is copper. Standard gold is 2 carats of 
alloy to 22 of fine gold. Standard silver is 18 dwts. of copper to 11 ozs. 2 dwts. of fine silver. 
See Goldsmiths' Company. 

ASSAYE (E. Indies), Battle of. The British armj', under general Arthur Wellesley 
(afterwards duke of Wellington), entered the Mahratta states on the south ; took the fort of 
Ahmednuggur, Aug. 12 ; and defeated Scindiah and the rajah of Berar at Assaye, Sept. 23, 
1803. This was Wellington's first great battle, in which he opposed a force full more than 
ten times greater than his own (only 4500 men). The enemy retired in great disorder, leaving 
behind the whole of their artillerj', ammunition, and stores. 

ASSEMBLY of Divines held at Westminster, July i, 1643, convoked by order of 
parliament, to consider the liturgy, government, and doctrines of the church. Two members 
were elected for each county. They adopted the Scottish covenant, and drew up the direc- 
toiy for public worship, a confession, and the catechisms now used by the church of Scotland. 
The last (1163rd) meeting was on Feb. 22, 1649. See Church of Scotland. 

ASSENT. See Royal Assent. 

ASSESSED TAXES. The date of their introduction has been as variously stated as the 
taxes coming under this head have been defined — aU things have been assessed, from lands 
and houses to dogs and hair-powder. By some the date is refeiTed to the reign of Ethelbei-t, 
in 991 ; by others to that of Henry VIII. 1522 ; and by more, to the reign of William III. 
1689, when a land-tax was imposed. See Land Tax. The assessed taxes yielded in 1815 
(the last year of the war), exclusively of the land-tax, 6,524,766?., their highest amount. 
These imposts have varied in their nature and amount, according to the exigencies of the 
state, and the contingencies of war and peace. They were considerably advanced in 1797 
and 1801, et scq., but considerably reduced in 1816, and in subsequent years. The last act 
for the repeal of certain assessed taxes was passed 16 & 17 Vict. cap. 90, Aug. 20, 1853, 
which was explained and amended by 17 & 18 Vict. cap. i, Feb. 17, 1854. — Acts for the 
better securing and accounting for the Assessed and Income Taxes, Aug. 10, 1854. See 
Taxes and Income Tax. 

ASSIENTO, a contract between the king of Spain and other powers, for furnishing the 
Spanish dominions in America with negro slaves, began with the Flemings. By the treaty 
of Utrecht in 1713, the British government engaged to furnish 4800 negroes annually to 
Spanish America for thirty years. The contract was vested in the South Sea Company ; but 
this infamous contract was given up in 1750. See Guinea. 

ASSIGNATS, a paper currency, ordered by the National Assembly of France to support 
public credit during the revolution, April, 1790. Atone period, eight milliards, or nearly 
350 millions of pounds sterling, of this paper were in circulation in France and its depen- 
dencies. Alison. Assignats were superseded by mandats in 1796. 

ASSIZE OF Battle. See Ai)peal. 

ASSIZE OF Bread, &c. See Bread and Wood. 

ASSIZE COURTS (from assideo, I sit) are of very ancient institution in England, and in 
old law hooks are defined to be an assembly of knights and other substantial men, with 
the justice, to meet at a certain time and place : regulated by Magna Charta, 12x5. 
The present justices of assize and Nisi Prius are derived from the statute of Westminster, 
13 Edw. I. 1284. Coke; Blackstone. "The king doth will that no lord, or other of the 




country, shall sit upon the bench with the justices to take assize in their sessions in the 
counties of England, upon great forfeiture to the king," 20 Kich. II. 1396. Statutes, 
Broiigh Act. Assizes are general or special ; general when the judges go their circuits, 
and special when a commission is issued to take cognisance of one or more causes. See 
Bloody Assize. 

ASSOCIATIOlsrS. See National Associations. 

ASSUMPTIOlSr, Feast of the, Aug. 15. It is observed by the church of Eome in 
honour of the Virgin Mary, who is said to have been taken up to heaven in her corporeal 
form, body and spirit, on this day, 45, in her 75th year. The festival was instituted in the 
7th century, and enjoined by the council of Mentz, 813. 

ASSURANCE. See hisurance. 

ASSYRIA, an Asiatic country between Mesopotamia and Media, was the seat of the 
earliest recorded monarchy. Its history is mainly derived from Ctesias, an early Greek 
historian of doubtful autlienticity, Herodotus, and the Holy Scriptures. The discovery of 
the very interesting Ninevite antiquities, now in the British Museum, by Mr. Layard, and 
the deciphering of many ancient cuneiform inscriptions, by Grotefend, sir H. Rawlinson, 
and other scholars, have drawn much attention to the Assyrians. The chronologers, Blair, 
Usher, Hales, and Clinton, differ much in the dates they assign to events in Assyrian 
history, of which a large portion is now considered fabulous by modern writers. 

Nimrod or Belus reigns B.C. [2554 H. 2235 C] 2245 
" Asshur builded Nineveh " {Gen. x. 11) about 2218 
Ninns. son of Belus, reigns in Assyria, and 

names his capital Nineveh . , [2182 C] 2069 
Babylon taken by Ninus, who having subdued 
the Armenians, Persians, Bactrians, and all 
Asia Minor, establishes what is properly the 
Assyrian monarchy, of which Nineveh was 
the seat of empire. B'.air , . [2233 C] 2059 
Ninyas, an infant, succeeds Ninus . . . 2017 
Semiramis, mother of Ninyas, usurps the 
government, enlarges and embellishes Baby- 
lon, and makes it the seat of her dominion 

[2130 C] 2007 
She invades Libya, Ethiopia, and India. Lenglet 197s 
She is put to death by her son Ninyas . . 1965 
Ninyas put to death, and Arius reigns . . 1927 

Eeigii of AraUus 1897 

Belochus, the last kmg of the race of Ninus . 1446 
He makes his daughter Atossa, surnamed Se- 

mii'amis II., his associate on tbe throne . 1433 
Atossa procures the death of her father, and 
marries Belatores (or Belapares) who reigns 1421 

The prophet Jonah appears in Nineveh, and 
foretells its destruction. Blair . . . 840 

Nineveh taken by Arbaces. [Sardanapalus, the 
king, is mythically said to have enclosed 
himself, his court, and women, in his palace, 
and to have perished in the fire kindled by 
himself.] 820 




Phul raised to the throne. Blair, about B.C. 

He invades Israel, but departs without drawing 
a sword. Blair ; 2 Kings xv. 19, 20 

Tiglath-Pileser invades Syria, takes Damascus, 
and makes great conquests . . . . 

Shalmaneser takes Samaria, transports the 
people, whom he replaces by a colony of 
Cutheans and others, and thus finishes the 
kingdom of Israel. Blair 721 

He retires from before Tyre, after a siege of five 
years. Blair 713 

Sennacherib invades Jndea, and his general, 
Rabshakeh, besieges Jerusalem, when the 
angel of the Lord in one night destroys 
180,000 of his army. Ludali xxxvii. . . 

[Commentators suppose that this messenger of 
death was the fatal blast known in eastern 
countries by the name of Samitl.'\ 

Esar-haddon invades Judea .... 

Holofernes is slain by Judith (?) . . . . 677 

Sarac (Sardanapalus II.) besieged, kills his wife 
and children, and burns himself in his 
palace 621 

Nineveh razed to the ground, and Assyria be- 
comes a Median province 605 

Assyria subdued by Alexander the Great . 332 

It subsequently formed part of the kingdoms 
of Syria, Parthia, and Persia. 

It was conquered by the Turks . . a.d. 1637 



ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE. See under Theatres. 

ASTORGA (IsT. W. Spain), the ancient Asturica Augusta, was taken by the French iu 
1 810, and treated with great severity. 

ASTRACAIST (S. E. Russia), a province acquired from the Mogul's empire in 1554; visited 
and settled by Peter the Great in 1722. 

ASTROLOGY. Judicial astrology was invented by the Chaldeans, and hence was trans- 
mitted to the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It was much in vogue in Italy and France 
in the time of Catherine de Medicis (married to Francis I. of France, 1533). HenauU. The 
early history of astrology in England is very little known. It is said that Bede, 673 — 
735j ■^vas addicted to it ; and Roger Bacon, 1214 — 1292. Lord Burleigh calculated the 
nativity of Elizabeth, and she, and all the European princes, were the humble servants of 
Dee, the astrologer and conjm-or ; but the period of the Stuarts was the acme of astrology 
amongst us. It is stated that Lilly was consulted by Charles I. respecting his projected 
escape from Carisbrook castle in 1647. Ferguson. Astrological almanacs are still pub- 
li.shed in London. 



ASTRONOMY. TJic earliest astronomical observations -were made at Babylon about 
2234 B.C. Tlie stndy of astronomy was much advanced in Chaldfea under Nabonassar ; it 

was known to the Chinese about iioo b.c. ; some say many centuries before. 
Planets, Comets. 

See Edijiscs, 


Lunar eclipses observed 'at Babylon, and re- 
corded by Ptolemy . . . about B.C. 

Spherical form of the earth, and the true cause 
of lunar eclipses, tauglit by Thales, died 

Further discoveries by Pythagoras, wlio taught 
the doctrine of celestial motions, and believed 
in the plui-ality of habitable worlds, died about 470 

^leton introdiices the lunar-solar cycle iibout . 432 

Treatises of Aristotle "concerning the heavens," 
and of Autolycus " on the motion of the 
sphere " (the earliest extant works on .astro- 
nomy) about 350 

Aratus wiites a poem on astronomy . .281 

Archimedes observes solstices, &,c. . . . 212 

Hipparchus, greatest of Greek astronomers, 
determines mean motion of sun and moon ; 
discovers precession of equinoxes, (fee. . 160-125 

The precession of the equinoxes confirmed, 
and the places and dist;mces of the plmets 
discovered by Ptolemy . . . a.d. 130-150 

Astronomy and geography cultivated by the 
Arabs about 760 : brought into Europe about 1200 

Alphonsine tables (which see) composed about . 1253 

Clocks first used in astronomy . . about 1500 

True doctrine of the motions of the planetary 
bodies revived by Copernicus, founder of 
modem astronomy, author of the almagest, 
published 1 543 

Astronomy adv.anoed by Tycho Brahe, who 3-et 
.adheres to the Ptolemaic system . about 1582 

True laws of the planetarj' motions announced 
by Kepler i6og 

Galileo constructs a telescope, 1609 ; and dis- 
covers Jupiter's satellites, &c. . . Jan. 8, 1610 

Various forms of telescopes and other instiii- 
ments used in astronomy invented . . 1608-40 

Cartesian system published by Des Cartes . 1637 

The transit of Venus over the sun's disc first 
observed by Horrocks . . . Nov. 24, 1639 

Cassini draws his meridian line, after Dante. 
Soe Bolorjn'i 1655 

The .aberration of the light of the fi.xcd stars 
discovered by Horrebow .... 1659 

Hii.yghens completes the discovery of Saturn's 
ring 1654 

Gregory invents a reflecting telescope . . 1663 

Discoveries of Picard 1669 

Charts of the moon constructed by Scheiner, 
Laugrenus, Hevelius, Riccioli, and others, 

about 1670 
Discoveries of Romer on the velocity of light, 

and his observation of Jupiter's .satellites . 1675 
Greenwich Observatory fotjnded . . . ,, 
Motion of the sun round its own axis proved 

by Halle.v 1676 

Newton's Principia published ; and the system, 

as now taught, demonstrated .... 1687 
Catalogue of the stars made by Flamstccd . . 1680 
C.assini's chart of the full moon executed . 1692 

Stitellites of Saturn, <fec., discovered by Cassini 1701 
Halley predicts the return of the comet (of 

1758) 1705 

Flamsteed's //i.s<o/-ift C(K/et< is published . . 1725 
Aberration of the stars clearly explained by 

Dr. Bradley . 1737 

John Harrison produces chi'onometers for de- 
termining the longitude, 1735 et seq., and 

obt.ains the reward 1764 

Nautical .almanac first published . . . 1767 inequalities found bj' La Grange . . 17S0 
Uranus and satellites discovered by Herschel. 

See Georcfium Sithni . . March 13, 1781 

Mthaniqae Celeste., by La Place, published . . 1796 
Royal Astrnnomical Society of London founded, 

1820 ; ch.artered 1831 

Beer and Miidler's map of the moon published 1834 
Lord Rosse's telescope constructed . 1828-45 

The planet Neptune discovered . Sept. 23, 1846 
Bond photographs the moon (see Photographt/, 

celestial) 1851 

Hansen's table of the moon published at ex- 
pense of the government . . . 1857 
Trustees of the late rev. Richard Sheepshanks 
present lo.oooJ. stock to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, for the promotion of the study 
of astronomy, meteorology, and magnetism, 

Dec. 2, 1850 
Large photograph of the moon by Warren De 

la Rue 1863 

[For the minor planets recently discovered, see 
Flatlets. ] 

ASTURIAS (N. W, Spain), an ancient principality, the cradle of the present monarchy. 
Here Pelago collected the Gothic fugitives, about 713, and founded a new kingdom, and by 
his victories permanently checked the progress of ]\Ioorish compicst. For a list of his 
successors, see the article Spain. Tlie heir-apparent of the monarchy has borne the title 
"prince of Asturias" since 1388, when it was assumed by Henry, son of John I. king of Leon, 
on his marriage with a descendant of Peter of Castile. In 1808, the junta of Asturias began 
the organised resistance to the French usurpation. 

ASYLUMS, OR PhivilEged Place.s, at first were places of refuge for those who by 
accident or necessity had done things that rendered them obnoxious to the law. God com- 
manded the JeM's to build certain cities for this purpose, 145 1 B.C., Numbers xxv. — The, 
posterity of Hercules are said to have built one at Athens, to protect themselves against sucli 
as their father had irritated. Cadmus built one at Tlicbes, 1490 B.C., and Romulus one at 
Mount Palatine, 751 B.C. See Sanctuaries. 

ATELIERS NATIONAUX (National Workshops) were established by the French pro- 
visional government in Feb. 1848. They interfered greatly with private trade, and about 
100,000 workmen threw themselves upon the government for labour and payment. Tlie 
breaking-up of the system led to the fearful conflicts in June following. The system was 
abolished in July. 

ATHAN ASIAN CREED. Atlianasius, of Alexandria, was elected bishop, 326. _ He 
firmly opposed the doctrines of Alius (who denied Christ's divinity) ; was several times exiled ; 




and died in 373. The creed wliicli goes by his name is supposed by many authorities to 
have been written about 340 ; by others to be the compilation of Vigilius Tapseusis, an 
African bishop in the 5th century. It was first commented on by Venatius Fortunatus, 
bishop of Poictiers in 570. Dr. Waterlaud's History of this creed (1723) is exhaustive. See 
A rians. 

ATHEISM (from the Greek a, without, Thcos, God, see Psalm xiv. i). This doctrine 
has had its votaries and martyrs. Spinoza was the defender of a similar doctrine (1632 — 
1677). Lucilio Vanini publicly taught atheism in France, and was condemned to be burnt 
at Toulouse in 1619. Mathias Knutzen, of Holstein, openly professed atheism, and had 
upwards of a thousand disciples in Germany about 1674; he travelled to make proselj'tes, 
and his followers were called Conscienciaries, becairse they held that there is no other deity 
than conscience. Many eminent men have jirofessed atheism. "Though a small draught of 
philosophy may lead a man into atheism, a deej) draught will certainly bring him back again 
to the belief of a God." Lord Bacon. 

ATHEN^A were great festivals celebrated at Athens in honour of Minerva. One was 
called Panatheneaj, the other Chalcea ; they are said to have been instituted by Erechtheus 
or Orpheus, 1397 or 1495 B.C. ; and Theseus afterwards renewed them, and caused them to 
be observed by all the Athenians, the first every fifth year, 1234 B.C. Plutarch. 

ATHEN^jUM, a place at Athens, sacred to Minerva, where the poets and philosophers 
recited their compositions. The most celebrated Athensea were at Athens, Rome, and 
Lyons: that of Piome, of great beauty, Avas erected by the emperor Adrian, 125. — Tlie 
Atuen^um Club of Jjondon was formed in 1823, for the association of jiersons of scientific 
a]id literary attainments, artists, noblemen and gentlemen, patrons of learning, &c., by 
tlie earl of Aberdeen, marquess of Lansdowne, Dr. T. Young, Moore, Davy, Scott, Mackin- 
tosh, Croker, Chaiitrey, Faraday, Lawrence, and otliers ; the clubhouse was erected in 
1829-30 on the site of the late Carlton-palace ; it is of Grecian architecture, and the frieze is 
an exact copy of the Panathenaic procession which formed the frieze of tlie Parthenon. — The 
Liverpool Athenceunr was opened Jan. i, 1799. — At Manchester, Bristol, and many other 
places, buildings under this name, and for a like purpose, have been founded. — The J.?Ac- 
iiccurn, a weekly literary journal, first appeared in 1828. 

ATHENS, the capital of ancient Attica, and of the modern kingdom of Greece. The first 
•sovereign mentioned is Ogyges, who reigned in Bojotia, and was master of Attica, then called 
Ionia. In his reign (about 1764 B.C.) a deluge took place (by some supposed to be the 
universal deluge), that laid waste the country, in which state it remained two himdred years, 
until the arrival of the Egyptian Cecrops and a colony, by whom the land was re-peopled, 
and twelve cities founded, 1556 b.c. The city is said to have been first called Cecropia ; the 
name having been changed to Athens in honour of Minerva (Athene), her worship having 
been introduced by Erechtheus X383 B.C. Athens was ruled by seventeen successive kings 
(487 years), by thirteen ^jCT'jjci-wa? archons (316 years), seven decennial archons (70 years), 
and lastly by annual archons (760 years). It attained great power, and perhaps no other 
city in the woi'ld can boast, in such a short space of time, of so great a number of citizens 
illustrious for wisdom, genius, and valour. The ancients, to distinguish Athens in a more 
pecuUar manner, called it Astic, the city, by eminence, and one of the eyes of Greece. See 

Arrival of Cecrops . £.c. [1558^. 143367.] 1556 

The Areopagus established ...... 1507 

Deucalion arrives in Attica 1502 

Reign of Amphicfyon .... [1499 H.'i 1497 

The Panatheiia;an Games . . [1481 H.] 1495 

Erich thonius reigns 1487 

Erechtheus teaches hiisbandry . . . . 1383 

Eleusinian mysteries introduced by Eumolpus 1356 
Erechtheus killed in battle with, the Eleii- 

sinians 1347 

yEgeus invades Attica, and ascends the throne . 1283 
He throws himself into the sea, and is drowned ; 

hence the name of the iKgean Sea. Eusebius 1235 

Theseus, his son, succeeds, and reigns 30 years „ 
He collects his subjects into one city, and 

names it Athens^ 1234 

Reign of Mnestheus, 1205 ; Demophoijn . .1182 

Court of Ephetes established 11 79 

The PrianepsEe instituted 11 78 

M elan thus conquers Xuthus in single combat 

and is chosen king ii^8 

Reign of Cudrus, his son, the last king . . 1092 

In a battle with the Heraclidse, Codrus is killed : 
he had resolved to perish ; the oi-acle having 
declared that the victory should be with the 
side whose leader was killed, 1070. Royalty 
abolished ; — Athens governed by archons, 
Medon the first [1070 .H. ] . .... 1044 

Alcmeon, last popetoo^ arch on, dies . . . 753 
Cherops, first decennial archon ... . . 752 
Hippomcnes deposed for his cruelty ; among 
other acts he exposed his o^vn daughter to be 
devoured by horses, on account of an illicit 

amour 713 

Erixias, seventh and last decennial archon, 

dies • . . 684 

Creou first annual archon . . . ■ . . 683 
Draco, the twelfth annual ai'chon, publishes his 

laws, said " to have been written in blood" 621 
Solon supersedes them by his excellent code . 594 
Pisistratus, the " tvrant," seizes the supreme 
power, 560 ; flight of Solon, 559. Pisistratus 
establisiies his governuient, 537; collects a 
public library, 531 ; dies ...... 527 




ATHENS, continued. 

I'"irst tragedy acted at Athens, on a waggon, by 
Thespis . b c. 535 

Hipparchus assassinated by Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton 514 

The law of ostracism established ; Hippias and 
the Pisistratidfe banished . . . .510 

J Socrates (aged 70) put to death . . .B.C. 399 

I The Corinthian war begins 395 

Cinon rebuilds the long walls, and fortifies 

the Pirasns 393 

The Ijacediiemonian fleet defeated at Kaxus by 

Chabrias 376 

Lemnos taken by Miltiades 504 Philip, king of Macedou, opposes the Atheni- 

Invasion of the Persians, who are defeated at j ans. See Macedon 359 

Marathon 4go Second sacred (or social) war .... 357-355 

Death of Miltiades 489 , First Philippic of Demosthenes .... 352 








483 I Battle of Chreronea, which aee ; the Athenians 
480 ' and Thebans defeated by Philip . . . . 
479 j Philip assas.-inated by Pausanias 
478 Athens submits to Alexander, who spares the 


Death of Alexander 

The Athenians rising against Macedon, defeated 

at Cranon ; Demosthenes poisons himself 
Athens surrenders to Cassander, who governs 


Demetrius Poliorcetes expels Demetrins Pbale- 
reus, and restores the Athenian democracy, 
307 ; the latter takes the chair of philosophy 296 
A league between Athens, Sparta, and Kgypt . 277 
Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, king of 

Macedon, 268 ; restored by Aratus 
The Athenians join the Achiiinn league. . . 
They join the jEtolians against Macedon, and 
send for assistance to Eome . . . . 
A Roman fleet arrives at Athens 
The Romans proclaim liberty at Athens . . 

Subjugation of Greece 1 

The Athenians implore assistance against the 
Romans from Mithridates, king of Pontus, 
whose general, Archelaus, makes himself 

master of Athens 88 

Athens besieged by Sylla, the Roman general, 

it is reduced to surrender by famine . . . 86 
Cicero studies at Athens, 79; and Horace. . 42 
The Athenians desert Pompey, to follow the 

interests of Caesar 47 

Athens visited by the Apoftle Paul . . a.d. 52 
Many temples, &c. , erected by Hadrian . 122-135 
Athens taken by Alaric, and spared from 

slaughter 396 

By Mahomet II 1456 

By the Venetians 1466 

Restored to the Turks 1479 

hens suffered much during the insurrection, 

1821-7. Taken May 17 1827 

ecomes the capital of the kingdom of modem 

Greece 1833 

Population, 50,000 1857 

(See Article Greece.) 

ATHLONE, Eosconimon, Ireland, fomierly a place of great strength and beauty, was 
burnt during the civil war in 1641. After the battle of the Boyne, colonel K. Grace held 
Athlone for James II. against a laesieging army, but fell when it was taken by assault by 
Ginckel, June 30, 1691. See Avghrim. 

ATLANTA. See United States, 1864. 

ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH. See Suhmarme Telegraph. 

ATMOLYSIS, a method of separating the constituent gases of a compound gas (such as 
atmospheric air) by causing it to pass through a vessel of porous material (such as graphite) ; 
first made known in Aug., 1863, by the discoverer, professor T. Graham, F.R.S., Master of 
the Mint. 


AT OSPHERIC RAILWAYS. The idea of producing motion by atmospheric pressui'e was 
onceivedby Papin, the French engineer, about 1680. Experiments were made on a line of rail, 
laid down across Wormwood Scrubs, London, between Shepherd's Bush and the Great Western 
railroad, to test the efficacy of atmosphei-ic tubes, the working of the air-pump, and speed of 
carriages upon this new principle on railroads in June, 1840, and then tried on a line between 
Croydon and London, 1845. An atmospheric railway was commenced between Dalkoy and 
Killiney, in the vicinity of Dublin, in Sept. 1843 : opened March 29, 1844 ; discontinued 

Aiistides, sumamed the Jmt, banished 
Athens taken by the Persian Xerxes . . . 
Burnt to the groiind by Mardoniiis . 
Rebuilt .ind fortified ; Piraeus built . . . 

Themistocles banished 

(Mmon, son of Miltiades, overruns all Thrace . 
Pericles takes pa>-tin public affiiirs, 469; he and 

Cimon adorn Athens. 464; the latter banished 

throuerh his influence 461 

Athens begins to tyrannise over Greece . . 459 
Literature, philosophy, and art flourish . . 448 
The first sacred Cor social) war ; which see . . ,, 
Tolmidas conducts an expedition into Bceotia, 

anfl is defeated and kill'^d ne ir Coronpa . 447 
The thirty years' truce between the Athenians 

and Lacedfemonians . . . . . . 445 

Herodotus said to have read his history in the 

council at Athens „ 

Pericles obtains the government . . . . 444 

Pericles subdues Samos 440 

Comedies prohibited at Athens . . . . ,, 
Alliance between Athens and Corcyra, then at 

war with Corinth, 433 ; leads to the Pelopon- 

nesian war (lasted 27 years) ; it began . . 431 
A dreadful pestilence, which had ravaged 

Ethiopia, Libya, Egypt, and Persia, extends 

to Athens, and continues for five years . . 430 
Death of Pericles of the plague . . . 429 

Disastrous expedition against Sicily ; death of 

the commanders, Demosthenes and Nicias ; 

Ath'-niaai fleet destroyed by Gylippus . 415-413 
Government of the " four hundred " . . . 411 
Alcibiades defeats the Lacedremouians at 

Cyzicu'i ; which sei 410 

Alcibiades, accused of aspiring to sovereign 

power, banished 407 

Athenian fleet destroyed by Lysander at 

.iEgospotanios 405 

He besieges Athens by land and sea its walls 

are destroyed, and it capitulates, and the 

Peloponnesian war terminates . . . 404 
Rule of the thirty tjrants, who are overthrown 

by Thrasybulus 403 


in 1855. A similar railway was proposed to be laid down in the streets of London by Mr. 
T. W. Rammell in 1857. Mr. RammeU's Pneumatic Railway was put in action successfully 
at the Crystal Palace on Aug. 27, 1864, and foUomng days. An act for a pneumatic railway 
between the "Waterloo railway station and Whitehall was passed in July, 1865. 

ATOMIC THEORY, in chemistry, deals with the indivisible particles of aU substance?. 
The somewhat incoherent labours of his predecessors (such as Wenzel in 1777) were reduced 
by John Dalton to foiu' laws of combining proportion, which have received the name of 
'•' Atomic Theory." His " Chemical Philosophy," containing the exposition of his views, 
appeared in 1808. Dr. C. Daubeny's work on the Atomic Theory was piiblished in 1850. 
In his standard oi Atomic weights Dalton takes hydrogen as i. Berzelius, who commenced his 
elaborate researches on the subject in 1848, adopts oxygen as 100. The former standard is 
used in this country, the latter on the continent. 

ATTAINDER, Acts of, whereby a person not only forfeited his land, but his blood was 
attainted, have been numerous. Two witnesses in cases of high treason are necessary where 
corruption of blood is incurred, unless the party accused shall confess, or stand mute, 7 & 8 
"Will. III. 1694-5. Blackstoiie. In 1814 and 1833 the severity of attainders was mitigated. 
The attainder of lord Russell, who was beheaded in Lincoln's-inn-fields, July 21, 1683, was 
reversed under "William, in 1689. The rolls and records of the acts of attainder passed in 
the reign of James II. were cancelled and publicly burnt, Oct. 2, 1695. Amongst the last 
acts reversed was the attaint of the children of lord Edward Fitzgerald (who was implicated 
in the rebellion in Ireland of 1798), July i, 1819. 

ATTICA. See Athens. 

ATTILA, surnamedthe '■'■Scourge of God,'" and thus distinguished for his conquests and 
his crimes, having ravaged the eastern empire from 445 to 450, when he made peace 
with Theodosius. He invaded the western empire, 450, and was defeated by Aetius at 
Chalons, 451 ; he then retired into Pannonia, where he died through the bursting of a 
bloodvessel on the night of his nuptials with a beautiful virgin named Ildico, 453. 

ATTORNEY (from tour, turn), a person qualified to act for others at law. The number 
in Edward III. 's reign was under 400 for the whole kingdom. In the 32nd of Henry VI. 
1454, a law reduced the practitioners in Norfolk, Norwich, and Suffolk, from eighty to four- 
teen, and restricted their increase. The number of attorneys now practising in England, or 
registered, or retired, is said to be about 13,000. The number in Ireland is stated at 2000. 
The qualifications of practice of attorneys and solicitors are now regulated by acts passed in 
1843 and 1 86 1. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL, a law officer of the crown, appointed by letters patent. He 
has to exhibit informations and prosecute for the king in matters criminal ; and to file bills 
in exchequer, for any claims concerning the crown in inheritance or profit. Others may 
bring bills against tlie king's attorney. The first attorney-general was "V\''illiam de Gisilham, 
7 Edward I. 1278. Bcatson. 


Sir Jeffery Palmer 1660 

Sir Heneage Finch, afterwards lord Finch . . 1670 
Sir Francis North, knt., aftds. lord Guildford . 1673 

Sir William Jones 1674 

Sir Cresvel Levinz, or Levinge, knt. . . . 1679 

Sir Robert Sawyer, knt 168 1 

Sir Thomas Powis, knt. ...... 1687 

Henry Pollexfen, esq. 1689 

Sir George Tre by, knt ,, 

Sir John Somers, knt., afterwards lord Somers . 1692 

Edward Ward, esq 1693 

Sir Thomas Trevor, knt., aftds. lord Trevor . 1695 

Edward Northey, esq 1701 

Sir Simon Harcourt, knt 1707 

Sir James Montagu, knt 1708 

Sir Simon Harcotirt, again ; aft. lord Harcourt . 1710 
Sir Edward Northey, knt., again . . . ,, 
Nicholas Leehmere, esq., aft. lord Lechmere . 1718 
Sir Robert Raymond, aft. lord Raymond . . 1720 
Sir Philip Yorke, aft. earl of Hardwicke . . 1724 

Sir John Willes, knt 1733 

Sir Dmley Ryder, knt 1737 

Hon. William Murray, aft. earl of Mansfield . 1754 
Sir Robert Henley, kut., afl. earl of Northington 1756 
Sir Charles Pratt, knt., afterwards lord Camden 1757 

Hon. Charles Yorke 1762 

Sir Fletcher Norton, knt., aft. lord Grantley . 1763 

Hon. Charles Yorke, again ; afterwards lord 

Morden, and lord chancellor. See Chancellors 1765 
William de Grey, afterwards lord Walsingham . 1766 
Edward Thurlow, esq., afterwarus lord Hhxivlow 1771 
Alex. Wedderburne, aft. lord Loughborough . 1778 

James Wallace, esq 1780 

Lloyd Kenyon, esq. ...... 1782 

James Wallace, esq 1783 

John Lee, esq ,, 

Lluyd Kenyon, again; afterwards lord Kenyon ,,j 
Sir Richard P. Arden, aft. lord Alvanley . .1784 

Sir Ai'chi bald Macdonald 1788 

Sir John Scott, afiericards lord Eldon . . 1793 
Sir J. Mitford, afterwards lord Redesdale . . 1800 
Sir Edward Law, ar't. Id. Ellenborough, Feb. 14, 1801 
Hon. Spencer Percival (murdered by Bellitig- 
/tani, May II, 1812). . . . April 15, 1S02 

Sir Arthur Pigott Feb. 12, 1S06 

Sir Vicary Gibbs, afterwards chief justice of 

the common pleas . . . April 7, 1807 
Sir Thomas Plumer, afterwards fli'st vice-chan- 
cellor of England .... June 26, 1812 
Sir William (janow .... May 4, 1813 

Sir Samuel Shepherd May 7, 1817 

Sir Robert Gifford, aft. lord Gifford July 24, 1819 
Sir John Singleton Copley, ajtenoa.rds lord 
Lyndhurst ..... Jan. g, 1824 


ATTOllNEY-GENERAL, conliaucd. 

Sii- Charles Wetherell . . . . Sept. 20, 1826 ^ir JaXm Savvlfi, afUfwarcU chief justice of the 

Sir James Scarlett .... April 27, 1827 j _ common [ileas July 13, i 

Sir Charles Wetherell, a;<.ain . . . Feb. 19, 1828 - - - - 

Sir Scarlett, agn. ; nft. Id. Abinger, June 29, 1829 

Sir Thos. Donmau, «/(. lord Donmau . Nov. 26, 1830 

Sir William Home .... Nov. 26, 1832 

Sir John Campbell March i, 1834 

Sir Frederick Pollock .... Dec. 17, ,, 
Sir John Campbell, again ; afUi-wanh lord 

Campbell (and, 1859, Id. chancellor), April 30, 1835 

Sir Thomas Wilde . • . . Julys, 1841 

Sir F. Pollock, again; 0/1!. chief baron Sept. 6, ,, 
Sir WiUiam W. Follett . . . April 17 

SirJohu Romilly, nft. mast, of the rolls, July 11, 1850 
Sir Alex. James Edmund Cockburn .March 28, 1851 
Sir Frederick Thesiger, again ; a/lerieards lord 

Chelmsford, and lord chancellor . March 2, 1852 
Sir Alexander Cockbuni, again ; aft. ch. just. 

of common pi 3as and queen's bench, Dec. 28, 1852 
Sir Richard Bethell .... Nov. 15, 1856 

Sir Fitzroy Kelly Feb. 27, 1858 

Sir R. BetheU (since lord Wcstbuiy, and lord 

chancellor) June 18, 1859 

Sir William Atherton . . . July, 1861 

Sir Frederick Tbosigor . . . . July 4, 1845 • Sir Roundell Palmer (pz-ewiii officer) . Oct. 2, 1863 
Sir Thomas Wilde, again ; oftenoards lord 
Truro, and lord chancellor . . July 6, 1846 

ATTRACTION is described by Coperaiciis, about 1520, as an appetence or appetite whicb 
the Creator impressed upon all parts of matter. It was described by Kepler to be a corporeal 
affection tending to union, 1605. In 1687, sir I. Newton published liis "Principia," con- 
taining his important researches on this subject. There are the attractions of Gravitation, 
Magnetism, and Electricity, which see. 

AUBAINE, a right of the French kings, which existed from the beginning of tho 
monarchy, whereby they claimed the property of every stranger who died in their countrj', 
v.ithont having been naturalised, was abolished by the national assembly in 1790; re-esta- 
blished by Napoleon ; and finally annulled July 14, 1819. 

AUCKLAND, capital of New Zealand (north island), was founded in 1840. The popu- 
lation of the district, in 1857, was estimated at 15,000 Europeans, and 35,000 natives. 

AUCTION, a kind of sale known to the Romans, mentioned by Petronius Arbiter (about 
66). The first in Britain was about 1700, by Eli.sha Yale, a governor of Fort George in 
the East Indies, who thus sold the goods he had brought home. Auction and sales' tax 
began, 1779. Various acts of parliament have regulated auctions and imposed duties, in 
some cases as high as five per cent. By 8 Vict. c. 15 (1845), the duties were repealed, and 
a charge imposed " on the licence to be taken out by all auctioneers in the United Kingdom, 
of loZ." In 1858 there were 4358 licences granted, producing 43,580?. Certain .sales are 
now exempt from being conducted by a licensed auctioneer, such as goods and chattels under 
a distress for rent, and sales under the provisions of the Small Debts' acts for Scotland and 

AUDIANI, followers of Audeus of Mesopotamia, who had been expelled from the Syrian 
church on account of his severely reproving the vices of the clergy, about 338, formed a sect 
and became its bishop. He was banished to Scythia, where he is said to have made many 
converts. His followers celebrated Easter at the time of the Jewish passovcr, attributed the 
human figure to the Deity, and had other peculiar tenets. 

AUDIT-OFFICE, Somerset Commissioners for auditing the public accounts 
were appointed in 1785. Many statutes regulating their duties have since been enacted. 

AUERSTADT (Prussia). Here and at Jena, on Oct. 14, 1806, the French signally de- 
feated the Prussians. See Jena. 

AUGHRIM, near Athlone, in Ireland, where, on July 12, 1691, a battle was fought 
between the Irisli, headed by the French general St. Ruth, and the English under general 
Ginckel. The former were defeated and lost 7000 men ; the latter lost only 600 killed and 
960 wounded. St. Ruth was slain. This engagement proved decisively fatal to the interests 
of James II. in Ireland. Ginckel was immediately after created earl of Athlone. The 
ball by which St. Ruth was killed is still suspended in the choir of St. Patrick's cathedral, 

AUGMENTATION of Poor Livings' Office, was established in 1704. 5597 poor 
clerical livings, not exceeding $ol. per annum, were found by the conamissioners under 
the act of Anne capable of augmentation, by means of the bounty then established by 

AUGMENTATIONS COURT was established in 1535 by 27 Henry VIII. c. 27, in rela- 
tion to the working of cap. 28 of the same session, which gave to the king the property of all 
monasteries having 200I. a year. The court Avas abolished by Mary in 1553, and restored by 
Elizabeth in 1558. 


AUGSBUEG (Bavaria), originally a colony settled by Augustus, about 12 B.C. ; became 
a free city, and flourished during the middle ages. Here many important diets of the 
empire have been held. In a.d. 952, a council confirmed the order for the celibacy of the 
priesthood ; and on Sept. 25, 1555, the celebrated treaty of Nassau was signed, by which 
religious liberty was secured to Germany. League, of Augsburg. A treaty between Holland 
and other European powers, to cause the treaties of Munster and Nimeguen to be respected, 
signed 1686. See MiinsUr and Nimeguen. Augsburg has suffered much by Avar, having 
been frequently taken by siege, 788, 1703, 1704, and, last, by the French, Oct. 10, 1805, 
M'ho restored it to Bavaria in March, 1806. 

AUGSBURG CONFESSION (Articles of Faith, drawn up by Luther, Melanchthon, and 
other reformers, and presented to, the emperor Charles Y. June 25, 1530), was directly 
opposed to the abuses of the church of Rome. It was signed by the elector of Saxony, and 
other princes of Germany, and was delivered- to the emperor in the palace of the bishop of 
Augsburg. See Interim. 

AUGURY. Husbandry was in part regulated by the coming or going of birds, long 
before the time of Hesiod. Three augurs, at Rome, with vestals and several orders of the 
])riesthood, were formally constituted by Numa, 710 B.C. The mtmber had increased, and 
was fifteen at the time of Sylla, 81 B.C., and the college of augurs was abolished by Theo- 
dosius about a.d. 391. 

AUGUST, the eighth Roman month of the year (previously called Sextilis, or the sixth 

from March), by a decree of the senate received its present name in honour of Augustus 

Cresar, in the year 8, or 27, or 30 B.C., because in this month he was created consul, had 

' thrice triumphed in Rome, added Egypt to the Roman empire, and made an end of the 

civil wars. He added one day to the month, making it 31 days. 

AUGUSTINS, a religious mendicant "order, which ascribes its origin to St. Augustin, 
bishop of Hippo, who died 430. These monks (termed Austin friars) first appeared about 
the nth century, and the order was constituted by pope Alexander lY., in 1256. The rule 
requires strict poverty, humility, and chastity. Martin Luther Avas an Augustin monk. 
The Augustins held the doctrine of free grace, and were rivals of the Dominicans. The order 
appeared in England soon after the conquest. One of their churches, at Austin Friars, 
London, erected in 1354, and since the Reformation used by Dutch protestants, was partiallj'^ 
destroyed by fire, Nov. 22, 1862. A religious house of the order, dedicated to S. Monica, 
mother of Augustin, was founded in Hoxton-square, London, 1864. 

AULIC COUNCIL, a sovereign court in Germany, established by the emperor Maximilian 
I., in 1506, being one of the two courts, the first called the Imperial Chamber, formerly 
held at Spires, and afterwards at "Wetzlar, and the other the Aulic council at Yienna. These 
courts, having concurrent jurisdiction, were instituted for appeals in particular cases from 
the courts of the Germanic states. 

AURAY (N."W. France). Here, on Sept. 29, 1364, the English, imder John Chandos, 
totally defeated the French and captured their heroic leader Du Guesclin. Charles of Blois, 
made duke of Brittany by the king of France, was slain, and a peace was made in 
April, 1365. 

AURICULAR CONFESSION. The confession of sin at the ear (Latin auris) of the 
priest must have been an early practice, since it is said to have been forbidden iu the 4th 
century by Nectarius, archbishop of Constantinople. It was enjoined by the council of 
Lateran, in 1215, and by the council of Trent in 1551. It was one of the six articles of 
faith enacted by our Henry YIII. in 1539, but was abolished in England at the Reformation. 
Its revival here has been attempted by the church party called Puseyites or Tractarians ; but 
without much success.* 

AURIFLAMMA, OB. Oriflamme, the national golden banner mentioned in French 
history, belonging to the abbey of St. Denis, and suspended over the tomb of that saint, 
1 140. Louis le Gros was the first king who took this standard from the abbey to battle, 
1 124. Henault. It appeared for the last time at Agincourt, 141 5. Tillet. 

AURORA FRIGATE, sailed from Britain in 177 1, to the East Indies, and was never 
again heard of. 

* The rev. Alfred Poole, one of the curates of St. Barnabas, Knightsbridge, was suspended from his 
office for practising auricular confession in June, 1858, by the bishop of London. On appeal, the suspen- 
sion-was confirmed in January, 1859. Much excitement was created by a similar attempt by the rev. 
Temple West at Boyne Hill, in September, 1858. 


AUEOR.E BOREALES anu AUSTRALES (Northern and Southern Polar Lights), though 
rartly seen iu central Europe, are frequent in the arctic and antarctic regions. In March, 
1 716, an aurora borealis extended from the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia. The 
whole horizon in the lat. of 57° N. overspread with continuous haze of a dismal red during 
the whole night, by which many people were much terrified, Kov. 1765. — Mr. Foster, the 
companion of captain Cook, saw the aurora in lat. 58° S. Its appearance in the southern 
hemisphere had been previously doubted.* 

AUSCULTATION. See Stethoscope. 

AUSTERLITZ (Moravia), where a battle was fought between the French and the allied 
Austrian and Russian armies, Dec. 2, 1805. Three emperors commanded : Alexander of 
Russia, Francis of Austria, and Napoleon of France. The killed and wounded exceeded 
30,000 on the side of the allies, who lost forty standards, 150 pieces of cannon, and thousands 
of prisoners. The decisive victory of the French led to the treaty of Presburg, signed Dec. 
26, 1805. See Presburg. 

AUSTIN FRIARS. See Attgustins. 

AUSTRALASIA, tlie fifth great division of the world. This name, originally given it 
by De Brosses, includes Australia, Van Diemen's Land, New Guinea, New Britain, New 
Caledonia, &c., mostly discovered within two centuries. Accidental discoveries were made 
by the Spaniards as early as 1526 ; but the first accurate knowledge of these southern lands 
is due to the Dutch, who in 1605 explored a part of the coast of New Guinea. Torres, a 
Spaniard, passed through the straits which now bear his name, between that island and 
Australia, and gave the first correct report of the latter, 1606. The Dutch continued theif 
discoveries. Between 1642 and 1644, Tasman completed a discovery of a great part of the 
Australian coast, together with the island of Van Diemen's Land (also called Tasmania). 
Wm. Dam pier, an Englishman, between 1684 and 1690, explored a part of the W. and N. 
W. coasts. Between 1763 and 1766, Wallis and Carteret followed in the track of Dam pier, 
and added to his discoveries; and in 1770, Cook first made known the East coast of 
Australia. Furueaux, iu 1773, Bligh in 1789, Edwards in 1791, Bligh (a second time) in 
1792, Portlock same year, Brampton and Alt in 1793, and Bass and Flinders explored the 
coasts and islands in 1798-9 and discovered Bass's Straits. Grant in 1800, and Flinders 
again (1801-5) completed the survey. M'Culloch. 

AUSTRALIA (formerly New Holland), the largest island and smallest continent ; with 
an estimated area of about three million square miles, including five provinces — New South 
Wales, Victoria (formerly Port Phillip), South Australia, 'Xieai Australia (or Swan River), 
and Queensland {loliich see). Population, with Tasmania and New Zealand, in 1863, about 
Australia said to have been known to the Per- Great distress in consequence of the loss of the 

tuguese before iSSo ship " Guardian," captain Riou . . . 1790 

Alleged discovery by Manoel Godinho de First church erected .... Aug. 1793 

Heredia, a Portuguese 1601 Government gazette first printed . . . 1795 

Torres passes through the straits named after Bass's Straits discovered by Bass and Flinders 1798 

him i6o5 First brick church built 1802 

The Dutch also discover Australia . March, ,, Colony of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) 

The coast surveyed by Dutch navigators : established 1803 

north, by Zeachen, 161S ; west, by Edels, 1 Flinders surveys the coasts of Australia . 1801-5 

1619 ; south, by Nuyts, 1627 ; north, by j Insiurection ot Irish convicts quelled . . 1804 

Carpenter . . 1627 | Governor Bligh for his tyranny deposed by an 

Wm. Dampier explores the W. and N.W. coasts, insurrection 1808 

1684-90 I Superseded by governor Macquarie_. . . i8og 
Tasman coasts S. Australia .... 1642 

Terra Austraiis (Western Australia) named New 
Holland by order of the States- General . . 1665 

William Dampier lands in Australia . . . 1686 

Capt. Cook, su- Joseph Banks, and others, land 
at Botany Bay, and name the country " New 
South Wales" April 28, 1770 

Governor Phillip founds the city of Sydney 
near Port Jackson, with 1030 peisons, 

Jan. 26, 1788 

[The seventy-first anniversary of this event was 
kept with much festivity, Jan. 26, 1859.] 

Expeditions into the interior by Wentworth, 

Lawsoi), Bloxland, Oxley. &c. . 1813, 1817, 1823 
Population, 29,783 (three-fourths convicts) . . 1821 
Wat Australia formed into a province . . 1S29 
Legislative council establi'^hed . . . . ,, 
Sturt's expeditions into South Australia 1828-1831 
South Aiistrctlta erected into a province . Aug. 1834 
Sir T. Mitchell's expeditions into E. Australia 1831-6 
First Rom. Cath. Bishop (Folding) amves, ;-'ept. 1835 
Port Phillip (now Victoria) colonised . Nov. ,, 
Fii-st Church of England bishop of Australia 
(Broughton) arrives .... June, 1836 

» The aurora is now attributed by many philosophers to the passage of electric light through the 
rarefied air of the polar regions. In August and September, 1859, when brilliant aun^rse were very 
frequent, the electric telegraph wires were seriously affected, and communications interrupted. Aurorte 
were Been at Rome and Basel, and also in Australia. 




AUSTRALIA, continued. 

Colony of South Australia founded . Dec. 1836 
Eyre's expedition overland from Adelaide to 

King George's Sound 1836-7 

Melbourne founded Nov. 1837 

Suspension of transportation 1839 

Strzelecki explores the Australian Alps . . 1840 
Great exertions of Mrs. Chisholm; establish- 
ment of " Home for Female Emigrants" 1841-6 
Census — 87,200 males ; 43,700 females . . . 1841 
Very numerous insolvencies . . . 1841-2 
Incorporation of city of Sydney . . . . 1842 
Leichhardt's expedition (never returned) . 1844-5 
Sturt proceeds from South Australia to the 

middle of the continent 1845 

Census (including Port Phillip) — 114,700 males ; 

74,800 females 1846 

Great agitation against transportation, which 

had been revived by earl Grey . . . 1849 
Port Phillip erected into a separate province as 

Victoria 1850 

Gold discovered by Mr. Hargraves, <fcc.* . . 1851 
Census — males, 106,000; females, 81,000 (exclu- 
sive of Victoria, 80,000) ,, 

Mints established .... March, 1853 

Transportation ceased . . . . . . ,, 

Gregory's explorations of interior . . . 1856 
Death of archdeacon Cowper (aged 80), after 

about fifty years' residence . . July, 1858 

Queensland made a province . . Dec. 4, 1859 

Stuart's expeditions 1858-60 

Expedition into the interior under Mr. Lan- 

dells organised Aug. i860 

Robert O'Hara Burke, Wm. John Wills, and 

others, start from Melbourne '. . Aug. 20, ,, 
J. M'Douall Stuart's expeditions . . . 1860-1 
Burke, Wills, and two others, cross Australian 

continent to the gulf of Carpentaria ; all 

perish on their return, except John King, 

who arrives at Melbourne . . . Nov. 1861 
Stuart, M'Kinlay, and Landsborough cross 

AustraUa from sea to sea .... 1861-2 

AUSTRASIA, CEsterreich (Eastern Kingdom), also called Metz, a French kingdom which 
lasted from the 6th to the 8th centmy. It began with the division of the territories of Clovis 
by his sons, 511, and ended hj Carloman becoming a monk and surrendering his power to his 
brother Pepin, who thus became sole king of France, 747. 

AUSTRIA, a Hamburg company's steamship, sailed from Southampton for New York 
Sept. 4, 1858, with 538 persons on board. On Sept. 13, in lat. 45° 'E., long. 41° 30' "W., it 
caught fire through the carelessness of some one in burning some tar to fumigate the steerage. 
Only 67 persons were saved — upwards of 60 by the Maurice, a French barque ; the rest by 
a Norwegian barque. A heartrending account was given in the Twncs, Oct. 11, 1858, by 
Mr. Charles Brews, an English survivor. 

AUSTRIA, CEsterreich (Eastern Kingdom), anciently Noricum and part of Pannonia, 
was annexed to the Roman empire about 33 ; was overrun by the Huns, Avars, &c. , during 
the 5th and 6th centuries, and taken from them by Charlemagne, 791-796. He divided the 
government of the country, establishing margraves of Eastern Bavaria and Austria. Louis 

* Gold Discovery. — Mr. Edward Hargraves went to California in search of gold, and was struck with 
the similarity between the rocks and strata of California and those of his own district of Conobolas, some 
thirty miles west of Bathurst. On his return home, he examined the soil, and after one or two months' 
digging, found a quantity of gold, Feb. 12, 1851. He applied to the colonial government for a reward, 
which he readily obtained, with an appointment as commissioner of crown lands. The excitement became 
intense throughout the colony of New South Wales, rapidly spread to that of Victoria and other places ; 
and in the first week of July, 1851, an aboriginal inhabitant, formerly attached to the WelUngton mission, 
and then in the service of Dr. Kerr, of Wallawa, discovered, while tending his sheep, a mass of gold among 
a heap of quartz. Three blocks of quartz (from two to three hundred weight), found in the Murroo Creek, 
fifty miles to the north of Bathui-st, contained ii2lb. of pure gold, valued at 4000^ The " Victoria nugget," 
a magnificent mass of vu'gin gold, weighing 340 ounces, was brought to England from the Bendigo 
diggings ; and a piece of pure gold of 106 lb. weight was also found. From the gold fields of Mount 
Alexander and Ballaarat, in the district of Victoria, up to Oct. 1852, there were found 2,532,422 ounces, or 
105 tons 10 cwt. of gold; and the gold exported up to the same date represented 8,863,477?. sterling. In 
Nov. 1856, the "James Baines " and "Lightning" brought gold from Melbourne valued at i,2oo,oooJ. The 
"Welcome nugget" weighed 2oiqJ ounces ; value, 8376?. los. lod. ; found at Baker's Hill, Ballaarat, June 11, 
1858. Between May 1S51, and May i86i,£old to the value of 96,000,000?. had been brought to England 
from New South Wales and Victoria. 

Remains of Burke and Wills recovered ; public 
funeral Jan. 21, 1863 

Strong and general resistance throughout Aus- 
tralia to the reception of British convicts in 
West AustraHa .... about June, 1864 

Cessation of transportation to Australia in 
three years announced amid much rejoicing, 

Jan. 26, 1865 

Morgan, a desperate bushi'anger and murderer, 
surrounded and shot .... April, ,, 

Boundary disputes between New South Wales 
and Victoria, in summer of 1864 ; settled 
amicably April ig, ,, 


Captain Arthur Philhp 1788 

Captain Hunter 1795 

Captain Philip G. King iSoo 

Captain William Bligh 1806 

Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (able and successful 

administration) 1S09 

General sir Thomas Brisbane . . . . 1821 

Sir Richard Bourke 1831 

Sir George Gipps ' . . 1838 

Sir Charles Fitzroy, governor-general of all the 
Australian colonies, with a certain jurisdic- 
tion over the lieutenant-governors of Van 
Diemen's Land, Victoria, and South and 

Western Australia 1846 

Sir William T. Denison 1854 

Sir John Young, governor of New South Wales 
only i860 

Acts for the government of Australia, 10 George 
IV., cap. 22, May 14 (1829), 6 & 7 William IV., 
cap. 68, Aug. 13 (1836), 13 & 14 Victoria, 
cap. 59, Aug. s (1850). Act for regulating the 
sale of waste lands in the Australian colonies, 
5 <Sj 6 Victoria, cap. 36, June 22 (1842). 




the German, son of Lonis le Debonnaire, about 817, subjugated Eadbod, mai'grave ot 
Austria ; but in 883 the descendants of the latter raised a civil M'ar in Bavaria against the 
emperor Charles the Fat, and eventually the margraves of Austria were declared immediate 
princes of the empire. In 1 156 the margraviate was made a hereditary duchy by the 
emperor Frederic I. ; and in 1453 i^' ^^^^ raised to an archduchy by the emperor Frederic III, 
Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, elected emperor of Germany in 1273, acquired Austria in 1278 ; 
and from 1493 to i8o4 ^^is descendants were emperors of Germany.. On Aug. 11, 1804, the 
emperor Francis II. renounced the title of emperor of Germany, and became hereditarj' 
emperor of Austria. The condition of Austria is now greatly improving under the enlightened 
rule of the present emperor. The political constitution of the empire is based upon — i. The 
pragmatic sanction of Charles VI., 1734, which declares the indivisibility of the empire and 
rules the order of succession. 2. The pragmatic sanction of Francis II., Aug. i, 1804, when 
he became emperor of Austria only. 3. The diploma of Francis- Joseph, Oct. 20, i860, 
whereby he imparted legislative power to the provincial states and the council of the empire 
(Reichsratb). 4. The law of Feb. 26, 1861, on the national representation. Population of 
the empire in Oct. 1857, 35,018,988. 

rederic II., the last male of the house of 
Bamberg, killed in battle with the Hunga- 
rians . _ June 15, 1246 

Disputed succession : the emperor Frederic II. 
sequestered the provinces, appointing Otto, 
count of Eberstein, governor in the name of 
the emperor ; they are seized by Ladislaus, 
mari?rave of Moravia, in right of his wife, 
Frederic's niece, Gertnide : he died childless 1247 

Herman, margrave of Baden, marries Ger- 
trude, and holds the provinces till his death 1250 

Ottocar (or Premislas), of Bohemia, acquires the 
provinces . . ' 1254 

Compelled to cede Styria to Hungary, he 
makes war and recovers it, in consequence 
of a great victory 1260 

He inherits C'arinthia, 1263 ; refuses to become 
emperor of Germany, 1272, and to render 
homage to Rodolph of Hapsburg, elected 
emperor 1273 

War against Ottocar as a rebel : he is compelled 
to cede Austria, Carinthia, and Styria to 
Rodolph 1274 

The war renewed : Ottocar perishes in the 
battle of Marchfeld . . . Aug. 26, 1278 

Albert I. assassinated by his nephew and 
others, while attempting to enslave the 
Swiss May i, 1308 

Successful revolt of the Swiss . . . 1307-9 

They totally defeat the Austrians under duke 
Leopold, at Morgarten . . . Nov. 16, 1315 

The duke Leojjold imposes a toll on the Swiss ; 
which tliey resist with violence : he makes 
war on them, and is defeated and slain at 
Sempach July, 1386 

Duke Albert V. obtains Bohemia and Hungary, 
and is elected emperor of Germany . . . 1437 

The emperor Frederic III., as head of the 
house of Hapsburg, creates the archduchy 
of Austria with sovereign power . Jan. 6, 1453 

Austria divided between him and his relatives, 
'4S7 ; V7ar ensues between them till . . . 1463 

Burgundy accrues to Austria by the marriage 
of Maximilian with the heiress of that pro- 
vince 1477 

Also Spain, by the marriage of PhiUp I. of Aus- 
tria, with the heiress of Arragon and Castile 1496 

Bohemia and Hungary united to Austria under 
Ferdinand I. 1526 

Austria hai'assed by Turkish invasions . 1529-45 

Charles V., reigning over Germany, Austria, 
Bohemia, Hungary, Spain, the Netherl.ands, 
and their dependencies, abdicates (sec Sjiain) 1556 

Mantua ceded to the emperor . . Jan. 3, 1708 

By treaty of Utrecht he obtains part of the 
duchy of Milan .... April 11, 1713 

By treaty of Rastadt he acquires the Nether- 
lands 1714 

The Netherlands, Naples, Milan, &c., added 
to Austrian dominions . . . Nov. 13, 1715 

Further additionson the east (Temeswar, i'c.) 

by the peace of Passarowitz .... 
Naples and Sicily given up to Spain . . . 
Death of Charles VI., the last sovereign of the 

male line of the house of Hapsburg ; his 

daughter, Maria Theresa, becomes queen of 


She is attacked by Prussia, France, Bavaria, 

and Saxony ; but supported by Great Britain 
Francis, duke of Lon-aine, who had married 

Maria Theresa in 1736, elected emperor . 
By the treaty of Campo Formic, the emperor 

gives up Lombardy (which ste) and obtains 

Venice Oct 15, 

Francis II., emperor of Germany, becomes 

Francis I. of Austria . . . Aug. 11, 
His declaration against France . . Aug. 5, 
War ; Napoleon successful, enters Vienna, 

Nov. 14, 
Austrians and Russians defeated at AusterUtz, 

Dec. 2, 
By treaty of Presburg, Austria loses Venice 

and the Tyrol Jan. i, 

Vienna evacuated by the French . Jan. 12, 
The French again take Vienna . May 13, 
But restore it at the peace . . Oct. 24, 

Napoleon marries the archduchess Maria 

Louisa, the daughter of the emperor, April i, 
Congress at Vienna .... Oct. 2, 
Treaty of Vienna .... Feb. 25, 
[Italian proviJices restored with additions — 

Lombardo-Vcuetian kingdom established, 

April 7.] 
Death of Francis I., and accession of Ferdinand, 

March 2, 
New treaty of commerce with England, July 3, 
Ferdinand I. is crowned at Milan . Sept. 6, 
Insurrection at Vienna : flight of Mettemich, 

March 13, 
Insun-ections in Italy. See 3Iilan, Venice, and 

Sardinia March 18, 

Another insurrection at Vienna : the emperor 

flies to Inspruck .... May 15-17, 
Archduke John appointed vicar-general of the 

empire ...... May 29, 

A constituent assembly meet at Vienna, July 22, 
Insurrection at Vienna : murder of Count 

Latour Oct. 6, 

Revolution in Hungary and war. See Hungary. 
The emperor abdicates in favour of his nephew, 

Francis-Joseph Dec. 2, 

Convention of Olmiitz . . . Nov. 29, 
The emperor revokes the constitution of 

March 4, 1849 .... Dec. 31, 
Trial by jury abolished in the empire Jan. 15, 
Death of prince Schwartzenberg, prime minis- 
ter April 4, 

Attempted assassination of the emperor by 

Libenyi, Feb. 18 ; who was executed, Feb. 28, 
Commercial treaty with Prussia . Feb. 19, 














AUSTRIA, continued. 

Austrians enter Danubian Principalities Aug. 

Alliance witli England and France relative to 
eastern question Dec. 2 

Great reduction of the army . . June 24, 

Degrading concordat with Rome . Aug. 18, 

Amnesty for political offenders of 1848-9, 

July 12, 

Austrians quit the Danubian PrincipaUties, 


Austria remonstrates against the attacks of th« 
free Sardinian press . . . Feb. 10, 

Firm reply of count Cavour . . Feb. 20, 

Diplomatic relations between Austria and Sar- 
dinia broken off in consequence, March 23-30, 

Emperor and empress -visit Hungary May, 

Death of marshal Radetzky (aged 92) Jan. s, 

Excitement throughout Europe, caused by the 
address of the emperor Napoleon III. to the 
Austrian ambassador : — "I regret that our 
relations with your government are not as 
good as formerly, but I beg of you to tell the 
emperor that my personal sentiments for 
him have not changed]" . . . Jan. 1, 

The emperor of Austria replied in almost the 
same words on ... . Jan. 4, 

Prince Napoleon Bonaparte marries princess 
Olotilde of Sardinia . ■ . . .Jan. 30, 

Austria prepares for war ; enlarges her armies 
in Italy ; and strongly fortifies the banks of 
the Ticino, the boundary of her Italian pro- 
vinces and Sardinia . . Feb. <& March, 

Lord Cowley at Vienna on a " mission of peace," 

Feb. 27, 

Intervention of Russia — proposal for a con- 
gress ; disputes respecting the admission of 
Sardinia — Sardinia and France prepare for 
war March & April, 

Austria demands the disarmament of Sardinia 
and the dismissal of the volunteei-s from other 
states within three days . . April 23, 

This demand rejected . . . April 26, 

The Austrians cross the Ticino . . April 26, 

The French troops enter Piedmont April 27, 

The French emperor declares war (to expel the 
Austrians from Italy) . . . May 3, 

Resignation of count Buol, foreign minister ; 
appointment of count Rechberg, May 13-18, 

The Austrians defeated at Montebello, May 20 ; 
at Palestro, May 30-31 ; at Magenta, June 4; 
at Malegnano (Marignano) . . June 8, 

Prince Mettemich dies, aged 86 (he had been 
actively engaged in the wars and negotia- 
tions of Napoleon I.) . . . June II, 

Austrians defeated at Solferino (near the 
Mincio) ; the emperors of Austria and France 
and king of Sardinia present . . June 24, 

Armistice agreed upon, July 6 ; the emperors 
meet, July 11 ; the prehminaries of peace 
signed at Villa Franca [Lombardy given up 
to Sardinia, and au Italian confederation 
proposed to be formed] . . . July 12, 

Manifesto justifying the peace issued to the 
army, July 12 ; to the people . July 15, 

Patent issued, granting greatly increased privi- 
leges to the Protestants, — announced Sept. 

Conference between the envoys of Austria and 
France at Zurich . . Aug. 8 to Sept. 

Many national reforms proposed . . Sept. 

Treaty of Zurich, confirming the prehminaries 
of ViUa Franca, signed . . . Nov. 11, 
Decrees removing Jewish disabilities, 

Jan 6, 10, Feb. 18, 

Patent issued for the summoning the great 
imperial council (Reichsrath), composed of 
representatives elected by the provincial 
.diets March 5, 

Discovery of great corruption in the army 
financial arrangements, a deficiency of about 
i,7oo,oooZ. discovered ; general Eynatten 
commits suicide ; 82 persons arrested, March, 




Austria protests against the annexation of Tus- 
cany, &c. , by the king of Sardinia . April, ; 

Baron Brilok, suspected of complicity in the 
army frauds, dismissed April 20 ; commits 
suicide ...... April 23, 

The Reichsrath assembles, May 31 ; addressed 
by the emperor June i, 

Liberty of the press further restrained . July, 

Unsettled state of Hungary (which see) July-Oct. 

Friendly meeting of the emperor and the regent 
of Prussia at Toplitz . . . July 26, 

Free debates in the Reichsrath ; strictures on 

the concordat, the finances, &c. ; proposals 

for separate constitutions for the provinces, 

Aug. & Sept. 

The Reichsrath adjourned. . . Sept. 29, 

Diploma conferring on the Reichsrath legis- 
lative powers, the control of the finances, &c., 
a manifesto issued to the populations of the 
empire (not well received) . . Oct. 20, 

Meeting of the emperor with the emperor of 
Russia and prince regent of Prussia at 
Warsaw : no important result . Oct. 20-26, 

The government professes non-intervention in 

Italy, but increases the army in Venetia, 

Oct. & Nov. 

The empress goes to Madeira for health Nov. 

Sale of Venetia, pubUcly spoken of, is re- 
pudiated in Dec. 

Ministerial crisis : M. SchmerUng becomes 
minister — more political concessions, Dec. 13, 

The proscribed Hungarian, count Teleki, at 
Dresden, is given up to Austria, which causes 
general indignation, about Dec. 20 ; he is 
released on parole .... Dec. 31, 

Amnesty for political offences in Hungary, 
Croatia, &c., published . . . Jan. 7, ■ 

Reactionary policy of the court leads to ui- 

creased disaffection throughout the empire, 

Jan. &, Feb. 

The statutes of the new constitution for the 
Austrian monarchy published . . Feb. 6, 

Civil and political rights granted to Protestants, 
throughout the emphe, except in Hungary 
and Venice April 8, 

Meeting of Reichsrath — no deputies present 
from Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania, Venetia, 
or Istria April 29, 

Ministry of Marine created . . . Jan. : 

Inundation of the Danube, causing great 
distress Feb. 4, 

Increased taxation proposed . . March, 

At an imperial council, the emperor present, 
the principle of ministerial responsibility is 
resolved on April 26, 

Deficiency of 1,400,000?. in financial statement 
— indignation of the Reichsrath . . June, 

Amnesty to condemned poUtical offenders in 
Himgary proclaimed . . . Nov. 18, 

Reduction in the army assented to ; and a per- 
sonal liberty law (resembling our habeas 
corpus act) passed .... Dec. 

Polish insurrection .... Jan. : 

Meeting of the German sovereigns(except kings 
of Prussia, Holland, and Denmark) with the 
emperor of Austria, at Frankfort, by his 
invitation : the draft of a reform of the fede- 
rate constitution agreed to . Aug. 16-31, 

The Transylvanian deputies accept the con- 
stitution, and take their seats in the 
Reichsrath Oct. 20, 

Gallicia and Cracow declared to be in a state of 
siege Feb. 29, 

(For events of the war with Denmark, see 

The emperor and the king of Prussia meet at 

Carlsbad June 22, 

Proposed reduction of the army, about Oct. 9, 
Rebignation of count Rechberg, foreign minis- 

F 2 




AUSTRIA, continued. 

ter, succeeded by count Mensdorff-Pouiily, 
about Oct. 27, 1864 

Emperor opens Reichsrath, Nov. 14 ; great 
freedom of debate ; the state of siege in 
Gallicia censured Dec. ,, 

Austria supports the Confederation in the dis- 
pute respecting the duchies . . Dec. , , 

Apparent reunion between Austria and Pi-ussia, 

Jan. 1865 

Great financial difl&oulty ; proposed reduction 
in the army by the chambers . . Jan. ,, 

Contest between the government and the 
chambers respecting reduction in army, &c. , 

April, , , 

Reported failure of Mr. Hutt's mission to 
Vienna, to promote free trade . . June, ,, 

New ministry formed, including count Mens- 
dorff as nominal premier, and counts Bel- 
credi and Esterhazy as ministers : concilia- 
tory measures towards Hungary, and other 
provinces, jiroposed ; centralisation of the 
government to be given up, and free trade in 

prospect July, „ 

(See Germany, Hungary, Vienna, <fec.) 

Leopold I., 928; Albert I., 1018 ; Ernest, 1056; 
Leopold II., 107s ; Leopold III., 1096 ; Albert II., 
1136; Leopold IV., 1136; Henry II., 1142 (made a 
duke 1156). 

1 1 56. Henry II. 

1177. Leopold V. He made prisoner Richard I. of 
England when returning incognito from the 
crusade, and sold him to the emperor 
Henry VI. 
1 194. Frederic I., the catholic. 
1198. Leopold VI., the glorious. Killed in battle. 

1230. Frederic II., the warUke. Killed in a battle 
with the Hungarians, June 15, 1246. 


Albert I. and his brother Rodolph. Albert 
becomes emperor of Germany, 1298. 

Frederic I. 

Albert II. and Otto, his brother. 


Albert III. and Leopold II. or III. (killed at 

William, and other brothers, and their cousin 
Albert IV. 

The same. The provinces divided into the 
duchies of Austria and Carinthia, and the 
county of Tyrol. 

Albert V., duke of Austria ; obtains Bohe- 
mia and Moravia ; elected king of Hun- 
gary and emperor, 1437 ; dies, 1439 ; suc- 
ceeded by his posthumous son. 

Ladislaus, who dies childless, 1457. 

The emperor Frederic III. and Albert VI. 

Maximilian I., son of Frederic III. (archduke), 
emperor. (See Germany.) 





Emperors of Austria. 

1804. Francis I. (late Francis II. of Germany), 
emperor of Austria only, Aug. 11, 1804 > died 
March 2, 1835. 

1835. Ferdinand, his son, March 2 ; abdicated in 
favour of his nephew, his brother Francis- 
Charles having renounced his rights. 

1848. Fr.ancis-Joseph, Dec. 2, 1848, emperor of 
Austria, son of Francis-Charles [born Aug. 
18, 1830; married April 24, 1854, to Eliza- 
beth of Bavaria]. 

[Heir; their son, the archduke Rodolph, bom 
Aug. 21, 1858.] 

AUTHORS. Tor the law securing copyright, see Copyrights. 

AUTO DA FE (Act of faith), tlie term given to the punishment of a heretic, generally 
■burning alive, inflicted by the Inquisition {ivhich see). Since 1203, more than 100,000 
victims have been sacrificed by the sentence of the inquisitions of Roman Catholic countries. 
One of the last executions of this kind was at Goa, where twenty sufferers perished in the 
ilames, 17 17. An auto da /etook place at Lisbon, in 1761, when Malagrida, a Jesuit, was 
strangled and burnt for heresy. 

AUTOMATON" FIGURES (or Andeoides), made to imitate living actions, are of early 
invention. Archytas' flying dove was formed about 400 B.C. Friar Bacon is said to have 
made a brazen head which spoke, A.D. 1264. Albertus Magnus spent thirty years in making 
another. A coach and two horses, with a footman, a page, a lady inside, were made by 
Camus for Louis XIV. when a child ; the horses and figures moved naturally, vaiiously, 
and perfectly, 1649. Vaucanson, in 1738, made an artificial duck, which performed every 
function of a real one, even an imperfect digestion — eating, drinking, and quacking. He 
also made a flute-player. The Avriting automaton, exhibited in 1769, was a pentagraph 
worked by a confederate out of sight. The automaton chess-player, exhibited the same 
year, was also worked by a hidden person, and so was "the invisible girl," 1800. Maelzel 
made a trumpeter about 1809. Early in this century, an automaton was exhibited in London 
which pronounced several sentences with tolerable distinctness. In July, 1864, the "anthro- 
poglosson, " exhibited in St. James's-hall, London, seemed to utter songs. 

AUTOTYPOGRAPHY, a process of x)roducing a metal plate from drawings, made known 
by Mr. Wallis, in April, 1863 ; it resembled Nature-Printing (which see). 

AVA in 1822 became the capital of the Burmese empire, it is said, for the third time. A 
British embassy was received here in Sept. 1855. 

AVARS, barbarians who ravaged Pannonia, and annoyed the eastern empire in the 6th 
and 7th centuries, subdued by Charlemagne about 799, after an eight years' war. 

AVEBURY, on Abtjey ("Wiltshire). Here are the remains of the largest Celtic or 
Druidical work in this country. They have been surveyed by Aubrey, 1648 ; Dr. Stukely, 


1720; and sir E. 0. Hoare, in 1812, and others. Much information may be obtained from 
Stukely's " Abury" (1743), and Hoare's "Ancient "Wiltshire" (1812-21). Many theories 
have been put forth, but the object of these remains is still unknown. They are considered 
to have been set up during the " stone age," i.e., when the weapons and implements 'v^ere 
mainly formed of that material. 

AVEIIST, OR AvAiNE (Luxemburg, Belgium) . Here the French and Dutch defeated the 
Spaniards, May 20, 1635. 

''AVE MARIA/ " the salutation of the angel Gabriel to the Virgin (LuTce i. 28), was 
made a formula of devotion by pope John XXI. about 1326. In the beginning of the 15th 
century Vincentius Ferrarius used it before his discourses. Bingham. 

AVIGNOISr, a city, S. E. France, ceded by Philip III. to the pope in 1273. The papal 
seat was removed by Clement V. to Avignon, in 1309. In 1348 Clement VI. purchased the 
city from Jane, countess of Provence and queen of Naples. In 1408, the French, wearied 
of the schism, expelled Benedict XIII., and Avignon ceased to be the seat of the papacy. 
Here were held nine councils (1080 — 1457). It was seized and restored several times by the 
French kings ; the last time restored on the suppression of the Jesuits, 1773. It was claimed 
by the national assembly, 1791, and was confirmed to France by the congress of sovereigns 
in 1815. In Oct. 1791, horrible massacres took place here. 

AXE, WEDGE, "WIMBLE, LEVEE, and various tools in common use, are said to have 
been invented by Dsedalus, an artificer of Athens, to whom also is ascribed the invention of 
masts and sails for ships, 1240 B.C. Many tools are represented on the Egyptian 

AYACUCHO (Peru). Here the Peruvians finally achieved their independence by 
defeating the Spaniards, Dec. 9, 1824. 

AYDE, OR Aide, the tax paid by the vassal to the chief lord upotl urgent occasions. In 
France and England an aide was due for knighting the king's eldest son. One was demanded 
by Philip the Fair, 13 13. The aide due upon the birth of a prince, ordained by the statute 
of Westminster (Edward I.) 1285, for the ease of the subject, was not to be levied until he 
was fifteen years of age. The aide for the marriage of the king's eldest daughter could not 
be demanded in this country untU her seventh year. In feudal tenures there was an aide 
for ransoming the chief lord ; so when our Eichard I. was kept a prisoner by the emperor of 
Germany, an aide of 20s., to redeem him, was enforced upon every knight's fee. 

AYLESBUEY, Buckinghamshire, was reduced by the West Saxons in 571. St. O'Syth, 
beheaded by the pagans in Essex, was buried there, .600. William the Conqueror invested 
his favourites with some of its lands, under the tenure of providing ' ' straw for his bed- 
chambers ; three eels for his use in winter ; and in summer, straw, rushes, and two green 
geese thrice every year." Incorporated by charter in 1554. 

AYLESFOED (Kent). Here, it is said, the Britons were victorious over the Saxon 
invaders, 455. 

AZmCOUE. ^&& AgincoiirL 

AZOFF, Sea of, the Palus Mseotis of the ancients, communicates by the strait of 
Tenikal^ (the Bosphorus Cimmerius) with the Black Sea, and is entirely surrounded by 
Eussian territory ; Taganrog and Kertch being the principal places. An expedition com- 
posed of British, French, and Turkish troops, commanded by sir G. Brown, arrived at 
Kertch, May 24, 1855, when the Eussians retired, after blowing up the fortifications. On 
the 25th the allies marched upon Yenikale, which also off"ered no resistance. On the same 
evening the allied fleet entered the sea of Azoff, and in a fe^ days completed their occupa- 
tion of it, after capturing a large number of merchant vessels, &c. An immense amount of 
stores was destroyed by the Eussians to prevent them falling into the hands of the allies. 

AZOEES, OR Westeek Isles (E". Atlantic), belonging to Portugal, the supposed site of 
the ancient Atlantis, are said to have been discovered in the 15 th century by a Dutchman 
who was driven on their coasts by the weather. Cabral, sent by the Portuguese court, fell in 
with St. Mary's in 1432, and in 1457 they were aU discovered. Martin Behem found one of 
them covered with beech trees, and he called it therefore Fayal ; another abounding in sweet 
flowers, he called it Flores; and all, being full of hawks, were therefore named Azores. They 
were colonised about 1450. A violent concussion of the earth took place here for twelve 
days in 1591. A devastating earthquake in 1757. Here are fountains of boUing water. A 
volcano at St. George's destroyed the town of Ursulina, May, 1808 ; and in 181 1 a volcano 


appeared near St. Michael's, in the sea, where the water was eighty fathoms deep. An island 
called Sabrina gradually disappeared, Dec. 1812. 

AZOTE, the name given liy French chemists to nitrogen {wliicli see). 

AZTECS, the ruling tribe in Mexico at the time of the Spanish invasion (15 19). In 
1853 some pretended Aztec children were exhibited in London. They were considered to be 
mere dwarfs. 


BAAL (Lord), the male deity of the Phoenician nations, frequently made the object of 
worship by the Israelites ; and established as such by Ahab, 918 B.C. His worshippers 
were massacred by Jehu and his temple defiled, 884 b. c. 

BAALBEC, Heliopolis (both meaning "City of the Sun"), an ancient city of Syria, 
of which magnificent ruins remain, described by Wood (in 1757), and others. Its origin 
(referred to Solomon) is lost in antiquity. Here Septimus Severus built a temple to the sun, 
200. Tlie city was sacked by the Moslems, 748, and by Timom- Bey, 1400. 

BABEL, Tower OF, built by Noah's posterity, 2247 B.C. (Genesis, ch. xi.) The mag- 
nificent temple of Belus, asserted to have been originally this tower, is said to have had lofty 
sj)ires, and many statues of gold, oue of them forty feet high. In the upper part of this 
temple was the tomb of the founder, Belus (the Nimrod of the sacred scriptures), who was 
deified after death. Blair. The Birs ISTimroud, examined by Rich, Layard, and others, is 
considered by some persons to be the remains of the tower of Babel. 

BABINGTON'S CONSPIRACY, to assassinate queen Elizabeth, and make Mary of 
Scotland queen, was devised by John Savage, a soldier of Philip of Spain, and approved by 
Wm. Gifford and John Ballard, catholic jiriests. Anthony Babingtou and other gentlemen 
were induced to join in the scheme. They were betrayed by Pooley Aspy, and fourteen were 
executed, Sept. 20, 21, 1586. Babington was deluded by a romantic hope that Mary, in 
gratitude, would accept him as a husband. 


BABYLON,* an Asiatic empire (see Assyria), founded by Belus, supposed to be the 
Nimrod of holy writ, the son of Chus, and grandson of Ham, 2245 B.C. Lencjlet. Ninus 
of Assyi-ia seized on Babylon, and established what was properly the Assyiian empire, by 
uniting the two sovereignties, 2059 B. c. 2233 CI. The second empii-e of Babylon com- 
menced about 725 B.C. 

Earliest astronomical observations, at Babylon, 

B.C. 2234 [2230, H. 2233, CI.'] 

Nabonassar governs 747 

Nabopolasser, the Assyrian governor, revolts, 
and makes himself king of Babylon . . 725 

Nebuchadnezzar invades Syria, 606 ; Judea, 
60s ; defeats Pharaoh Neoho, and annihilates 
the Egyptian power in Asia . . . . 604 

He returns to Babylon with the spoils of Jeru- 
salem. Blair ; Lenr/kt ,, 

Daniel interprets the king's dream of the gol- 
den-headed imtige. Daniel ii 602 

Nebuchadnezzar goes a fhird time against Jeru- 
salem, takes it and destroys the temple. 
Blair : Usher 5S9 to 587 

The golden image set up, and Shadrach, 
Meshach, and Abed-nego thrown into the 

furnace for refusing to worship it Daniel 

iii. B.C. 570 

Daniel interprets the king's second dream, and 

Nebuchadnezzar is driven from among men. 

Daniel iv 569 

The king recovers his reason and his throne, 

562; dies 561 

Evil Merodach (Neriglassar), king . . . 559 
Labynetus (Nabonadius or Belshazzar?) king . 555 
Babylun taken by the Medes and Persians, 

under Cyrus, and Belshazzar slain . . . 538 
Daniel thrown into the lions' den. Daniel vi. . 537 
Babylon revolts, and is taken by Darius . . 518 
Taken by Alexander, 331 ; he dies here . . 323 
Seleucus Nic*tor, who died B.C. 280, transfers 

the .'■eat of government to Seleucia, and 

Babylon is deserted. 

* The city of Babylon was at one time the most magnificent in the world. The Hanging Gardens are 
described as having been of a square form, and in terraces one above another initil they rose as 
higli as the walls of the city, the ascent being from terrace to terrace by steps. The whole pile was 
sustained by vast arches raised on other aiches ; and on the top were flat stones closely cemented 
together with piaster of liitumen, and that covered with sheets of lead, upon which lay the mould of 
the garden, where there were large trees, shrubs, and flowers, with various sorts of vegetables. There 
were five of these gardens, each containing about (our English acres, and disposed in the form of an 
amphitheatre. Slrabo: Diodorus. PHuy said that in his time it was but a desolate wilderness. Mr. Eich 
visited the ruins in 1811, and sir R. Kerr Porter in 1818. The laborious researches of Jlr. Layard, sir H. 
Rawlinson, JI. Botta, and others, and the interesting relics excavated and brought to this country between 
the years 1849 and 1855, have caused very much attention to be given to the historv of Babylon. M.any of 
the inscriptions in the cuneiform or wedge-like character have been translated, by col. (now 
sir Henry) Rawhnson, and published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. In the spring of 1855, he 
returned to Englimd, bringing with him many valuable relics, drawings, &c., which are now m the British 
Museum. He gave discourses on the subject at the Royal Institution, London, in 1851, 1855, and 1865. 




BACCHANALIA (games celebrated in honour of Bacchus) arose in Egypt, aud were 
brought into Greece by Melampos, aud were there called i)iore?/5;'a, 'about 1415 b.c. Diodorus. 
In Rome the Bacclmnalia were suppressed, 186 B.C. The priests of Bacchus were called 

BACHELORS. The Roman censors frequently imposed fines on unmarried men ; aud 
men of full age were obliged to marry. The Spartan women at certain games laid hold of old 
bachelors, dragged them round their altars, and inflicted on them various marks of infamy 
and disgrace. Vossius. A tax was laid upon bachelors in England, twenty-five j'^ears of 
age, 12I. los. for a duke, and for a common person one shilling, 7 Will. III., 1695. 
Bachelors were subjected to an extra tax on their male and female servants, in 1785. 

BACKGAMMON. Palamedes of Greece is the reputed inventor of this game, about 
1224 B.C. It is stated by some to have been invented in Wales in the period preceding the 
conquest, Henry. 

BACTRIANA, a province in Asia, was subjugated by Cyi'us aud formed part of the 
Persian empire, when conquered by Alexander, 330 B.C. About 254 b.c, Theodotus or 
Diodotus, a Greek, threw off the yoke of the Seleucidas, and became king. Eucratides 
reigned prosperously about 181 B.C., and Menander about 126 B.C. The Greek kingdom 
appears to have been broken up by the irruption of the Scythians shortly after. 

BADAJOZ (S. W. Spain). An important barrier fortress, siirrendered to the French, 
mider Soult, March 11, 181 1 ; was invested by the British, under lord Wellington, on March 
16, 1812, and stormed and taken on April 6 following. The French retreated in haste. 

BADDESDOWN HILL, or Mount Badon, near Bath, where Bede says the Britons 
defeated the Saxons in 493 ; others say in 511 or 520. 

BADEN (S. W. Germany). The house of Baden is descended from Herman, regarded 
as the first margrave (1052), son of Berthold I., duke of Zahringen. From Christopher, who 
united the branches of Hochberg and Baden, and died in 1527, proceed the branches of Baden- 
Baden and Baden-Dourlach. By the treaty of Baden, between France and the emperor, when 
Landau was ceded to the former, Sept. 7, 17 14, Baden was elected into a grand duchj'-, as a 
member of the Rhenish confederation, Aug. 13, 1806. Its territorial acquisitions by its 
alliances with France were guaranteed by the congress at Vienna, in 181 5. In May, 1849 
the grand-duke was expelled by his subjects, but was restored in June. In July, 1857, an 
amnesty was decreed for political ofi'ences. A concordat made with the pope, June 28, 1859, 
having greatly displeased the representative assembly, wadset aside by the grand-duke, 
April 8, i860. On June 16, i860, the emperor of the French met the regent of Prussia, the 
kings of Hanover, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Saxony, and the German princes at Baden- 
Baden. The population of Baden, Dec. 1861, was 1,369,291. 

Loiiis William, margrave of Baden-Baden, a great 
general, born 1665 ; sallied out from Vienna and 
defeated the Turks, 1683 ; died 1707. 

Charles 'William, margrave of Baden-Dourlach, born 
1679, died 1746; succeeded by his son, 

Charles Frederic, margrave, afterwards grand-duke 
of Baden-Dourlach, born 1728, who joiaed to his 
dominions Baden-Baden in 1771, which were also 
increased by the favour of Napoleon. 


1806. Charles Frederic ; diesiSii; succeeded by his 

181 1. Charles Louis Frederic, who died without issue 

in 1818 ; succeeded by his uncle, 
1818. Louis William, died withoub issue in 1830 ; 

succeeded by his brother, 
1830. Leopold, died in 1852 ; succeeded by his second 

son (the first being imbecile), 
1852. Frederic (born Sept. 9, 1S26), regent April 24, 

1852; declared grand-duke, Sept. 5, 1S56. 
[Heir: his son Frederic WiUiam, bom July 9, 1857.] 

BAFFIN'S-BAY (N. America), discovered by William Baffin, an Englishman, in 1616. 
The extent of this discovery was much doubted, until the expeditions of Ross and Parry 
proved that Baffin was substantially accurate in his statement. Parry entered Lancaster 
Sound, and discovered the islands known by his name, in 18 18. See North- West Passage. 

BAGDAD, in Asiatic Turkey, built by Al Mansour, and made the seat of the Saracen 
empire, about 762. — Taken by the Tartars, aud a jieriod put to the Saracen rule, 1258. 
Often taken by the Persians, and retaken by the Tm-ks, with great slaughter : the latter 
took it in 1638, and have held it since. 

BAGPIPE, an ancient Greek and Roman instrament. On a piece of ancient Grecian 
sculptiu'e, now in Rome, a bagpiper is represented dressed like a modern highlander. Nero 
is said to have played upon a bagpipe, 51, Our liighland regiments retain their pipers. 


BAHAMA ISLES (N. America) were the first poiats of discovery by Columbus. San 
Salvador was seen by liim on the night of the nth of October, 1492. New Providence was 
settled by the English in 1629. They were expelled by the Spaniards, 1641 ; returned, 1666 ; 
again expelled in 1703. The isles were formally ceded to the English in 1783. Population 
in 1861, 35,287. 

BAHAR (K India), a province (conquered by Baber in 1530), with Bengal and Orissa, a 
princely dominion, became subject to the English East India company in 1765 by the treaty 
of Allahabad for a quit-rent of about 30o,oooX 

BAIL. By ancient common law, before and since the conquest, all felonies were bailable, 
till miirder was excepted by statute ; and by the 3 Edward I. (1274) the power of bailing in 
treason, and in divers instances of felony, was taken away. Bail was further regulated in 
later reigns. Bail is now accepted in all cases, felony excepted ; and where a magistrate 
refuses bail, it may be gi-anted by a judge. 

BAILIFFS, OR Sheriffs. Said to be of Saxon origin. London had its shire-revc prior 
to the conquest, and this officer was generally appointed for counties in England in 1079. 
Hen. Cornehill and Rich. Reynere were appointed bailiffs or sheriffs in London in 1189. 
Stow. Sheriffs were appointed in Dublin under the name of bailiffs, in 1308 ; and the name 
was changed to sheriff in 1548. There are still some places where the chief magistrate is 
called bailiff, as the high bailiff of Westminster. Bum-hailiff is a corruption of bound- 
bailiff, every bailiff being obliged to enter into bonds of security for his good behaviour. 

BAIRAM, Mahometan festivals. In 1865 the Little Bairam, following the fast of 
Ramadan {which see), fell on Feb. 28, March i and 2. The Great Bairam began on May 10, 

BAIZE, a species of coarse woollen mamifacture, was brought into England by some 
Flemish or Dutch emigrants who settled at Colchester, in Essex, and had privileges granted 
them by parliament in 1660. The trade is under the control of a corporation called the 
governors of the Dutch baize-hall, who examine the cloth previous to sale. Anderson. 

BAKER. See Bread. 

BAKERIAN LECTURES, Royal Society, originated in a bequest of lool. by Henry 
Baker, F.R.S., the interest of which was to be given to one of the fellows, for a scientific 
discourse to be delivered annually. Peter Woulfe gave the first lecture in 1765. Latterly 
it has been the custom to nominate as the lecture a paper written by one of the fellows. 
Davy, Faraday, Tj-ndall, and other eminent men have given the lecture. 

BALAKLAVA, a smalltown in the Ciimea, with a fine harbour, 10 miles S.E. from 
Sebastopol. After the battle of the Alma, the allies advanced upon this place, Sept. 26, 
1854. On Oct. 25 following, about 12,000 Russians, commanded by gen. Liprandi, 
attacked and took some redoubts in the vicinity, which had been entnisted to about 250 
Turks. They next assaulted the English, by whom they were compelled to retire, mainly 
through the charge of the heavy cavahy, led by brigadier Scarlett, under the orders of lord 
Lucan. After this, from an iinfortunate misconception of lord Raglan's order, lord Lucan 
ordered lord Cardigan with the light cavalry, to charge the Russian army, which had re- 
formed on its own gi-ound with its artillery in front. This order was most gallantly obeyed. 
Great havoc was made on the enemy ; but of 607 British horsemen, only 198 returned. The 
British had altogether 9 officers killed, 21 wounded, and 620 men piit hars de combat. The 
Russians had 550 men killed, and 6 officers (among whom was one general), and 190 men 
wounded. — A sortie from the garrison of Sebastopol on the night of March 22, 1855, led to a 
desperate engagement here, in whicli the Russians were vigorously repulsed, with the loss of 
2000 men killed and wounded, the allies losing about 600. — The electric telegraph between 
London and Balaklava was completed in April, 1855, and communications were then received 
by the British government. — A railway between Balaklava and the trenches was completed 
in June, 1855. See Bmso-Ttirkiih War. 

BALANCE OF Power, to assure the independency and integrity of states, and control 
the ambition of sovereigns ; the principle is said to have been first laid down by the Italian 
politicians of the 15th century, on the invasion of Charles Vlll. of France. Robertson. 
It was first recognised by the treaty of Munster, Oct. 24, 1648. The arrangements for the 
balance of power in Europe made in 1815, without the consent of the people of the countries 
concerned, have been greatly set aside since 1830. 




BALEAEIC ISLANDS, in the Mediterranean, called by the Greeks Balearides, and by 
the Komans Baleares, from the dexterity of the inhabitants at slinging : they include Majorca 
and Minorca, -with the small isle of Cabrera. These islands were conquered by the Romans, 
123 B.C. ; by the Vandals, about 426 B.C., and formed pai't of Charlemagne's empire in a.d. 
799. They have belonged to Spain since 1232. See Minorca. 

BALIZE . See Honduras. 

BALKAN", the ancient Hsemus, a range of mountains extending from the Adriatic to 
the Euxine. The passage, deemed impracticable, was completed by the Russians under 
Diebitsch, during the Russian and Turkish war, July 26, 1829. An armistice was the 
consequence ; and a treaty of peace was signed at Adrianople, Sept. 14 following. 

BALLADS may be traced in the British history to the Anglo-Saxons. Turner . Adhelme, 
who died 709, is mentioned as the first who introduced ballads into England. ' ' The 
harp was sent round, and those might sing who could." Bede. Alfred sung ballads. 
Malmesbury. Canute composed one. Turner. Minstrels were protected by a charter of 
Edward IV. ; but by a statute of Elizabeth they were made pimishable among rogues, 
vagabonds, "and sturdy beggars. Viner. "Give me the writing of the ballads, and you may 
make the laws." Fletcher of Saltoim. The sea-baUads of Dibdin were very popidar in the 
French war ; he died Jan. 20, 1833. 

BALLETS began through the meretricious taste of the Italian courts. One performed at 
the interview between our Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France, in the field of the Cloth of 
Gold, at Ardres, 1520. Guicciardini. They became very popular in France ; their zealous 
patron, Louis XIV., bore a part in one, 1664. They were gradually introduced with operas 
into England in the i8th century. 

BALLINAMUCK, Longford. Here, on Sept. 8, 1798, the Irish rebels and their French 
auxiliaries were defeated and captured. 

BALLOONS.* A just idea of the principle of the construction of balloons was formed 
by Albert of Saxony, an Augustin monk in the 14th centuiy, and adopted by a 
Portuguese Jesuit, Francesco Mendoza, who died at Lyons in 1626. The idea is also 
attributed to Bartolomeo de Guzmao, who died in 1 724. The theory of aeronautics includes : — 
"I, the power of a balloon to rise in the air ; 2, the velocity of its ascent ; and 3, the 
stability of its suspension at any given height. The application of sails and rudders has 
been duly considered, and judged to be futile. Fatal accidents to the voyagers have been 
estimated at 2 or 3 per cent. 

Francis Lana, a Jesuit, proposed to navigate 
tbe air by means of a boat raised by four thin 
balls made of thin copper, from which the air 
had been exhausted 1670 

Joseph Galien suggested the filling a bag with 
the fine difi'use aii- of the upperregions of the 
atmosphere 1755 

Henry Cavendish discovered that hydrogen gas 
is lo' 8 times lighter than common air . . 1766 

And soon after Black of Edinburgh filled a bag 
■with hydrogen, which rose to the ceiling of 
the room 1767 

Cuvallo filled soap bubbles with hydrogen . 1782 

Joseph Montgolfier caused a silken bag to 
ascend with heated air (the &rsi fire-balloori) 

Nov. ,, 

Joseph and Stephen Montgolfier ascend and 
descend safely by means of a fire-balloon at 
Annonay, for which they received many 
honours June 5, 1783 

First ascent in a balloon filled with hydrogen, at 
Paris, by MM. Robert and Charles, Aug. 27, ,, 

Joseph Montgolfier ascends in a balloun inflnted 
with the smoke of burnt straw and wool, 

Sept. 19, ,, 

First aerial voyage in a fire-balloon — Piiatre de 
Eozier and the marquis d'Arlandes Nov. 21, ,, 

Second ascent of Charles in a hydrogen baUooa 
to the height of 9770 feet . . Dec. i, ,, 

Ascents become numerous : Andreani, Feb. 
25.; Blanchard, March 24 Guyton-Morveau, 

the chemist, April 25 and Jtine 12 ; Fleurant 
and Madame Thible (the first female aero- 
naut), June 28 ; the duke of Chartres (Philip 
EgaUt^) Sept. 19, 

The first ascent in England, made by Lunardi 
at Moorfields, London . . Sept. 15, 

Blanchard and Jeffries ascend at Dover and 
cross the Channel, alighting near Calais, 

Jan. 7, 

The first ascent in Ireland, from Ranelagh 
gardens, Dublin Jan 19, 

Rozier and Remain killed in their descent near 
Boulogne ; the balloon took fire . June 15, 

Parachutes constructed and used by Blanchard, 


Gamerin's narrow escape when descending in 
one, in London Sept. 2, 

Sadler, who made many previous expeditions 
in England, fell into the sea, near Holyhead, 
but was taken up . . . . Oct. g, 

Jfadame Blanchard ascended from Tivoli at 
night : the balloon, being surrounded by fire- 
works, took fire, and she was precipitated to 
the ground and killed . . July 6, 

Mr. Charles Green's first ascent . July 19, 

Lieut. Harris killed descending in a balloon. 

May 25, 

Sadler, jun., killed, falling from a balloon, in . 

The great Nassau balloon, which had for some 
time previously been exhibited to the inha- 
bitants of London in repeated ascents from 





in 1S65. 

' Astra Castra ; Experiments and Adventures in the .'Vtmosphere : by Hatton Turner," appeared 




BALLOONS, continued. 

Vauxhall gardens, started from that place on 
an experimental voyajje, having three indi- 
viduals in the car, and after having been 
eighteen hours in tbe air descended at Weil- 
burg, in the duchy of Nassau . Nov. 7, 1836 

Mr. Cocking ascended from Vauxhall in order 
to try his parachute, in which he had great 
faitli ; ia its descent from the ball' ion it 
collapsed, and he was thrown out and killed, 

July 24, 1837 

An Italian aeronaut ascended from Copenhagen, 
in Denmark ; his corpse was subsequently 
found on the sea-shore in a coutiguous isUiid, 
d;vshed to pieces .... Sept. 14, 1S51 

Mr. Wise and three others ascended from St. 
Louis (afti-r tx-a veiling 11 50 miles they de- 
scended in Jefferson county, New York, 
nearly dead) .... June 23, 185Q 

Nadar's great balloon (largest ever made) when 
fully inflated contained 215,363 cubic feet of 
gas ; the car, a cottage in wicker work, 
raised 35 soldiers at Paris ; Nadar hoped by 
means of screw to steer a balloon In the 

Nadar's first ascent, with 14 others, successful, 

Oct. 4, 1863 

Second ascent, nearly all voyagers injm-ed ; 
saved by presence of mind of M. Jules 
Godard ; descend at Nieuburg, Hanover, 

Oct. 12, ,, 

Nadar and his balloon at the . Crystal Palace, 
Sydenham Nov. „ 

Society for promoting aerial navigation formed 
at M. Nadar's at Paris ; president, M. BaiTal, 

Jan. 15, 1864 

Godard's great Montgolfier or fire-balloon as- 
cends . . . July 28 and Aug. 3, ,, 

Ascent of Nadar and others in his great balloon 
at Brussels Sept. 26, ,, 

Mr. Coxwell ascends from Belfast in a new 
balloon ; seveial persons are injured by the 
balloon becoming uncontrollable ; it escapes, 

July 3, 1865 


Guyton-Morveau ascended twice during the 
battle, and gave important information to 
Jourdain June 17, 1794 

BaUnons were used during the battle of 
Solferino, June 24, 1859; and by the Federal 
army near Washington, in . . July, 1861 


Mr. Green afiirms that he ascended from 
London, on a horse attached to a balloon, 
though few persons seem to be aware that 
the experiment was made . . . May, 1828 

He did so from Vauxhall gardens with a very 
diminutive pony .... July, 1850 

Lieut. Gale, an Englishman, made an ascent 
with a horse from the Hippodrome of Vin- 
cennes, near Bordeaux. On descending, and 
detaching the animal from the balloon, the 
people who held its ropes, from some miscon- 
ception, prematurely let them go, and the 
unfortunate aeronaut was rapidly borne in 
the air before he was quite ready to resume 
his voyage. (He was discovered next morning 
dashed to pieces in a field a mile from where 
the balloon was found.) . . Sept. 8, ,, 

The ascent of Madame Poitevin from Cremorne 
gardens, neir London, as "Europa on a 
buU" (a feat she had often perfonned in 
France), and several ascents on horses, 
brought the parties concerned before the 
police-courts on a charge of cruelty to animals, 
and put an end to experiments that outraged 
public feeling Aug. 1852 

M. Poitevin ascended on ahorse, in the vicinity 
of Paris, about the time just mentioned ; was 
nearly drowned in the sea, near Malaga, 
while descending from his balloon in 1858, 
and died soon after. 


Gay-Lussac and Biot at Paris, Aug. 23 ; Gay- 
Lussac (to the height of 22,977 feet) Sept. 15, 1804 

Bixio and Barral at Paris (to the height of, 
19,000 feet. They passed through a cloud' 
9000 feet thick) 1850 

Mr. Welsh ascends, Aug. 17, 26; Oct. 21 and 

Nov. ID, 1852 

Scientific balloon ascents having been recom- 
mended by the British Association and funds 
provided, Mr. James Glaisher commenced 
his series of ascents, provided with suitable 
apparatus, in Mr. Cox well's great balloon, at 
Wolverhampton : he reached the height of 
5 miles . . . " . . . July 17, 1862 

He ascended to the height of about 7 miles at 
Wolverhampton ; at 5 J miles high he became 
insensible; Mr. Coxwell lost the use of his 
hands, but was able to open the valve with his 
teeth; they thus descended in safety, Sept. 5, ,, 

He ascended at Newcastle during the meeting 
of the British Association . . Aug. 31, 1863 

His 1 6th ascent ; surveys London . Oct. g, ,, 

His 17th ascent at Woolwich ; descends at Mr. 
Brandon's, Stiffolk (ist winter ascent this 
century) Jan. 12, 1864 

He ascends from Woolwich (24th time) Dec. 30, ,, 

His 25th ascent Feb. 27, 1865 

(Mr. Glaisher has laid the result of his 
observations before the scientific world.) 

BALLOT (Fi-encli hallotte, a little ball). Secret voting was practised by the ancient 
Greeks and the modern Venetians, and is now employed in France and in the United States 
of North America. 

The ballot-box used in a political club at Miles's 
coffee-house, Westminster .... 1659 

A tract entitled " The Benefit of the Ballot," 
said to have been written by Andrew Marvell, 
was published in the " State Tracts " . . 1693 

Proposad to be used in the election of members 
of Parliament in a pamphlet .... 1705 

A bill authorising vote by ballot passed the 
commons, but rejected by the lords . . . 1710 

The ballot has been an open question in whig 
governments since 1835 

The Ballot Society is very energetic. The ballot 
was adopted in Victoria, Austraha, in . . 1856 

Secret voting existed in the chamber of deputies 
in France fron 1840 to 1845. It has been 
employed since the coup d'etat in . Dec. 1851 

The house of commons rejected the ballot — 257 
being against, and 189 for it . June 30, 1851 

For several years it has been annually proposed 
and rejected. 

BALL'S BLUFF, on the banks of the Potomac, on the Virginia side, North America. 
On October 21, 1861, by direction of the Federal general C. P. Stone the heroic col. Baker 
crossed the river to reconnoitre. He attacked the Confederate camp at Leesburg, and was 


thoroughly defeated with great loss. The disaster was attributed to great mismanagement, 
and in Feb. 1862, general Stone was arrested on suspicion of treason. 

BALLYNAHINCH (Ireland), where a sanguinary engagement took place between a large 
body of the insurgent Irish and the British troops, under gen. Nugent, June 13, 1798. A 
large part of the town was destroyed, and the royal army suffered very severely. 

BALMOEAL CASTLE, Deeside, Aberdeenshire ; visited by her majesty in 1848, 1849, 
1850. The estate was purchased for 32,000?. by prince Albert in 1852. In 1853 the new 
building, in the Scotch baronial style, was commenced, from designs by Mr. "W. Smith of 

BALTIC EXPEDITIONS against Denmaek. In the first expedition under lord 
Nelson and admiral Parker, Copenhagen was bombarded, and twenty-eight sail of the Danish 
fleet were taken or destroyed, April 2, 1801. See Armed Neutrality. In the second expe- 
dition under admiral Gambler and lord Cathcart, eighteen sail of the line, fifteen frigates, and 
thirty-one brigs and gun-boats surrendered to the British, July 26, 1807. 

BALTIC EXPEDITION against Eussia. The British fleet sailed from Spithead in 
presence of the queen, who led it out to sea in her yacht, the Fairy, March 11, 1854. It 
consisted of a crowd of steam-ships of the line, of which, five were each of 120 guns and 
upwards : the whole under the command of vice-admiral sir Charles Napier, whose flag 
floated on board the Duke of Wellington, of 131 guns. The fleet arrived in Wingo Sound, 
March 15, and in the Baltic, March 20, following. The gulf of Finland was blockaded, 
April 12. 10,000 French troops embarked at Calais for the Baltic in English ships of war, 
in presence of the emperor, July 15. The capture of Bomarsund, one of the Aland islands, 
and surrender of the garrison, took place, Aiig. 16. See Bomarsund. The English and 
French fleets, the latter having joined June 14, commenced their return homeward to 
winter, Oct. 15, 1854. — The second expedition (of which the advanced or flying squadron 
Tsailed March 20) left the Downs, April 4, 1855. In July it consisted of 85 English ships 
(2098 guns), commanded by admiral E. S. Dundas, and 16 French ships (408 guns), under 
admiral Pernand. On July 21, three vessels silenced the Eussian batteries at Hogland 
island. The fleet proceeded towards Cronstadt. Many infernal machines * were discovered. 
Sveaborg was attacked Aug. 9. See Sveahorg. Shortly after, the fleet returned to 

BALTIMOEE, a maritime city in Maryland, United States, founded in 1729. On Sept. 
12, 1 814, the British army under col. Boss advanced against this place. He was killed in a 
skirmish ; and the command was assumed by col. Brooke, who attacked and routed the 
American army, which lost 600 killed and wounded and 300 prisoners. The projected attack 
on the town was however abandoned. Alison. See United States, 1861. 

BAMBEEG (Bavaria), said to have been founded by Saxons, in 804, and endowed with a 

church by Charlemagne. It was made a bishopric in 1 107, and the bishop was a prince of 

the empire till the treaty of Luneville, 1801, when Bambei-g was secularized. It was 

. incorporated with Bavaria in 1803. The noble cathedral, rebuilt in iiio, has been recently 

repaired. Bamberg was taken and pillaged by the Eussians in 1759. 

BAMBOEOUGH, or Bamburg, Northumberland, according to the " Saxon Chronicle," 
was built by king Ida about 547, and named Bebbanburgh. The castle and estate, the 
property of the Forsters, and forfeited to the crown, through their taking part in the 
rebellion in 17 15, were purchased by Nathaniel lor-d Crewe, bishop of Durham, and 
bequeathed by him for various charitable purposes. The valuable library was founded by 
the trustees in 1778. The books are lent to persons residing within 20 miles of the castle. 

BAMPTON LECTUEES (Theological), delivered at Oxford annually, began in 1780, with 
a lecture by James Bandinel, D.D. The lecturer is paid out of the proceeds of an estate 
bequeathed for the purpose by the rev. John Bampton, and the lectures ai-e published. 
Among the more remarkable lectures were those by White (1784), Heber (1815), Whately 
(1822), Milman (1827), Hampden (1832), and Mausel (1858). 

BANBUEY, Oxfordshire, a Saxon town. The castle, erected by Alexander de Blois, 
bishop of Lincoln, 1125, has been frequently besieged. In 1646 it was taken by the parlia- 
mentarians and demolished. At Danesmore, near Banbury, Edward IV. defeated the 
Lancastrians under the earl of Pembroke, July 26, 1469, and their leader and his brother 

* These were cones of galvanised iron, 16 inches in diameter, and 20 inches long. Each contained 
9 or 10 lb. of powder, with apparatus for firing by sulphuric acid. Little damage was done by them. 
They were said to be the invention of the philosopher Jacobi. 




were soou after taken prisoners and executed. Banbury cakes were renowned in the time of 
Ben Jonson, and Banbury Cross was destroyed by the Puritans. 


BANDA ISLES (ten), Eastern Archipelago, visited by the Portuguese in 15 ii, who settled 
on them, 1521, but were expelled by the Dutch about 1600. Rohun island was ceded to the 
English in 16 16. The Bandas were taken by the latter in 1796 ; restored in 1801 ; retaken 
in 181 1 ; and restored in Aug. 18 14. 

BANGALORE (S. India) was besieged by the British under lord Cornwallis, March 6, and 
taken by storm, March 21, 1791. Bangalore was restored to Tippoo in 1792, when he 
destroyed the strong fort, deemed the bulwark of Mysore. 

BANGOR (Banchor Iskoed, or Monachorum), Flintshire, the site of an ancient monastery, 
very populous if it be true that 1200 monks were slain by Ethelfrid, king of the Angles, for 
praying for the "Welsh in their conflict with him in 707. Taniur. 

BANGOR (N. Caernarvonshire). Its bishopric is of great antiquity, but its founder is 
unknown. The church is dedicated to St. Daniel, who was a bishop, 516. OweQ Glendower 
greatly defaced the cathedral ; but a more cruel ravager than he, the bishop Bulkeley, 
alienated many of the lands, and even sold the bells of the church, 1553. The see is valued 
in the king's books at 13 iZ. 165. /^d. An order in council directing that the sees of Bangor 
and St. Asaph be united on the next vacancy in either, was issued in 1838 ; but rescinded by 
the 10 & n Vict. c. 108 (1846). Present income, 4200Z. 


1800. Wm. Cleaver, translated to St. Asaph, 1806. 
1806. John Eandolph, translated to London, 1809. 
1809. Henry William Majendie, died July 9, 1830. 

1830. Christopher Bethell, died April 19, 1859. 
1859. James Colquhoun Campbell (the present 
bishop, 1865). 

BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY was occasioned by Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, bishop of 
Bangor, preaching a sermon befoi-e George I., March 31, 17 17, upon the text, " My kingdom 
is not of this ivorld " {John xviii. 36), in which he demonstrated the spiritual nature of the 
kingdom of Christ. He thereby drew upon himself the indignation of almost aU the clergy, 
who published hundreds of pamphlets. 

BANISHMENT, an ancient punishment. By 39 Eliz. c. 4 (1597) dangerous rogues 
were to be banished out of the realm, and to be liable to death if they returned. See 

BANK. The name is derived from banco, a bench, erected in the market-place for the 
exchange of money. The first was established in Italy 808, by the Lombard Jews, of 
whom some settled in Lombard-street, London, where many bankers still reside. The Mint 
in the Tower of London was anciently the depository for merchants' cash, until Charles I, 
laid his hands upon the money and destroyed the credit of the Mint in 1640. The traders 
were thus driven to some other place of security for their gold, which, when kept at home, 
their apprentices frequently absconded with to the army. In 1645, therefore, they consented 
to lodge it with the goldsmiths in Lombard-street, who were provided with strong chests 
for their own valuable wares ; this became the origin of banking in England. See Savings 

Samuel Lamb, a London banker, recommended 
the Protector Cromwell to establish a public 

bank 1656 and 1658 

Francis Child, a goldsmith, established a bank 

about 1663 ; he died . . . Oct. 4, 1713 
Run on the London bankers (said to be the first) 1667 
Charles II. arbitrarily suspends all payments 
to bankers out of the exchequer of monies 
deposited there by them ; they lost ultimately 
3,321,313/. ...... Jan 2, 1672 

Hoare's bank began about .... 1680 

Bank of England established (see next article) . 1694 
Wood's bank at Gloucester, the oldest county 

bank, established 1716 

A list of bankers given in the " Royal Kalendar " 1 765 
Forgeries of Henry Fauntleroy, banker ; exe- 
cuted Nov. 30, 1824 

Act passed permitting establishment of joint- 
stock banks, w/irc/i see 1826 

Rogers's bank robbed of nearly 50,000?. (bank 
notes afterwards returned) . . Nov. 24, 1844 

Rowland Stephenson, M.P., banker and trea- 
surer of St. Bartholomew's hospital, absconds ; 
defaulter to the amount of 2oo,oooJ. ; 70,000^. 
in exchcqiier bEls ; (caused a great depression 

among bankers) Dec. 27, 1828 

Establishment of joint-stock banks (see p. 78) . 1834 
Failure of Strahan, Paul, and Bates (secui-ities 
unlawfully used); private banking much 
injured June 11, 1855 

Banks in 1855. Hotes allowed to he issued. 

Bank of England . . . . i 14,000,000 

English private banks . . . . 196 4,999,444 
English joint-stock banks (which see) 67 3,418,277 

264 22,417,721 

. 18 3,087,209 

8 6,354,494 

Banks in Scotland 
Banks in Ireland 

290 31,859,424 




BANK, continued. 

Bank of 

Venice formed 

• IIS7 


■ • I34S 


. 1401 


. . 1407 

Amsterdam . 

. 1607 

Hamburg . 

. . 1619 

Banh of 
Eotterdani .... 1635 

Stockholm 1688 

England 1694 

Scotland 1695 

Copenhagen .... 1736 
Berlin. . . ... 1765 

Banh of 
Caisse d'Escompte, France 
Ireland .... 
St. Petersburg 
In the Bast Indies 
In North America . 
France* .... 

1 791 

BANK OP England was projected by "William Paterson, a Scotch mercliaiit (see 
JDarien), to meet the difficulty experienced by "William III. in raising the supplies for the 
war against France. By the influence of Paterson and Michael Godfrey, 40 merchants sub- 
scribed 500,000?. towards the sum of 1,200,000?. to be lent to the government at 8 per cent., 
in consideration of the subscribers being incorporated as a bank. The scheme was violently 
opposed in parliament, but the bill obtained the royal assent April 25, 1694, and the charter 
was granted July 27 following, appointing sir John Houblon the first governor, and Michael 
Godfrey the first deputy governor. The bank commenced active operations on Jan. i, 1695, 
at Grocers' hall, Poultrj", t issuing notes for 20Z. and upwards, and discounting bills for 4^ 
to 6 per cent. The charter was renewed in 1697, 1708, 1713, 1716, 1721, 1742, 1746, 1749, 
1764, 1781, 1800, 1808, 1816, 1833, 1844. Lawson. 

Bun on the bank ; its notes at 20 per cent, dis- 
count; capital increased to 2,201,171^. los., 

Nov. 1696 

The bank monopoly established by the prohibi- 
tion of any company exceeding six persons 
acting as bankers (Scotland not included in 
the act) 1708 

Capital raised to 5,559,995?. los. . . . 1710 

Bank post bills issued (ist record) . Dec. 14, 1738 

Run for gold through rebellion in the North ; 
bank bills paid in silver; the city support 
the bank Sept. 1745 

Eichard Vaughan hanged for forging bank-notes, 

May I, 1758 

xol. notes issued 1759 

Gordon riots ; since, the bank has been pro- 
tected by the mihtary 1780 

5J. notes issued 1793 

Cash payments suspended, in conformity with 
an order in council . . . Feb. 26, 1797 

il. and 2I. notes issued . . . March, „ 

Bank restriction act passed (continued by other 
acts) May 3, ,, 

Voluntary contribution of 2oo,oool to the go- 
vernment ■ 1798 

Loss by Aslett's frauds (see Exchequer) 342,697?. 1803 

Kesignation of Abraham Newland, 50 years 
cashier Sept. 18, 1807 

The bank issues silver tokens for 3s. and is. 6d., 

July 9, 181 1 

Peel's act for the gradual resumption of cash 
payments July, 1819 

Cash payments for notes to be in biilUon at the 
mint price, May i, 1821 ; in the cmxent coin 
of the realm May i, 1823 

Great commercial panic — many il. notes (acci- 
dentally found in a box) issued with most 
beneficial effects Dec. 1825 

The act for the establishment of joint-stock 
banks breaks up the monopoly . . . 1826 

By the advice of the government, branch banks 
opened at Gloucester, July 19 ; Manchester, 
Sept. 21 ; Swansea, Oct. 23 , 

And at Birmingham, Jan. i ; Liverpool, July 

2 ; Bristol, July 12 ; Leeds, Aug. 23 ; Exeter, 
Dec. 17 1827 

The bank loses 360,000?. by Fauntleroy 's forgeries 1830 

Statements of the bank aflairs pubUshed 
quarterly . 1833 

Peel's bank charter act : renews charter tUl 
Aug. I, 185s, and longer, if the debt due from 
the public to the bank (11,015,100?.), with in- 
terest, <fcc., be not paid after due notice ; 
established the issue department; requires 
weekly returns to be published ; limited the 
issue of notes to 14,000,000?., &c. . July 19, 1844 

Commercial panic : lord John Russell autho- 
rises relaxation of restriction of issuing 
notes (not acted on); bank discount 8 per 
cent Oct. 25, 1847 

Bank clerks establish a library and fidelity 
guarantee fund .... March, 1850 

Gold bullion in the bank (consequent on dis- 
covery of gold in Australia), 21,845,390?. 

July ID, 1852 

Branch bank, Burlington-gardens, London, W., 
opened Oct. i, 1856 

Committee on the bank acts appointed July, 1857 

Bank discount 9 per cent. ; lord Palmerston 
authorises addition to issue of notes [to the 
amount of 2,000,000?. were issued] Nov. 12, ,, 

Committee on the bank acts appointed in Dec. 
I, 1857 ; report recommending continuance 
of present state of things . . July i, 1858 

Bank discount, 3 per cent. Feb. 1858 ; 6 per 
cent, (demand for gold in France), Nov. 15, 
i860 ; 7 per cent. Jan. 7 ; 8 percent, (demand 
for money in France, India, and United States, 
&c.), Feb. 14; 3 per cent. Nov. 7, 1861 ; 2g per 
cent. Jan. ; 3 per cent. April ; zi per cent. 
July ; 2 per cent. July 24 ; 3 per cent. Oct. — 
Dec 1S62 

Much alarm through the announcement of the 
bank sohcitor that a quantity of bank paper 
had been stolen from the makers (forged 
notes soon appeared) . . Aug. 16, ,, 

The culprits, soon detected, were tried and con- 
victed (see rj'ia?s) . , . . Jan. 7 — 12, 1S63 

* Instituted by laws passed April 14, 1803, and April 22, 1806. The statutes were approved Jan. 16, 
1808. In 1810, Napoleon said that its duty was to provide mcney at all times at 4 per cent, interest. 

t The foundation of the bank in Threadneedle-street was laid, Aug. i, 1732, by sir Edward Bellamy, 
governor ; it was erected by G. Sampson, architect. Great additions have been made from time to time 
by successive architects : sir Robert Taylor, sir John Soane, and Mr. C. B. Cockerell. It now occupies 
the site of the church, and nearly all the parish of St. Christopher-le-Stocks. The churchyard is now 
termed "the garden." 




BANK, continued. 

Bank discount, 1863, raised to 4 per cent., Jan. 
16 ; to 5, Jan. 28 ; reduced to 4, Feb. ; to 3J and 
3, April ; raised to 4, May ; raised to 5, 6, io 
Nov. ; to 7 and 8, and reduced, to 7, in Dec. 

Bank discount, 1864, raised to 8, Jan. 20; rcdwccrf 
to 7, Feb. 12 ; to 6, Feb. 25 ; rai'sfcJ to 7, April 
i6 ; to 8, May 2 ; to 8, May 5 ; reduced to 8, May 19 ; 

to 7, May 26 ; to 6, June 16 ; ratscti to 7, July 25 ; 
to 8, Aug. 4 ; to 9, Sept. 5 ; reduced to 8, Nov. 10 ; 
to 7, Nov. 24. 
Bank discount, 1865, reduced to 5J, Jan. 12 ; to 5, 
Jan. 20 ; raised to 5J, March 2 ; reduced to 4, March 
30 ; raised to 47, May 4 ; reduced to 3I, June i ; to 
3, June 15 ; raised to 3J, July 27 ; to 4, Aug. 3. 


1718 . 

. £1,829,930 1810 . 
. 7,030,680 
. 10,217,000 
• 15,450,000 





. . .£18,215,220 

1855 . 

. £19,616,627 

1840 . 



. 21,036,430 


. . 19,262,327 

1859 • 


1850 . 

. 19,776,814 

Dec. 27, 1856. 

.^sse<«-Securities . . £29,484,000) £30589,000 

Buluon . . . 10,105,000) ■'="-' ^' 

Liabilities 36,329,000 

Balance £3,260,000 

Nov. II, 1857. (Time of Panic.) 
Assets — Securities . . £35,480,281 \ £ f.. o 

Bullion . . . 7,170,508) *'4^>°s°>7°9 
Liahililies 39,286,433 

Balance £3,364,356 






1721 . . . . . £9,100,000 
1742 .... 10,700,000 
1746 ..... 11,686,000 

. £14,686,000 
. 11,015,100 

BANK OF Ireland. On Dec. 9, 1721, tlie Irish house of commons rejected a bill for 
establishing a national bank. Important failures in Irish banks occurred in 1727, 1733, and 
1758 : this led gradually to the establishment of the bank of Ireland at St. Mary's-abbey, 
Dublin, June l, 1783. The business was removed to the late houses of parliament, in 
College-green, in May, 1808. Branch banks of this establishment have been formed in most 
of the provincial towns in Ireland, all since 1828. Irish banking act passed, July 21, 1845, 

BANKS OF Scotland. The old bank of Scotland was set up in 1695, at Edinburgh, and 
began Nov. I, the second institution of the kind in these kingdoms : lending money to the 
crown was prohibited. The Eoyal bank was chartered July 8, 1727 ; the British Linen 
Company's bank, 1746 ; the Commercial bank, 1810 ; National bank, 1825 ; Union bank, 
1830. The first stone of the present bank of Scotland was laid June 3, 1801. The Western 
bank of Scotland and the Glasgow bank stopped in Nov. 1857, causing much distress, 
Scotch banking act passed, Jiily 21, 1845. 

BANK OF Savings. See Scwmgs' Banks. 

BANKS, Joint Stock. Since the act of 1826, a number of these banks have been esta- 
blished. In 1840, the amount of paper currency issued by joint-stock banks amounted to 
4,138,618/. ; the amount in circulation by private banks, same year, was 6,973,613/.— the 
total amount exceeding eleven millions.* In Ireland similar banks have been instituted, 
the first being the Hibernian bank, in 1825. The note-circulation of joint-.stock banks, on 

* The Royal British Bank was established in 1849, by Mr. John McGregor, M.P., and others, under 
sir R. Peel's joint-stock banking act, 7 <fc 8 A'ict. c. 113(1844); as an attempt to introduce the Scotch 
banking system of cash credits into England. On Sept. 3, 1856, it stopped payment, occasioning much 
distress and ruin to many small tradesmen and others. In consequence of strong evidence of the existence 
of fraud in the management of the bank, elicited during the examination before the court of bankruptcy, 
the government instructed the attomey-general to file ex-officio informations against the manager, Mr. H. 
Innes Cameron, and several of the directors. They were convicted Feb. 27, 1858, after 13 days' trial, and 
sentenced to various degrees of imprisonment. Attempts to mitigate the punishment failed (Maj', 1858) ; 
but all were released except Cameron and Esdailo, in July, 1858. In April, i860, dividends had been paid 
to the amount of 15s. in the por.nd. The attorney -general brought in a bill called the Fraudulent Trustees' 
Act 20 & 21 Vict. c. 54, to prevent the recurrence of such transactions. — On April 19, i860, a deficiency of 
263,000'. was discovered in the Union Bank of London. Mr. George PuUinger, a cashier, confessed himself 
guiity of forgery and fraud, and was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment. — In Feb. 18, 1861, it was dis- 
covered that John Durden, a clerk of the Commercial Bank of London, had robbed his employers of 67,000?., 
of which 46,000!. might be recovered. — In Dec. 1864, J. W. Terry and Thomas Burch, manager and secre- 
tary of the Unity Bank, were committed on a charge of conspiracy for fabricating accounts ; but acquitted 
on their trial. 



Oct. I, 1855, was, in England, 3,990,800?. ; in Scotland, 4,280,000/. ; and in Ireland, 
6, 785,000/. ; total, witli English private banks, about 19,000,000/. : and witli the bank of 
England, above 39,000,000/, 

Chief London Banks. Founded 

London and Westminster 1834 

London Joint-Stock 1836 

Union Bank of London 1839 

Oommercial Bank of London . . . . ,, 

Chief London BanTcf. Founded. 

London and County 1839 

City Bank 1855 

Bank of London 

Joint-StocJc Banks, Jan. i860 : — 
England and Wales (including Loudon) 

I Ireland 8 
British and foreign colonial banks with offices 
in London iS 

BANKRUPT (signifying either bank or bench brokenl, a trader declared to be nnable 
to pay his just debts. The laws on the subject (1543, 1571 et seq.) were consolidated and 
amended in 1825, 1849, 1852, 1854, and 1861. 

Lord chancellor Thurlow refused a bankrupt 
his certificate, because he had lost five pounds 
at one time in gaming . . July 17.. 1788 

Enacted that members of the house of com- 
mons becoming bankrupt, and not paying 
their debts in full, should vacate their seats 1812 

Present Bankruptcy Court was erected by 2 
Will. IV. cap. 56, 1831 ; bills for reforming 
bankruptcy law were in vain brought before 
parliament, 1859, i860; at length in i86i was 
passed the bill brought in by the lord chan- 
cellor (formerly sir E. BetheU), 24 & 25 Vict. 

c. 134 (1861), by which great changes were 
made ; the court for relief of insolvent debtors 
was aboUshed, and increased powers given to 
the commissioners in bankruptcy, &c. ; the 
new orders were issued . . Oct. 12, 
[This act has not produced public satisfac- 
tion (186s).] 

The Irish bankruptcy laws consolidated in 
1836, and further amended in . . . 

The Scotch bankruptcy laws consolidated in 
1856, and further amended in . 



1700 . 

. . 38 

1800 . 

■ 1339 

1830 . 

■ 1467 

i8s7 1 


1725 . 

. . 416 

I8IO . 

. . 2000 

1840 ■ . 

. 1308 



1750 . 

• 4.l2 

1820 . 

• 1358 

184s England . 

. 1028 



1775 ■ 

. .520 

1825* . 

. . 2683 

1850 ditto 

. 1298 




In 1857 there were in Scotland, 453 ; Ireland, 73 ; in the United Kingdom, 2014. 
i860 ,, 44s ,, 113 ,, 1826. 

BANNATYNE CLUB, named after George Bannatyne (the publisher), was established 
in 1823 by sir "Walter Scott and others, for printing works illustrative of the history, 
antic[uities, and literature of Scotland, of which about 113 volumes were issued. 

BANNERET, a personal dignity between baron and knight, anciently conferred by the 
king under the royal standard. Its origin is of uncertain date : Edmondson says 736 ; but 
it was probably created by Edward I. John Chandos is said to have been made a banneret 
by the Black Prince and the king of Castile at Najara, April 3, 1367. The dignity was con- 
ferred on John Smith, who rescued the royal standard at Edgehill fight, Oct. 23, 1642. 
It fell into disuse, but was revived by Geo. III. in the person of sir William Erskine, in 

BANNERS were common to all nations. The Jewish tribes had standards or banners -^ 
Nicrn. ii. (1491 B.C.) The standard of Constantine bore the inscription. In hoc signo vinces — 
" By this sign thou shalt conquer," under the figure of the cross. See Cross. The magical 
banner of the Danes (said to have been a black raven on a red ground) was taken by Alfred 
when he defeated Hubba, 878. St. Martin's cap, and afterwards the celebrated auriflamma, 
or oriflamme, were the standards of France about iioo. See Aurifiamma, Standards, &c. 

BANNOCKBURN (Stirlingshire), the site of the battle between Robert Bruce of Scotland 
and Edward II. of England, June 24, 13 14. The army of Bruce consisted of 30,000 ; that 
of Edward of 100,000 men, of whom 52,000 were archers. The English crossed a rivulet to 
the attack, and Bruce having dug and covered pits, they fell into them, and were thrown 
into confusion. The rout was complete : the English king narrowly escaped, and 50,000 
were killed or taken prisoners. At Sauchieburn, near here, James II. was defeated and 
slain on June 11, 1488, by his rebellious nobles. — A national monument was founded here, 
June 24, 1 861, 

* According to a return to parliament made at the close of February, 1826, there had become bankrupt 
in the four months preceding, 59 banking-houses, comprising 144 partners ; and 20 other banking establish- 
ments had been declared insolvent. Every succeeding week continued to add from seventy to a hundred 
merchants, traders, and manufacturers to the bankrupt list. This was, however, the period of bubble 
speculation, and of unprecedented commercial embarrassment and ruin. 


BANNS, ia the feudal law, were a solemn proclamation of any kind : hence arose the 
present custom of asking banns, or giving notice before marriage ; said to have been intro- 
duced into the church about 1200. 

BANQUETING-HOUSE, Whitehall, London, built by Inigo Jones, about 1607. 

BANTAM (Java), where a rich British factory was established by captain Lancaster, in 
1603. The English and Danes were driven from their factories by the Dutch in 1683. 
Bantam surrendered to the British in 181 1, but was restored to the Dutch at the peace in 
1814. It was not worth retaining, the harbour being choked up and inaccessible. 

BANTINGISM. See Corpulence. 

BANTRY BAY (S. Ireland), where a French fleet, bringing succour to the adherents of 
James II., attacked the English under admiral Herbert, May i, 1689 : the latter retired to 
form in line and were not pursued. A French squadron of seven sail of the line and two 
frigates, armed en flute, and seventeen transports, anchored here for a few days, isithout 
effect, Dec. 1796. Mutiny of the Bantry Bay squadron under admii-al Mitchell was in 
Dec. 1 80 1. In Jan. 1802, twenty-two of the mutineers were tried on board the Gladiator, at 
Portsmouth, when seventeen were condeuined to death, of whom eleven were executed ; the 
others were sentenced to receive each 200 lashes. The executions took place on board the 
Majestic, Centaur, Formidable, Temeraire, and VAcMlle, Jan. 8 to 18, 1802. 

BAPTISM, the ordinance of admission into the Christian church, practised by all sects 
professing Christianity, except Quakers. John the Baptist baptized Christ, 30. (Matt, iii.) 
Infant baptism is mentioned by Irenaus about 97. In the reign of Constantine, 319, 
baptisteries were built and baptism was performed by dipping the person all over. In the 
west sprinkling was adopted. Much controversy has arisen since 1831 (particularly in 1849 
and 1850), in the church of England, respecting the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, 
which the Arches' Court of Canterbury decided to be a doctrine of the church of England. 
See Trials, 1849, and note. 

BAPTISTS (see Anabaptists). A sect distinguished by their opinions respecting (i) the 
proper subjects, and (2) the proper mode of baptism : the former they affirm to be those who 
are able to make a profession of faith ; the latter to be total immersion. There are seven 
sections of Baptists— Arminian, Calvinistic (or Particular), &c. The first Baptist church 
formed in London was in 1608. They published a confession of faith in 1689. In 1851 
they had 130 chapels in London and 2789 (with sittings for 752,353 persons) in England and 
"Wales. Rhode Island, America, was settled by Baptists in 1635. 

BARBADOES, discovered by the Portuguese, was the iirst English settlement in the West 
Indies. About 1605 it gave rise to the sugar trade in England ; and was, with other 
Caribbee islands, settled by charter granted to James, earl of Marlborough, 2 Charles I ., 
1627. Barbadoes has suffered severely from elemental visitations ; in a di'eadful hurricane, 
Oct. 10, 1780, more than 4000 of the inhabitants lost their lives. A large plantation with 
all its buildings was destroyed, by the land removing from its original site to another, 
and covering everything in its peregrination, Oct. 1784. An inundation, Nov. 1795; and 
two great fires. May and Dec. 1796. Bishopric established, 1824. Awful devastation, with 
the loss of thousands of lives, and of immense property, by a hurricane,^ Aug. 10, 1831. 
Nearly 17,000 persons died of cholera here in 1854. On Feb. 14, i860, property to the 
amount of about 300,000?. was destroyed by a fire at Bridgetown, the capital. 

BARBARY, in N. Africa, considered to comprise Algeria, Morocco, Fez, Tunis, and 
Tripoli, with their dependencies. Piratical states (nominally subject to Turkey) were 
founded on the coast by Barbarossa, about 1518. 

BARBERS existed at Rome in the 3rd century B.C. In England, formerly, the business 
of a surgeon was united to the barber's, and he was denominated a Barbeb-Surgeon. A 
London company was formed in 1308, and incorporated, 1461. This union was partially 
dissolved in 1540, and wholly so in 1745. "No person using any shaving or barbery in 
London shall occupy any surgery, letting of blood, or other matter, except only drawing of 
teeth." 32 Henry VIII. 1540. 

BARCA (N. Africa), the Greek Barce, a colony of Cyrene. It was successively subju- 
gated by the Persians, Egyptians, and Saracens. In 1550 the sultan Solyman combined 
Barca with the newly conquered pashalik of Tripoli. 


BARCELONA, an ancient maritime citj', (N. E. Spain), said to have been rebuilt by 
Hamilcar Barca, father of the great Hannibal, about 233 B.C. "With the surrounding 
cpuntry, it was held by the Romans, Goths, Moors, and Franks, and, with the province of 
which it is the capital, was made an independent county about A.D. 864, and incorporated 
into Aragon in 11 64, the last count becoming king. The city has suffered much by war. The 
siege by the French, in 1694, was relieved by the approach of the English fleet, commanded 
by admiral Russell ; but the city was taken by the earl of Peterborough in 1 706. It was 
bombarded and taken by the duke of Berwick and the French in 17 14, and was taken by 
Napoleon in 1808, and retained till 1814. It revolted against the queen in 1841, and was 
bombarded and taken in Dec. 1842, by Espartero. 

BARCLAY, Captain. See Pedestrianis^n. 

BARDESAISTISTS, followers of Bardesanes, of Mesopotamia, who embraced the errors of 
Valentinus, after refuting them, and added the denial of the incarnation, the resurrection, 
&c., about 175. 

BARDS. Demodocus is mentioned as a bard by Homer ; and we find bards, according 
to Strabo, among the Romans before the age of Augustus. The Welsh bards formed an 
hereditary order, regulated, it is said, by laws, enacted about 940 and 1078. They lost their 
privileges at the conquest by Edward I. in 1284. The institution was revived by the Tudor 
sovereigns ; and their Eisteddfodds (or meetings) have been and are frequently held ; at 
Swansea, Aug. 1863 ; at Llandudno, Aug. 1864; and in the vale of Conway, Aug. 7, 1865. 
The Gwyneddigion Society of Bards was founded in 1770. Turlogh O'Carolan, the last of 
the Irish bards, died in 1737. Chambers. 

BAREBONES' PARLIAMENT. Cromwell, supreme in the three kingdoms, summoned 
122 persons, such as he thought he could manage, who with six from Scotland, and five from 
Ireland, met, and assumed the name of parliament, July 4, 1653. It obtained its appellation 
from a nickname given to one of its members, a leather-seller, named "Praise-God Barbon," 
a great haranguer and frequent in prayer. Although violent and absurd propositions were 
made by some of the members, the majority evinced much sense and spirit, j)roposing to 
reform abuses, improve the administration of the law, &c. The parliament was suddenly 
dissolved, Dec. 13, 1653, at the instance of Sydenham, an independent, and Cromwell was 
invested with the dignity of Lord Protector. 

BAREILLY, province of Delhi (N. W. India), ceded to the East India company by the 
ruler of Gude in 1801. A mutiny at Bareilly, the ca]3ital, was suppressed in April, 1816. 
On May 7, 1858, it was taken from the sg^oj rebels, who had here committed many 

BARFLEUR (N. France), where William, duke of Normandy, equipped the fleet by 
which he conquered England, 1066. Near it, prince William, son of Henry I., in his 
passage from Normandy, was shipwrecked, Nov. 25, 1120.* Barfleur was destroyed by 
the English in the campaign in which they won the battle of Crecj'', 1346. The French 
navy was destroyed near the cape by admiral Russell, after the victory of La Hogue, in 1692. 

BAR! (S. Italy), the Barium of Horace, was, in the 9th century, a stronghold of the 
Saracens, and was captured by the emperor Louis II., a descendant of Charlemagne, in 871. 
In the loth century it became subject to the eastern empire, and remained so till it was 
taken by Robert Guiscard, the Norman, about 1060. A great ecclesiastical council was held 
here on Oct. i, 1098, when the Jilioque article of the creed and the procession of the Holy 
Spirit were the subjects of discussion, 

BARING ISLAND, Arctic Sea, discovered by captain Penny in 1850-1, and so named by 
him after sir Francis Baring, first lord of the admiralty in 1849. 

BARIUM (Greek, bai-ys, heavy), a metal fomid abundantly as carbonate and sulphate. 
Tlie oxide baryta was first recognised as an earth distinct from lime by Scheele, in 1774; and 
the metal was first obtained by Humphrey Davy, in 1808. Walts. 

BARK. See Jesuits' Bark. 

* In tliis shipwreck perished his legitimate son, 'William, duke of Kormandy, and his newly married 
■ bride, Matilda, daughter of Fulke, earl of Anjou ; the king's natural son, Eichard; his niece, Lucia; 
the earl of Chester, and the flower of the nobility, with 140 oflBcers and soldiers, and 50 sailors, most 
of the latter being intoxicated, which was the cause of their running upon the rocks near Barfleur. 
This lamentable catastrophe had such an effect upon Henry that he was never afterv.'ards seen to smile. 
HenauU ; Hume. 


BARMECIDES, a powerful Persian family, celebrated for virtue and courage, were 
massacred through the jealousy of the caliph Haroun-al-Easchid, about 802. His visir Giafar 
was a Barmecide. The phrase Barmecide (or imaginary) feast originated in the story of the 
barber's sixth brother, in tlie Arabian Nights' Entertainments, 

BAENABITES, an order of monks, established in Milan about 1530, were much engaged 
iu instructing youth, relieving the sick and aged, and converting heretics. 

BARNARD'S, Sir John, Act (7 Geo. II., cap. 8), entitled, " an act to prevent the 
infamous practice of stock-jobbing," Avas passed in 1734, and repealed in i860. Sir John 
Barnard (born 1685, died 1764) was an eminent and patriotic lord mayor of Loudon. 

BAENET, Hertfordshire. Here Edward IV. gained a decisive victory over the Lancas- 
trians, on Easter-day, April 14, 1471, when the earl of Warwick and his brother the marquis 
of Montacute, or Montague, and 10,000 men were slain. A column commemorative of this 
battle has been erected at the meeting of the St. Alban's and Hatfield roads. 

BAROMETERS. Torricelli, a Florentine, having discovered that no principle of .suction 
existed, and that water did not rise in a pump through nature's abhorrence of a vacuum, 
imitated the action of a pump with mercury, and made the first barometer, about 1643. 
Pascal's experiments (1646) enhanced the value of the discovery by applying it to the measure- 
ment of heights. AVheel barometers were contrived in 1668 ; pendent barometers in 1695 ; 
marine in 1700, and many improvements have been since made. In the Aneroid barometer 
(from a, no, and news, watery) no liquid is employed ; the atmospheric pressui-e being 
exerted on a metallic spring. Its invention (attributed to Cont^ in 1798, and to Vidi, about 
1844) excited much attention in 1848-9. Barometers were placed at N.E. coast stations in 
i860, by the duke of Nortliumberland and others. 

BARON, now the lowest title in our peerage, is extremely ancient. Its original name in 
England, Vavasour, was changed by the Saxons into Thane, and by the Normans into ^a?-o?i. 
Many of this rank are named in the history of England, and undoubtedly had assisted in, or 
had been summoned to parliament (in 1205) ; but the first precept found is of no higher date 
than the 49 Henry III. 1265. The first raised to this dignity by patent was John de Beau- 
champ, created baron of Kidderminster, by Richard II., 1387! The barons took arms against 
king John, and compelled him to sign the great charter of our liberties, and the charter of 
our forests, at Runnymede, near Windsor, June, 1215. Charles II. granted a coronet to 
barons on his restoration. 

BARONETS, the first in rank among the gentry, and the only knighthood that is here- 
ditary, were instituted by James I. 1611. The rebellion in Ulster seems to have given rise 
to this order, it having been required of a baronet, on his creation, to pay into the exchequer 
as much as would maintain ' ' thirty soldiers three years at eightpence a day in the province 
of Ulster in Ireland.'- It was further required that a baronet should be a gentleman born, 
and have a clear estate of 1000?. per annum. The first baronet was sir Nicholas Bacon (whose 
successor is tlierefore styled Prhmis BaroncUorum Anglia:), May 22, 161 1. The baronets of 
Ireland were created in 1619 ; the first being sir Francis Blundell. — Baronets of Nova Scotia 
were created, 1625 ; s'r Robert Gordon the iirst baronet. — All baronets created since the Irish 
union in 1801 are of the United Kingdom. 

BARONS' WAR, arose in consequence of the faithlessness of king Henry III. and the 
oppression of his fa vonrites. The barons, headed by Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, 
and Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, met at Oxford in 1262, and enacted statutes to 
wdiich the king objected. In 1263 their disputes were in vain referred to tlie decision of 
Louis IX. of France. War broke out, and on May 14, 1264, the king's party were totally 
defeated at Lewes : and De Montfort become the virtual ruler of the kingdom. Through 
treachery the v,-ar was renewed ; and at the battle of Evesham, Aug. 4, 1265, De Montfort 
was slain, and the barons were defeated. They, however, did not render their final sub- 
mission till 1268. A history of this war was published by Mr. W. H. Blaauw in 1844. 

BARRACKS (from " Ba^raque — Nictte que font Ics soldats en campagne pour sc inettre a 
couvert,") were not numerous in these countries until aliout 1789. A superintendent-general 
Avas appointed iu 1793, since when commodious barracks have been built in the various 
garrison towns and central points of the empire. — A report, censuring tlie condition of many 
barracks, Avas presented to parliament in 1858 ; and great improvements were effected under 
the direction of Mr. Sydney Herbert. See Aldersliot. 

BARRICADES, mounds formed of trees and earth, and for military defence. During 
the wars of the League in France, in 1588, the people made barricades by means of chains, 


casks, &c., and compelled the royal troops to retire. Barricades composed of overturned 
vehicles, &c., were erected in Paris in the insurrections of July, 27-30, 1830, and June 23, 

BARRIER TREATY, by which the Low Countries were ceded to the emperor Charles VI., 
Avas signed by the British, Imperial, and Dutch ministers, Nov. S, 1715. 

BARRISTERS are said to have been first appointed by Edward I., about 1291, but there 
is earlier mention of professional advocates in England. They are of various rank, as 
King's or Queen's Counsel, Serjeants, &c., ichicJi sec. Students for the bar must keep a 
certain number of terms at the Inns of Court, previously to being called ; and by the 
regulations of 1853 must pass a public examination. Irish students must keep eight terms 
in England. 

BARROSA, OR Barossa (S. Spain), where a battle was fought on March 5, 181 1, between 
the British army, commanded by major-general sir Thomas Graham, afterwards _ lord 
Lynedoch, and the French under marshal Victor, After a long conflict, the British achieved 
one of the most glorious triumphs of the Peninsular war. Although they fought at great 
disadvantage, the British compelled the French to retreat, leaving nearly 3000 dead, six 
pieces of cannon, and an eagle, the first that the British had taken ; the loss of the British 
was 1 169 men kiUed and wounded. 

13ARR0W ISLAND (N. Arctic Sea), discovered by captain Penny in 1850-51, and named 
by him in honour of John Barrow, Es(j^., son of sir John. 

BARROW'S STRAITS (N. Arctic Sea), explored by Edwd. Parry, as far as Melville 
Island, lat. 74° 26' N., and long. 113° 47' W. The strait, named after sir John Barrow, was 
entered on Aug. 2, 1819. The thermometer was 55° below zero of Fahrenheit. 

BARROWISTS, a name given to the Brownists, ivMch see. 

BARROWS, circular mounds found in Britain and other countries, were ancient 
sepulchres. Sir Ricliard Hoare caused several barrows near Stonehenge to be opened ; in 
them were found a number of curious remains of Celtic ornaments, such as beads, buckles, 
and brooches, in amber', wood, and gold : Nov. 1808. 

BARS in music appear in the madrigals of Bonini, 1607. Their common use in this 
country is attributed to Henry Lawes, about 1653. Encj. Cyc. 

BARTHOLOMEW, ST., martyred, 71. The festival (on Aug. 24, O.S., Sept. 3, N.S.) 
is said to have been instituted in 1130.* The monastery and hospital of St. Bartholomew 
(Austin Friars), founded in the reign of Henry I. , by Rahere, about 1 100. On the dissolution 
the Hospital was re-founded, 1539, and was incorporated in 1546-7. It was rebuilt by 
subscription in 1729. In 1861 it contained 580 beds, and relieved aboirt 70,000 patients : 
it has since been considerably enlarged. The Massacre commenced at Paris on the night of 
the festival of St. Bartholomew, Aug. 24, 1572. According to Sully, 70,000 Huguenots, or 
French Protestants, including women and children, were murdered throughout the kingdom 
by secret orders from Charles IX., at the instigation of his mother, the queen dowager, 
Catherine de Medicis.f 

BARTPIOLOMEW, ST., a West Indian island, held by Sweden. It was colonised by 
the French in 1648 ; and has been several times taken and restored by the British, It was 
ceded to Sweden by France in 1785. 

BARTHOLOMITES, a religious order of Armenia, settled 1307, at Genoa, where is pre- 
served in the Bartholomite church the image which Christ is said to have sent to king 
Abgarus. The order was suppressed by pope Innocent X. 1650. 

BARTON AQUEDUCT (near Manchester) was constructed by James Brindley, to carry 
the Bridgewater canal over the Irwell, which was done at a height of 39 feet abov3 the river. 
It is said to be in as good a state now as it was on the day it was completed, in 1761. 

* The charter of the Pair was granted by Henry II. , and was held on the ground which has been the 
former scene of tournaments and martyrdoms. The shows at the fair were discontinued in 1850, and 
the fair was pi-oclaimed for the last time in 1855. In 1858 Mr. H. Morley published his " History of Bar- 
tholomew Fair," with many illustrations. See Sniitlifield. 

+ The number of the victims is differently stated by various aTithors. La Popelionere calculates the 
whole at 20,000 ; Adriani, De Serres, and De Thou say 30,000 ; Davila states them at 40,000 ;_ and P^r^fixe 
makes the number 100,000. Above 500 persons of rank, and 10,000 of inferior condition, perished in Paris 
alone, besides those slaughtered in the provinces. The pope, Gregory XIII., ordered a TeSeuni to be per- 
formed on the occasion, with other rejoicings. 

G 2 


BASLE, a ricli city in Switzerland. The i8th general council sat here from 1431 to 
1443. Many important reforms in the church were proposed, but not carried into effect : 
among others the union of the Greek and Roman churches. The university was founded in 
1460. Treaties of peace between France, Spain, and Prussia were concluded here in 1795. 

BASHI-BAZOUKS, in-egular Turkish troops, partially employed by the British in tho 
Crimean war, 1854-6. 

BASIENTELLO (S. Naples). Here the army of the emperor Otho II. fell into an 
ambuscade, and was nearly cut to jneces by the Greeks and Saracens on July 13, 982 ; the 
emperor himself barely escaped. 

BASILIANS, an order of monks, which obtained its name from St. Basil, who died 380, 
The order was reformed by pope Gregory, in 1569. — A seijt, founded by Basil, a physician 
of Bulgaria, held most extravagant notions ; they rejected the books of Moses, the eucharist, 
and baptism, and are said to have had everything, even their wives, in common, 11 10. Basil 
was burnt alive in 11 18. 

BASILIKON DOEON' (Koyal Gift), precepts on the art of government, composed by 
James I. of England for his son, and first published at Edinburgh in 1599. The collected 
works of this monarch were published at London, 1616-20, in one vol. Ibl. 

BASQUE PROVINCES (N. W. Spain, Biscay, Guipuscoa, and Alava). The Basques, 
considered to be descendants of the ancient Iberi, were termed Vascones by the Romans, 
whom they successfully resisted. They were subdued vntli great difficulty by the Goths 
about 580 ; and were united to Castile in the 13th and 14th centuries. Their language, 
distinct from all others, is conjectured to be of Tartar origin. 

BASQUE ROADS. Four French sliips of the line, riding at anchor here, were attacked 
by lords Gambier and Cochrane (the latter commanding the fireships), and all, with a gi-eat 
number of merchant and other vessels, were destroyed, April 12, 1809. Cochrane accused 
Gambier of neglecting to support him, and thereby allowing the French to escape. At a 
court-martial (July 26 — Aug. 4), lord Gambier was acquitted. 

BASSORAH, Basrah, or Bussorah (Asia Minor), a Turkish city, founded by the caliph 
Omar, about 635. It has been several times taken and retaken by the Persians and Turks. 

BASS ROCK, an isle in the Firth of Forth (S. Scotland), was granted to the Lauders, 
1316; purchased for a state-prison, 1671 ; taken by the Jacobites, 1690; surrendered, 1694; 
granted to the Dalrymples, 1 706. 

BASS'S STRAIT, Australia. Mr. Bass, surgeon of the Reliance, in an open boat from 
Port Jackson, in 1797, penetrated as far as Western Port, and affirmed that a strait existed 
between New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. Lieutenant Flinders circumnavigated 
Van Diemen's Land, and named the strait after Mr. Bass, 1 799. 

BASSET, OR Bassette, or Pour ct Contre, a game at cards, said to have been invented 
by a noble Venetian, in the 15th century ; introduced into France, 1674. 

BASTARD, a child not born in lawful wedlock. An attempt was made in England, in 
1236, to make bastard children legitimate by the subsequent marriage of the parents, but it 
failed, and led to the memorable answer to the barons assembled in the parliament of 
Merton : Nolumus leges Anglue mutari — "We will not have the laws of England changed." 
Women concealing their children's birth deemed guilty of murder, 21 James I., 1624. 
Viners Statutes. In Scotland bastard children had not the jiower of disposing of their 
moveable estates by will, until 6 AVill. IV. 1836. A new act, facilitating the clnims of 
mothers, and making several provisions for proceeding in bastardy cases, was passed 8 Vict, 
cap. 10(1845). 

BASTILLE, Paris, a castle built by Charles V., king of France, in 1369, for the defence 
of Paris against the English ; completed in 1383. It was afterwards used as a state prison, 
and became the scene of much suffering. Henry IV. and his veteran army assailed it in 
vain in the siege of Paris, during the war that desolated France between 1587 and 1594. 
On July 14-15, 1789, it was pulled down by the infuriated populace; the governor and 
other officers were seized, conducted to the Place de Grove, and had their hands and heads 
cutoff. The heads fixed on spikes were carried in triumph through the streets. — "The 
man with the iron mask," the most mysterious prisoner ever known, died here, Nov. 19, 
1703. See Iron Mask. 

BATAVIA AND Batavian Republic. See Holland. 



BATAVIA, the capital of Java, and of all the Dutch settlements in the East Indies, built 
by that people about 1619. Taken by the English, Jan. 1782. Again, by the British, under 
general sir Samuel Auchniuty, Aug. 26, 181 1 ; restored in 18 14. 

BATH (Somerset), a favourite station of the Eomans. About 44 B.C. was remarkable 
then for its hot springs. Coel, a British king, is said to have given this city a charter, an d 
the Saxon king Edgar was crowned hei'e, A.D. 973. 

Bath plundered and burnt in tlie reign of "Wil- 
liam Rufus, and again in .... 1137 
The abbey church commenced in 1405 ; finished 1606 

Assembly-rooms built 1771 

Pump room erected 1797 

Theatre, Beaufort-square, opened . . . . 1805 

Bath philosophical society formed . . . 1817 

Victoria park opened by princess Victoria . . 1830 

British association met here . . Sept. 14, 1864 

1802. Richard Beadon, died 
1824. George Henry Law, died 

BATH AND WELLS, Bishopric op. The see of Wells, whose cathedral church was 
built by Ina, king of the West Saxons, in 704, was established in 909. The see of Bath was 
established in 1078. John de Villula, the sixteenth bishop, having purchased the city of 
Bath for 500 mai'ks of Henry I., transferred his seat from Wells to Bath in 1088. Disputes 
arose between the monks of Bath and the canons of Wells about the election of a bishop, 
which were compromised in 1135. Henceforward the bishop was to be styled from both 
places ; the precedency to be given to Bath. The see is valued in the king's books at 
531?. IS. yl. per annum. Present income, 5000Z. 


April 21, 1824 I 1845. Richard Bagot, died . . . May 15, 1854 
Sept. 22, 1845 I 1854. Robert John, baron Auckland (PBESENT bishop). 

BATH ADMINISTEATlOlSr. Mr. Pelham and his friends having tendered their resigna- 
tion to the king (George II.), Feb. 10, 1746, the formation of a new'ministry was undertaken 
by William Pulteney, earl of Bath ; but it expired on Feb. 12, while yet incomplete, and 
received, the name of the "Short-lived" administration. The members of it actually 
appointed were : the earl of Bath, Jirst lord of the treasury ; lord Carlisle, lord privy seal ; 
lord Winchilsea, first lord of the admiralty ; and lord Granville, one of the secretaries of state, 
with the seals of the other in his pocket, "to be given to whom he might choose." Mr. 
Pelham and his colleagues returned to power. Cox's Life of Pelham. 

BATH, Order of the, said to be of early origin, but formally constituted Oct. 11, 
1399) l^y Henry IV., two days previous to his coronation in the Tower ; he conferred the 
order upon forty-six esquires, who had watched the night before, and had bathed. After 
the coronation of Charles II. the order was neglected until May 18, 1725, when it was 
revived by George I., who fixed the number of knights at 37. On Jan. 2, 1815, the prince 
regent enlarged the order, forming classes of knights grand crosses (72), and knights com- 
manders (180), with an unlimited number of companions. By an order published May 25, 
1847, all the existing statutes of this order were annulled ; and by the new statutes, the 
order, hitherto exclusively military, was opened to civilians. In 1851, Dr. Lyon Plavfair, 
and other promoters of the Great Exhibition of that year, received this honour. 

Constitution: — ist Class. Knights grand cross, 50 miUtary, 25 civil. 
znd Class. Knights commanders, 100 „ £o ,, 

3?-cJ Class. Companions, 525 „ 200 ,, 

BATHS were long used in Greece, and introduced by Agrippa into Eome. The thermte 
of the Eomans and gymnasia of the Greeks (of which baths formed merely an appendage) 
were sumptuous. The marble groiip of Laocoon was found in 1506 in the baths of Titus, 
erected about 80, and the Farnese Hercules in those of Caracalla, erected, 211. See £ath. 


In London, St. Agnes Le Cehre, in Old-street- 
road, was a spring of great antiquity ; baths 
said to have been formed in 1502. 

St.Chad's-well, Grey's-inn-road, derives its name 
from St. Cliad, the fifth bishop of Lichfield . 

Old Bath-house, Coldbath-square, in use . 

A bath opened in Bagnio-court, now Bath-street, 
Newgate-street, London, is said to have been 
the first bath in England for hot bathing 

Peerless (Perilous) Pool, Baldwin-street, City- 
road, mentioned by Stow (died 1605) ; en- 
closed as a bathing place 1743 

Turkish sweating-baths very popular in . . i860 

The Oriental baths in Victoria-street, West- 
minster, were completed in . . . . 1862 




The first established by Mr. Bowie in the neigh- 
bourhood of the London docks 

Acts were passed to encourage the establishment 
of public baths and wash-houses, "for the 
health, comfort, and welfare of the inhabi- 
tants of populous towns and districts," in 
England and Ireland 

In the quarter ending Sept. 1854, 537,345 
bathers availed themselves of the baths in 
London, and in this period there were 85,260 

Public baths and wash-houses have since been 
estabhshed throughout the empire. 





BATON, a truncheon borne by generals in the French army, and afterwards by the 
marshals of other nations. Henry III. of France, before he ascended the throne, was made 
generalissimo of the aimy of his brother Charles IX., and received the bdton as the mark of 
the high command, 1569. Henmdt. • 

BATTERIES along the coasts were constructed by Henry VIII. (who reigned 1509-47). 
The famous floating batteries with which Gibraltar was attacked, in the memorable siege of 
that fortress, were the scheme of D'Arcon, a French engineer. There were ten of them, and 
they resisted the heaviest shells and 32-pound shot, but ultimately yielded to red-hot shot, 
Sept. 13. 1782. See Gibraltar. 

BATTERING-RAM, Testudo Arietaria, with other military implements, some of which 
are still in use, are said to have been invented by Artemon, a LacedBemonian, and employed 
by Pericles, about 441 B.C. These ponderous engines (from Soto 120 feet long) by their 
own weight exceeded the utmost effects of the battering cannon of the early part of the last 
century. Desaguliers. Sir Christopher Wren employed a battering-ram in demolisbing the 
old walls of St. Paul's church, previously to rebuilding the edifice in 1675. 

BATTERSEA PARK originated in an act of parliament passed in 1846, which 
empowered Her Majesty's commissioners of woods to form a royal park in Battersea- 
fields. Acts to enlarge the powers of the commissioners were passed in 1848, 185 1, and 
1853. The park and the new bridge connecting it with Chelsea were opened in April, 1858. 

BATTLE-ABBEY, Sussex, foimded by William I., 1067, on the plain where the battle 
of Hastings was fought, Oct. 14, 1066. It was dedicated to St. Martin, and was given to 
Benedictine monks, who were to pray for the souls of the slain. The original name of the 
plain was Hetheland. See Hastings. After the battle of Hastings, a list was taken of 
William's chiefs, amounting to 629, and called the Battel-eoll ; and amongst these chiefs 
the lands and distinctions of the followers of the defeated Harold were distributed. 

BATTLE, Wager of, a trial by combat formerly allowed by our laws, where the defen- 
dant in an appeal of murder might fight with the appellant, and make proof thereby of his 
guilt or innocence. See Appeal. 

BATTLE-AXE, a weapon of the Celt?e. The Irish were constantly armed with an axe. 
Bums. At the battle of I3annockburn king Robert Bruce clove an English champion down 
to the chine at one blow with a battle-axe, 13 14. Hume. The battle-axe guards, or beau- 
fetiers, Avho are \iilgarly called beef-eaters, and whose arms are a sword and lance, were first 
raised by Henry VII. in 1485. They were originally attendants upon the king's buffet. See 
Yeoman oj the Guard. 

BATTLEFIELD, Battle of. See Shrcivshury. 

BATTLES. Palamedes of Argos is said to have been the first who ranged an army in a 
regular line of battle, placed sentinels round a camp, and excited the soldier's vigilance by 
giving him a watchword. Lenglet. See Naval Battles, British. The following are the most 
memorable battles, arranged in chronological order. The fifteen battles marked by a f are 
termed " decisive " by Professor Creasy ; n. signifies naval. 


Abraliam defeats kings of Canaan (Gen. xiv.) . 1913 
Joshua subdues five liings of Canaan (Jush. x.). 1451 
Gideon defeats the Midianites (Judges vii.) . 1245 
Trojan war commenced ... . . 1193 
Troy talion and destroyed .... 1184 
Jephtliah defeats Ammonites . . . . 1143 
Ethiopians defeated by Asa (2 Clivoa. xiv.) . 941 

*Horatii vanquisli Curiatii 669 

*Halys (Medes and Lydians, stopped hy eclipse) . 585 
f *Marathnn (Greeks defeat Persiaim) Sept. 28, 490 
*Thermo'pylai (heruism of Leonidas) Aug. y-g, 480 
* Sal amis, 5). (Greeks defeat Persians) . Oct. 20, ,, 
*Mycale (ditto) .... Sept. 22, 479 
*'P\Atsea. (ditto : Pausanias) . . Sept. 22, „ 
*Eurymedon ?i. (ditto: Cimon) .... 466 
•Coronea (Jiceoiians defeat Athenians) . . . 447 
Romans totally defeat Veientes . . . 437 
Torone (Clean killed : Athenia'iis defeat Spartans) 422 
*'!s1a.-ntmQ\ (Spartans deieat Athenians) . . . 418 
t Athenians defeated before Syi-acuse . .413 
*Cjzic\i3 n. (Alcibiades defeats Spartanf) . . 410 

*ATgimisie (Canon defeats Spaiians) . .B.C. 406 

*yEgospotamos n. (AiJuniun fleet destroyed) . . 405 

*Cunaxa(Cy)-H« defeated a7id killed by Artaxerxes) 401 

Cnidus, 71. (Canon defeats Spadans) . . . 394 

'Coronea. (Argesilaus defeats Athenians and allies) „ 

*A\lia,(Jirenmcs and the Gauls defeat Homanh) . 390 

VoLsci defeated by Camillus 381 

Volsci defeat the Romans 379 

Naxus (Chabrias defeats Laceda;monians) 376 or 377 
*Xjenctra, ( 2 hebans defeat SjMrians) . . -371 

Camillus defeats the Gauls 367 

*Cynocepha!je (Ihebans defeat Thessalians) . 364 

*}ild.ntinea, (Ihebansvictors: Epaminondos slain) 362 

*Crimesus (Timoleon defeats Carlha/jinians) . 339 

^Chasri'Tiea. (Philip defeats Athenians, d:c.) . . 338 

Thebes destroyed by Alexander . . . 335 

*Gra.nicus (Alexander defeats Da.rius) May 22, 334 

-Issus (ditto) Oct. 333 

*randosia (Alexander of Epinut dfld. and islain) 332 

\*ATbela. (Alexander defeats Darius) . Oct. i, 331 

*Cranon (Antipater defeats Greeks) . . . . 322 
iCaudine Forks (Roman army captured) . .321 

[The battles which are thus m.arked ■ are more f\illy de.'^cribcd in their .alphabetical order ] 




BATTLES, contmued. 

^GrSLZix. (Ptolemy defeats Demetrius) . , B.c, 312 

Fabius defeats the Tusnans .... 310 

"Himera (Gelon defeats Agatlwcles) . . . ,, 

■■'Ipsus (Seleucus defeats Antigonus, who is slain) . 301 

■■■Seiitinuni (Romans defeat Samnites) . . . 295 

Asculum (Pyrrhua defeats Romans) . . . 279 

Beneventum (Romans defeat Pi/rrhus) . . 275 

*Punic Wars begin 264 

"Mylfe, n. (Romans defeat Carihaffinians) . . 260 

Xautippus defeats Regulus 255 

'''Pnuornins (Asdrubal defeated by Metellus) . 2.50 

+Drepanum n. (Carthaginians defeat Romans) . 249 

■•'Agates n. (Romans defeat Cariha^ginioMs) . . 241 

Cliisium (Gauls defeated) 225 

Sellasia (Macedonians defeat SpaHans) . . 222 

Caphyaj (Achceans defeat Italians) . . . 220 

*Saguutum taken by Hannibal .... 219 
2nd Pwiic War. — Ticinus (Hannibal defeats 

Romans) 218 

*Trebia (ditto) ,, 

Thrasymenes (ditto) 217 

Eaphia (Antiochus defeated by Ptol. Philopater) ,, 

^'Ceainie (Victory of Hannibal) . . Aug. 2, 216 

Scipio defeats Hasdrubal in Spain . . . 215 

Marcellus and Hannibal (former killed) . . 209 

t*Metaurus (Nero defeats Asdrubal, who is killed) 207 

*Za,m.a, (Scipio defeats Hannibal) . . . . 202 

Abydos (siege of) 200 

*Cynoceplial£e (Romans defeat Macedonians) . 197 

•■Magnesia 1 Scipio defeats Antiochus) . . . 190 

■ Pydna (Romans defeat Perseus) . . June 22, 168 

'■Punic War (the Third) 149 

■■Carthage taken by Publius Scipio . . . 146 

Mummius takes Corinth . . . . . , , 

"Metellus defeats Jugurtha .... 109 

Aqua? Sextise (Aix ; Alarius defeats the Teutones) 102 

■•Cimbri and Romans (defeated by Marius) . . loi 

^Chseronea (Sylla defeats Milhridates' army) . . 86 

Marius defeated by Sylla 82 

Tigranocerta (Lucullus defeats Tigranes) . . 69 

Pistoria (Catiline defeated) 62 

Cfesar defeats Cassivelamius . . . . 54 

Carrhaj (Crassus defeated by the Parthians) 

June 9, 33 

*Pharsalia (Ccesar defeats Pompey) . . Aug. 9, 48 
■*2iela (Ccesar defeats Pharnaces ; writes, "Yeni, 

Tidi, vici ") 

Thapsus (Ccesar defeats Pompey' s friends) 
Miuida, in Spain (Pompey's sons subdued) 

Mar. 17, 
*Philippi (Brutus and Cassius defeated) . 
Agrippa defeats Pompey the Younger 
*Actium, n. (Octavius defeats Antony) . Sept. 

tVarus defeated by Herman (or Arminius) . 
"Drusus defeats Germans .... 
*Shropshire (Caractacus taken) 

Sunbury (Romans defeat Roadicea) . 
^Jerusalem taken 

Agricola conquers Mona .... 

He defeats Galgacus and Caledonians . 

Dacians defeated and Decebalus slain 

Issus (Niger slain) 

Lyons (Severus defeats Albinu~^) 

Naissus (Claudius defeats Goths, 300,000 slain] 

Verona (emperor Philip d-feated) 

Decius defeated and slain by Goths 

Valerian defeated and captured by Sapor . 

Chalons (Aurelian victor over rivals) . 

Alectus defeated in Britain 

Constantine def. Maxentius (see Cross), Oct. 2 
*Adrianople (Constantine deleats Licinius) . 
*Aquileia (C nslantine 11. slain) 
*Argentaria (Gratian defeats Gauls) . 
*Aquileia (Maximus slain) .... 
■"Aquileia (Eugenius slain) .... 

PoUentia (Stilicho defeats Alaric) . Mar. 29, 

Eome taken by Alaric . . . Aug. 24, 


















Ravenna taken by Aspar 
*Franks defeated by Aetius . 

Genseric takes Carthage 
t*Chalons-sur-Mame (Atilla defeated by AHius) 

Aylesford (Britons defeat Saxons) 

Crayford, Kent (Hengist defeats Britons) . 
*Soissons (Clovis defeats Syagrius) . 
*Tolbiach or Zi-ilpich (Clovis defeats Alemanni) 

Saxons defeat Britons .... 

Victories of Belisarius .... 

Narses defeats Totila 

Heraclius defeats the Persians (Chosroes) 

Beder (first victoi'y of Mahommed) 

Muta (Mahometans defeat Romans) . 

Hatfield (Heathfield ; Penda defeats Edwin) 

Saracens subdue Syria 

'K.a.diSe&h. (Arabs def eat Persians) . . 

Saracens take Alexandria .... 
*Near Os^w^estry (Penda defeats Oswald of North 


*Leeds (Oswy defeats Penda, who is slain) 
*Saracens defeated by Wambo, in Spain 
*Xeres (Saracens defeat Roderic) 
t'Tours (Chas. Martel defeats the Saracens) 

Victories of Charlemagne , 

*Roncesvalle (death of Roland) 

Clavijo (Moors defeated) 

Albaida (Musa and Moors defeated,) 


Hengestdo-wn (Danes defeated by Egbert) . 
Chaxmonth. (Elhelwolf defeated by the Dan's) . 
Danes defeat King Edmund of East Anglia 
Assendon or Ashdovvn (Danes defeated) . . 

Merton (Danes victorious) 

Wilton (Danes victorious over Alfred) . . . 
fAndernach (Charles the Bald defeated) Oct. 8, 
Ethandun (Alfred defeats Danes) . . . . 
Parnham (Danes defeated) .... 
Bury (EdAuard defeats Ethehoald and Dane-') 








• 923 
934 or 938 



'Soissons (king Robert victor, killed) . 
*Semincas (Spaniards defeat Moors ?) 

Nicephorus Phocas defeats Saracens 

Basientello (Otho 11. defeated by Greeks, (i;c.) 

July 13, 
[The Saxons and Danes fought with different 
success from 638 to 1016.] 

Assingdon, Ashdon (Canute defeats Edmund) 
'Clontarf (i)a?ies defeated) ..... 1014 

Civitella (Normans defeat Leo IX ) ... 1053 
*Dunsinane (Macbeth defeated) .... 1056 

Stanford Bridge (Harold defeats Tostig) Sept. 25, 1066 
^*'S.a,s,tiTigs, (William 1. defeats Harold) Oct. 14, ,, 

Fladenheim (emperor Henry defeated) . . . 1080 
*Ahiwick (Scots defeated, Malcolm slain) . . 1093 

■*Crusades commence .Y-^ogS"*"^ 

*Ascalon (Crusaders victorious) . . Aug. 12, 1099 
*Jinchehriij (Robert of Normandy defeated) . 1106 

Brenneville, Normandy (Henry L victorious) . 1119 
^Northallerton, or Battle of the Standard, 

(David 1. and Scots defeated) . Aug. 22, 1138 
*Ourique (Alfonso of Portugal defeats Moors,) 

July 25, 1139 
"•Lincoln (Stephen defeated) . . Feb. 2, 1141 
*Aln.v/ic^ (II illiam the Zion defeated) . July 13, 1174 
*Legnano (Italians defeated Erd. Barbarossa), 

May 29, 1176 

Ascoli (Tancred defeats emperor Henry VI.) . . ii9q__L- 

*Ascalon surrendei-s (Richard 1.) 

Sept 7, iigi 

Arcadiopolis (Bulgarians defeat Emp. Isaac) . 1194 

Marcos (Moors defeat Spaniards) . .July 19, 1195 

*Gisors (Richard 1. defeats French) . Oct. 10, 1198 

*Arsoul (Richard, 1. defeats Saracens) Sept. 7, 1199 

Tulosa,( Moors defeated) 1212 

■"Bouvines (French defeat Germans) . . . 1214 

*Lincoln (French defeated) . . May 19, 1217 

*Mausourah (Louis IX. and Crusaders defeated) . 1250 

[The battles vsrhich are thus marked ■■ are more ixxWy described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

»Lewes (English baroyis victorious) . May 14, 1264 
•Evesham (Barons defeated) . . Aug. 4, 1265 
*Benevento (Cfias. of Anjou defeats Manfred) 

Feb. 26, 1266 

»Tagliacozzo (Charles defeats Aug. 23, 1268 

■^yLa,rc\\te\di,(Aastriansdefeat Bohemians) \\\a. 26, 1278 

Llandewyer (Llewellyn of Wales defeated) . . 1282 

Unnhax (King nf Scots taken) . . April 27, 1296 

Ca.m\>\\s\iGm\^th. (Wallace defeats English) . 1297 

*'PAY&.irk. (Wallace defeated) . . July 22, 1298 

*Co\xrtra,j (Flemings deft. Count of Artois) July 11, 1302 

Roslin, Scotland .... Feb. 24, 1303 

^Cephiaus (Duke of Athens defeated) . . .1311 

*Bannockbum (Sruce di'feats English) June 24, 1314 

»Morgarten (Sioiss defeat Austrians) . . . „ 

•Fougbard or Dundalk (Ed. Brvxe defd.) Oct. 5, 1318 

Boroughbridge (Edward II. defeats Barons) . 1322 

\^\i\dovt (Bavarians defeat Austrians) . . ,, 

uplin (Edicard Ballot defeats Mar) Aug. 11, 1332 

•Halidon Hill (Edward III. defs. Scots) July 19, 1333 

Anberoche (earl of Derby defeats French) . .1345 

*Cressy (Ennlish defeat French) . Aug. 26, 1346 

•Durham, Nevil's Cross (Scots defeated) Oct. 17, „ 

La Roche Darien (Charles of Slois defeatal) . 1347 

*Poitiers (English defeat French) . Sept. 19, 1356 

Cocherel (Da Guesciin defeats Navarre) May 16, 1364 

*Aur9Ly (Da Guesclin defeased) . Sept. 29, ,, 

*'Saja.ra.(Black Prince defts. Henry of Trastamare) 

April 3, 1367 
'Montiel (Peter of Castile defeated) March 14, 1369 
*Rosbecque (French defeat Flemings) . Nov. 17, 1382 
* (Swiss defeat Austrians) . . July 9, 1386 
^Otterbum (Chevy Chase ; Scots victors) Aug. 10, 1388 
*Nicopolis (Turls defeat Christians) . Sept. 28, 1396 
*Ancyra (Timour defeats Bajazet) . . July 28, 1402 
"Homeldon Hill (English defeat Scots) Sept. 14, „ 
^Shrewsbury (Percies, <t-c. , defeated) . July 23, 1403 
Monmouth (Glendower defeated) . , May 11, 1405 
*Harlaw (Lord of the Isles defeated) . July 24, 141 1 
Agincourt (English detiot French) . Oct. 25, 1415 
3njou, Be:iug6 (English d<!ft. hy Scots) March 22, 1421 
Crevant (English deft. French and Scots),3u\\6 11, 1423 
*Vemeuil (d'Uo) .... Aug. 27, 1424 
*Herrings (English d'feat French) . Feb. 12, 1429 
t*Patay (English defeated, Joan of Arc), June 18, „ 

Yiuxiobitza. (Huniades defe(KtstheTurls),'DQC. 24, 1443 
*Brechin, Scotland (Huntly defeats Crawford) . 1452 
♦Castillon, Chatillon (French defeat Talbot) 

July 23, 1453 



^ (French defeat Swiss) Sept. 13-15, 1515 
Bicocca, near Milan (Lautrec defeated) . . 1522 
*Fa.Yia. (Frnncis I. defeated) . . Feb. 24, 1525 
*Mohatz (Turks defeat Hungarians) Aug. 29, 1526 
*Ca,Tppo\ (Zuinglius slaiji) . . . Oct. 11, 1531 
Aaaens (Christian III. defeats Danish rebels) . 1535 
Solway Moss (English defeat Scots) Nov. 25, 1542 
\Ceresuo\ii, (French defeat /mperi'tiists) April 14, 1544 
*Muhlberg(CTias. V. defts. Protestants) April 24, 1547 
Pinkey (English defeat Scots) . . Sept. 10, „ 
*Ket's rebellion suppressed by Warwick, Aug. 1549 
*St. Quintiu (Spanish and English defeat French), 

Aug. 10, 1557 

'Calais (taken) Jan. 7, 1558 

Graveliiies (Spanish and English defeat French), 

July 13, „ 
*T>rBU-!i,\\i'¥ra.T\ca (Huguenots defeated), Dec. 19, 1562 
St. Denis (ditto) .... Nov. lo, 1567 
*lja.ngs,id.e (Mary of Scotland defeated) May 13, 1568 
*Jamac (Huguenots defeated) . . Jfarch 13, 1569 
Mouoontour (Coligny defeated) . Oct. 3, ,, 

'lispa.nto n. (Don John defeats Turks) Oct. 7, 1571 
*iUcazar (Moors defeat Portuguese) Aug. 4, 1578 

*Zutphen (Dutch and English defeat Spaniards) 

Sept. 22, 1586 

•Coutras (Henry IV. defeats League) Oct. 20, 1587 

t»Spanish Armada defeated, n. . . Aug. 1588 

•Arques (Henry IV. defeats League) . Sept. 21, 1589 

*Ivry (Henry JV. defeats League) . March 14, 1590 

Blackwater (Tyrone defeats Bagnal) . . 1598 

Nieuport (Maurice defeats Austrians) . 

vKinsale (Tyrone reduced by Mountjoy) 

Kirchholm (Poles defeat Swedes) . 

Gibraltar (Dutch defeat Spaniards) 

•Prague (king of Bohemia defeated) . Nov. 8, 1620 

"^Rochelle (taken) 1628 

*Leipsic (Gustavus defeats Tilly) . Sept. 7, 1631 
*ljiich(IniiieriaUsts defeated; Tilly killed) April 5, 1632 
*Lippstadt, Lutzingen, or Lutzen (Swedes vic- 
torious ; Gustavus slain) . . Nov. 16, ,, 
*Nordlingen (Swedes defeated) . . Aug. 27, 1634 
An-as (taken hy the French) .... 1640 

160 1_ 


- ^t. AVoaa's (Yorkins victorious) . May 22 or 23, 1455 

'Belgrade (Mahomet II. rejmlsed) . Sept. 10, 1456 

•Bloreheath ( ro?-i-is<« rictors) . . Sept. 23, 1459 
^Northampton (ditto Henry VI. taken) 
*Wakefield (Lancastrians victors) 

Mortimer's Cross, (Yorkists victorious) _Feb. 2, 146 

*Chalgj-ove (Hampden killed) . 
Bramham Moor (Fairfax defeated) 
*Stratton (Royalists victorious) . 
*Rocroy (French defeat Spaniards) 
*Lansdown (Royalists victorious) 
Round-away-down (ditto) 
*Newbury (Royalists defeated) 
July 10, 1460 /Chenton or Alresford (ditto) 
Dec. 31, — - -. - 

*St. Alban's (Lancastrians victors) . Feb. 17, 

"^Towton (Yorkists victo7-ious) . . March 29, ,, 
*'Kexha,rQ. (Yorkists victors) . . May 15, 1464 
*Banbury (ditto) .... July 26, 1469 

Stavaiord (Lancastrians defeated) March 13, 1470 

•Barnet (ditto) April 14, 1471 

_ S^Friedburg (Tarenne victor) 
i~ /^Oropredy Bridge (Charles I. victor) 

♦Tewkesbury (ditto) 

May 4, 

♦Granson (Swiss defeat Charles the Bold) April 5, 1476 

♦Morat (ditto) June 22, ,, 

*tia,i^cy (Chart's the Bold killed) . . Jan. 4, 1477 

*Bosworth (Richard III. defeated) . Aug. 22, 1485 

Stoke (Lambert Simnel taken) .... 1487 

St. Aubin (Bretons defeated) 1488 

*Blackheath (Cornish rebels defeated) June 22, 1497 
'Cerignola, (Cordova defeats French) April 28, 1503 
•Agnadello (French defeat Venetians) May 14, 1509 
*Ravenna (Gaslpn de Foix, victor, killed) April 11, 1512 
*Novara (Papal Suiss defeat French) June i, 1513 
*Guinega.te (Spurs) (French defeated) Aug. 16, „ 
*Flodden (English defeat Scots) . Sept. 9, 1515 


Worcester ( prince Rupert victor) . Sept. 23, 
*Edgehill fight (issue doubtful) . Oct. 23, 
*Leipsic or Breitenfeld (Swede* ric(or«), Oct. 13, 


June 18, 1643 
March 29, „ 
May 16, „ 
May 19, „ 

July 5. ,. 
July 13. „ 
, Sept. 20, ,, 
March 29, 1644 

June 29, ,," * 
Marston Moor (7?iti)crt de/'cci<ed) . July 2, ,, 
*Newbury (indecisive) .... Oct. 27, ,, 
*Naseby {king totally defeated) . June 14, 1645 

*Alford (Montrose defeats Covenanters) July 2, „ 
Kilsyth (ditto) . . . . . Aug. 15, „ 
'Nordlingen (Turenne defeats Austrians) . . „ 
*Benburb (O'Neill defeats Englisli) . June 5, 1646 
*Dungan-hill (Irish defeated) . . July 10, 1647 
*Preston (Cromwell victor) . . . Aug. 17, 1648 
*Rathmines (Irish Royalists defeated) Aug. 2, 1649 
*Drogheda (taken by storm) . . Sept. 12, ,, 
*Corbiesdale (Montrose defeated) . April 27, 1650 
*Dunbar (Cromwell defeats Scots) . Sept. 3, ,, 

^Worceater (Cromwell defeats Charles II.), Sept. 3, 1651 
[End of the civil war in England.] 

Galway (surrendered) 1652 

Arras, France (Titrenne de/ea<s Co»d^) . . .1654 

^Dunkirk (ditto) June 14, 1658 

Estremoz (Don John defeated hy Schomberg), 

June 8, 1663 
Candia (taken by Turks) . . . Sept. 6, 1669 

[The battles which are thus marked * are more fully described in their alphabctic.1l order.] 



1 701 

Sept. I, ,, 

July 26, 1702 
May I, 1703 

Sept. 20, „ 

. July 2, 

July 24, 


BATTLES, continued. 

Chocziin (Sobiesl-l defeats Turks and Condi) . 1673 
Senefife {indecisive) .... Aug. i, 1674 
MvlhsMsen {Turenne defeats Allies) Dec. 31, ,, 
Saltzbacli {Turemie killed) . . July 27, 1675 
*Drumolog (Covenanters defeat Claverhouse), 

June I, 1679 
*Bothwell Brigg (Monmouth defea's Covenanters), 

June 22, ,, 
*Vienna (Turks defeated hy Sohkski) Sept. 12, 1683 
*Sedgemoor (Monmouth defeated) . July 6, 16S5 
*M.oha,tz (Turks defeated) . . . Aug. 12, 1687 
*Killiecrankie (Highlanders defeat Mackay), 

July 27, 1689 
*Newton-butler (James II.' s adherents defeated) 

July 30, ,, 
■*Boyne (William III. defeats James II.), July i, 1690 
*Fleurus (Charleroi, Luxembourg victor), July i, „ 
* Aughrim (/("tnies //.'.s cawse ruireecQ . July 12, 1691 
■*Salenckemen (Louis of Baden defeats Turks), 

A\ig. 18, ,, 
*Enghein (Steenkirk, William III. defeated), 

July 24, 1692 
'^'Landen (William III. defeated) . July 19, 1693 
Marsaglia (Pignerol) (French victors) Oct. i, „ 
*Zenta (prince Eugene defeats Turks) . Sept. 11, 1697 
*Narva (Charles XII. defeats Russians) Nov. 30, 
Carpi, Modena (Allies defeat French) July g, 
__£ihiari (Austrians defeat French) 
Santa Vittoria (French victors) . 
•"Poltusk (Sioedes defeat Poles) 
"Hochstadt (French defeat Austrians) 
Schellenberg (Marlborough victor) 
*Gibraltar taken by Rooke 
f*Blenlieini (Marlborough defeats French), Aug. 

13, N. s. ,, 
MittsAx (taken by Russians) . . Sept. 14, 1705 
Ca,SBino (prince Eugene ; indecisive) Aug. 16, ,, 
Tirlemont (Marlborough successful) July 18, „ 
*Ramilies (Marlborough defeat^ French) May 23, 1706 
Turin (French defeated) . . . Sept. 7, ,, 
■^Almanza (French defeat Allies) April 14 or 25, 1707 
*Oudenarde (Marlborough defeats French), July 

II, 1708 
Liesna, Lenzo (jRwssians defeat Swedes) autumn, ,, 
XAsle {taken by the Allies) . . . Dec. ,, 
t*Pultowa (Peter defeats Charles XII.) July 8, 1709 
Dobro (Russians defeat Swedes) . Sept. 20, „ 

"*Malplaquet (Marlborough defeats French), Sept. 

II, ,, 
*Almenara (Austrians defeat French) July 28, 1710 
Saragossa (ditto) .... Aug. 20, „ 
— »^illa Viciosa (Austrians defeated) . Dec. 20, ,, 
Arleux (Marlborough forces French lines), 

Aug. 5, 1711 
Boueliain (taken by Marlhoroug''i) . Sept. 13, ,, 
*Dena,in (Fillars defeats Allies) . July 24, 1712 
Priburg (taken by French) . . Nov. 26, 171 3 

*Preston (rebels defeated) . . Nov. 12, 13, 1715 

■^Dumblane ; Sherifi-Mmr (indecisive) Nov. 13, ,, 
*Peterwardein (Eugene defeats Turks) Aug. 5, 1716 
^Belgrade (taken by Eugene) . . Aug. 22, 1717 
*"Bitonto (Spaniards defeat Germans) May 26, 1734 
*Parma (Austrians and French, indecisive), June 

29, )) 

Gns.siAVi3, (Austrians defeated) . . Sept. 19, ,, 

Erivan (Nadir Shah defeats Turks) . June, 1735 

Ki'otzka (Turks defeat Austrians) . July 22, 1739 

*'M.olwitz (Prussians {lefeat Austrians) April 10, 1741 

*Dettingen (George II. defeats French) June 16, 1743 

*Pontenoy (Saxe defeats Cumberland) April 30, 1745 

Friedberg (Prussians defeat Austricrns), June 4, „ 

St. Lazzaro (Sardinians def. Austrians) June 4, 1746 


Rocoux (Saxe defeats Allies) 



^Preston Va.ns (rebels defeat Co23e) . Sept. 21, 1745 

/~,i.-j.i-__ "' - ' ■ ' Dec. 18, ,, 

Jan. 17, 1746 
April 16, ,, 

Clifton Moor (rebels defeated) 
*Falkirk (rebels defeat HaiDley) . 
*Culloden (Cumberland defeats rebels) 

*Bergen-op-Zoon (taken) . . . Sept. 16, 

T-isSeldit (Saxe defeats Cumberlan'l) . June 20, 

Exilles (Sardinians defeat French) July 8, ,, 

Fort du Quesne (Braddock killed) . July 9, 1755 

*Calcutta (taken) .... June 18, 1756 

SEVEN tears' war, 1756-63. 

*Prague (Frederick defeats Allies) . May 6, 1757 
*Kollin (Frederick defeated) . . . June 18, ,, 
*Pla.ssey (Clive's victory) . . . June 23, ,, 

Norkitten (Russians defeated) . . Aug. 13, ,, 
* (Frederick defeats French) . Nov. 5, ,, 
*BveslB,\i (Austrians victoi's) . . . Nov. 22, ,, 
*liissa, (Frederick defeats Austrians) . Decs, >> 

*Creveldt (Ferdinand defeats French) . June 23, 1758 

Zoradorfl (Frederick defeats Riissicms) Aug. 25, ,, 
*Iloch'k.irchen (Austrians def. Prussia7is) Oct. 14, ,, 
^Bergen (French defeat Allies) . . April 13, 1759 
''"'Sia.gaxa, (English take Fort) . . . July 24, ,, 
*Minden (Ferdinand defeats French) . Aug. i, „ 
-Spunnersdorf (Russians def. Prussians) Aug. 12, ,, 
*Qneheo (Wolfe, victor, killed) . . Sept. 13, „ 

Wandewasb (Coote defeats Lally) . Jan. 22, 1760 

Landshut, Silesia (Pras.siaws cie/«a^ec?) June 23, ,, 

Warburg (Ferdinand defeats French) July 31, ,, 
*Pfaffendorf (Frederick def. Austrians) Aug. 15, ,, 

Campen (French defeat Russians) . Oct. 15, ,, 
*Torgau (Frederick defeats Danes) . . Nov. 3, ,, 

Johannisberg (French defeat Prussians) Aug. 30, 1762 

*Buxar (Munro defeats army of Oude) , Ocb. 23, 1764 
Choczim (Russians defeat Turks) . . , . 1769 
Silistria (taken) 1774 


*Lexington (Gage victor, with grMt loss) April 19, 1775 

*'s Jlilll, Americans repulsed) June 17, ,, 

■*Long Island (Americans defeated) . Aug. 27, 1776 

*'White Plains (ffowe defeats Americans) Oct. 28, ,, 

'Rhode Island (takeii 6'/ Royalists) . Dec. 8, ,, 

*Brandywine(/^owe cic/eat'! fFas7mig'fora)Sept. 11, 1777 

*Germanstown (Burgoyne's victory) . Oct. 3, 4, ,, 

^*^si,rsA,oga, (he is compelled to surrender) Oct. 17, ,, 

*Briar's Qreek. (Americans defeated) March 16, 1779 

*Camden (Cornwallis defeats Gates) . Aug. 16, 17S0 

*G:mldiord (di«o) .... March 16, 1781 
"Eutaw Spring s(A7'nold def. Americans) Sept. 8, ,, 
*York Town (Cornwallis surrenders) . Oct. 19, ,, 

[Many inferior actions with various success.] 
Hyder Ali defeated by Coote. . . July i, ,, 

Bednore (taken by Tippoo Saib) . April 30, 17S3 

*Martinesti (Austrians deft. Turks) . Sept. 22, 1789 

*Ismae] (taken by storm by Suwarrow) Dec. 22, 1790 
*Seringapatam (Tippoo defeated) May 15, 1790, 

Feb. 6, 1792 


Quievi-ain (French repulsed) . . April 28, 1793 

Menin (French defeat Austrians) . June 20, ,, 

t*Valmy (French defeat Prussians) . Sept. 20, ,, 

*Jemappes (French victorious) . . Nov. 6, ,, 

'SQQrwixidLeyi (French beaten) . . March 18, 1793 

St. Am.a,jid( French defeated) . . May 8, ,, 

*Valenciennes (riitto) . . May 23, July 26, ,, 

*'LinceUes (Lake defeats French) . Aug. 18, ,, 

*Dunkirk (Duke of York defeated) Sept. 7, 8, ,, 

*Quesnoy (reduced by Austrians) . Sept. 11, ,, 

Wattignies (French defeat Coburg) . Oct 16, ,, 

*Toulon (evacuated by British) . , Dec. 17, „ 

*C9.iabra,y (French defeated) . . April 24, 1794 

-^roisville, Landrecy (taken by Allies) April 30, „ 

*Tourcoing (Moreau defeats Allies) May, 18-22, ,^ 

*Espierres (taken by Allies). . . May 22, ,, 

Howe's naval victory. . . . June i, ,, 

* Charleroi, Fleurus (French defeat Allies) June 26, , , 

[The battles which are thus marked * are more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

■*Bois-le-Duc {ihi,ke of York defeated) Sept. 14, 1794 

*Bo'x.te\ (ditto) Sept. 17, ,, 

*War.saw or Maciejowice {Poles defeated) Oct. 4, ,, 

*Nimeguen . . . Oct. 28, and May 4, ,, 

*Warsaw (taken by Suwarrow) . , Nov. 4, „ 

Bridport's victory of L/'Orient, n. 'June 22, 1795 

'^Quiberon (Emigrants defeated) . July 21, „ • 

*Mannlieim (taken) . . . Sept. 20, „ 

liaono (Frendi defeat Atistrians) . Nov. 23, ,, 

*Montenotte (Bonaparte victorious) . April 12, 1796 

*Mondovi (ditto) .... April 22, „ 

•Lodi (ditto) May 10, ,, 

Altenkiichen (Ausirians defeated) . June 4, 

and Sept. i6, ,, 

Bassano (French defeat Austrians) . Sept. 8, ,, 

*Biberacli (ditto) Oct. 10, ,, 

*Castiglione and Lonato . . . Aug. 3-5, ,, 

J^Jieresheiia (Moreau def. Archd. Charles) Ang. io,___„. — 

*Xrcola. (Bonaparte victorious) . Nov. 15-17, ,, 

Rivoli (ditto) Jan. 14, 15, 1797 

*Cape St. Vincent, n. (French defeated) Feb. 14, ,, 
•Tagliamento (Bonaparte defeats Ausirians) 

March 16, ,, 

' Camperdown n. (Duncan defeats Dutch) Oct. 11, „ 

IRISH REBELLION BEGIN,? . . . May, 1798 

"KilcuUen (Rebels sxiccessful) . ■ May 23, 1798 

*Naas (Rebels defeated) .... May 24, „ 

"lara, (ddlo) May 26, ,, 

*On\a,rt (Rebels successful) . . . May 27, ,, 

■'Gorey, *Ross ((iJHo) . . . June 4, ,, 

tArklow (Rebels beaten) . . . June 10, „ 

* Bally nahincli (NuqeiU defeats Rebels) June 13, ,, 

"yinegM- HUl (Lake defeats Rebels) . June 21, ,, 

fNile (Nelson defeeds French fleet) . Aug. i, ,, 

*Ca.Bi\Q\>ax (French auxiliaries defeated) Aug. 28, ,, 
Balliuamiick (French and Rebels defeated) 

Sept. 8, „ 

*Pyramids {Bonaparte defeats Mamelukes) July 

21, ,, 

*3?ifiA (Stormed by French) . . March 7, 1799 

Hto\,Urians defeat French) March 27, „ 

Verona (Austrians defeat French) March 28-30, ,, 

Naguano (Kray defeats French) . . April 5, ,, 

Mount Thabur Api-il 16, „ 

*Cassano (Huioarrow defeats Moreau) April 27, „ 

''Seringapataiu (Tippoo i-4<ted) . . May 4, ,, 

*Acre [relieved : Sir Sydney Smitlt) . May 20, ,, 

Adda, (Suwarrow defeats French) . . May 27, ,, 

*Zurioh (French defeated) . . . June 5, ,, 

*Treiiia (Suwarrow defeats French) June 18, 19, ,, 

*Alessandria {taken by French) . . July 2, ,, 

*Ahoxi'kir (Turks defeated by Bonaparte) July 25, ,, 

*Novi {Suwarrow defeats French) . Aug. 15, ,, 
*Be\gen and AXkiaaer (Allies aefeated) Sept. 19, 

Oct. 26, ,, 

^Znvich (Massena defeats Russians) . Sept. 25, ,, 

yingeii (Moreau defeats AustiHans) . May 3, 1800 

MoBskn-ch (ditto) May 5, ,, 

-Biberach (rfi«o) May 9, ,, 

■yionteheiXo I Austrians defeated) . . June 9, ,, 

"■'Marengo (Bonaparte defeats Ausirians) June 14, ,, 

*Hochstadt {Mo7-eau defeats Austrians) June 19, ,, 

■■■Hohenlinden (ditto) .... Dec. 3, ,, 

Mincio {French defeat Austrians) . Dec. 26, ,, 

^Alexandria, { A bercrombie's victory) March 21, iSoi 

fCopenhageu {bombarded by Nelson) April 2, ,, 

Ahuiednuggur ( Wellesley victorious) Aug. 12, 1803 

*Assa,ye (ditto, his first great victory) . Sept. 23, ,, 

*Alga,Vinx(]Vetlesley V'Ctor) . . . Nov. 29, ,, 

Furriickabad (Lake defeats Holkar) . Nov. 17, 1804 

*Bhurtpore {taken by Lake) . . April 2, 1805 

*Uhn surrend. (Ney defeats Austrians) Oct. z-j -20, „ 
■Trafalgar (Nelson destroys French fleet, killed) 

Oct. 21, ,, 

" Austerlitz (Napoleon defeats Austrians) Dec. 2, 
•Buenos Ayrea {take7i by Popham) . June 28, 
'Maida (Stuart defeats French) , . July 4, 

*Jenr*^*^* I (French defeat Prussians) Oct. 14, 

*Piiltusk (French and Allies, indecisive) Dec 26, 

Mohrungeu {French defeat Russians and 

Prussians) Jan. 25, 

*Eylau (indecisive) .... Feb. 7, 8, 
*Friedland (French defeat Russians) June 14, 
*Buenos Ayrcs (W/iilelock defeated) . July 7, 
^Copenhagen (bombarded by Cathcart) Sept. 6-8, 
'Baylen (Spaniards defeat French) . July 20, 


*'Vhmera, (Wellesley defeats Junot) . Aug. 21 
Tudola, (French d^eat Spaniards) .Nov. 23, 

->Corunna (Moore defeats French) , Jan 16, 
lja.udshut (Austrians defeated) . April 21 

*Eckmuhl (Davoust defeats Austrians) April 22, 
Oporto {taken) . . . March 29, May 12 

*Es^ling 1 (Napoleon defeated) . May 21, 22^ 
*Wagram (Austrians defeated) . . July 5, 6, 
*T:a\a,\era, (Wellesley defeats Victor) July 27, 28, 
miisiria, (Turks d.efeo.t Russians) , Sept. 26, 

Oca,na, (Mortier defeats Spaniards) . Nov. 19, 
*Busaco (Wellington repulses Massena) Sept. 27 
■'■Bairosa (Graham defeats Victor) . March 5 
*Badajos {taken by the French) . March 11 

*Fuentes d'Ouore ( Wellingt. def. Massena) May 5 
*Albuera (Beresford defeats SouU) . May 16, 
*Ciudad Rodrigo (stormed by English) . Jan 19, 

• Badajos (taken by Wellington) . April 6, 
'■Salamanca(l( W(M!p/o)!. defts. Marmonl) 3u\y 22 
*yAcihi\ov^ (French defeat Russians) . July 23 
*Polotzk (t'renth and Russians) . July 30,31 

• Smolensko (French defeat Russians) Aug. 17-19. 

■*Bortdro } (''^"o) .... Sept. 7 
"Queenstown (Americans defeated) , Oct. 13 
'"M0.SCOW (burnt by Russians) . . Sept. 14, 
'Polotzk (retaken by Russians) . Oct. 20 

Malo-Jaroslavcatz, or Winkowa . Oct. 24, 
*Witepsk (French defeated) . . Nov. 14 
*Krasnoi (ditto) .... Nov. i5-i8, 
*Beresina (ditto) .... Nov 25-29, 
'French Town (taken by Americans) . Jan. 22 
"Kalitsch (Saxons defeated) . . Feb. 13 
Castella (Sir J. Murray defeats Suchet) April 13 
■ Lutzen (Napoleon checks Allies) . . ilay 2 
■■Bautzen (Nap. and Allies: indecisive) May 20, 
"Wurtzchen (ditto) .... Miiy 21 

"\ittoria,(Welling. defeats king Joseph) June 21 
*Pyrenees (Wellington defeats Soult) . July 28 
Katzbach (Blticher defeats Ney) , Aug. 26; 
*Dresden (Napoleon checks Allies) Aug. 25, 27 
St. Sebastian (stormed by Graham) . Aug. 31 
*Dennewitz (Ney defeated) . . Sept. 6. 

*Mockern (indecisive) .... Oct. 14, 
*Leipzic (Napoleon defeated) . . Oct. 16-18, 
*Hanau (Napoleon defeats Bavarians) Oct. 30, 
■"St. Jean de huz(Welling. defeats Soult)Nov. 10, 
[Passage of the Neve ; several engagements 
between the Allies and French, Dec. lo to 13 
*St. Dizier, France (French defeated) . Jan. 27 

*Brienne (ditto) Jan. 29, 

"^La Rothifere {Napoleon defeats Allies) Feb. i 

Bar-sur-Aube (/^'iies ric( org). . . Feb. 7 

Mincio (p?-. Eugene defeats Austrians) Feb. 8 

Champ Aubert (/i'rmc/t defeat Allies) Feh. 10-12 

Montmirail (ditto) .... Feb ii, 

Vauchamps (ditto) . . . Feb. 14. 

*Fontaiuebleau (ditto) . . . Feb. 17 

*Montereau (ditto) .... Feb. 18 

*Orthez (Wellington defeats Soult) . Feb. 27 

*Bcrgen-op-Zoom (Graham defeated) M.arch 8, 



[The b.attles which are thus marked '■ arc more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

*Laon (French defeated) , . . Marcli 9-10, 
Bheims (Napoleon defeats St. Priest) March 13, 
"Tarhes (Welluigton defeats Soult) . March 20, 
"Pfere Champenoise (French defeated) March 25, 
Paris, Montmartre, Eomainville (ditto) Mar. 30, 
Battle of the Barriers — Marmont evacuates 
Paris, and the aUied armies enter that capital, 
March 31, 
'^TovlovLse (Wellington defeats Soidt) . April, 10, 


Fort George (tdl-eii bi/ Americans) . May 27, 
"Burlington HeightslAmeHcaiis routed) Jiuie 6 

Nov. II 
Dec. 28, 
March 7, 

• July S; 

July 25 
Aug. is; 
Aug. 14, 
Aug. 30^ 


Chi-ystler's Point, Canada 

Blaok-rock, America 
*Craonne (Blucher defeated) . 
^Phirmiwa UJ^^tish defeated) 

omppawa j- ^^ ,nericans defeated) 
*Port Erie (British repulsed) . 
"'■Bladensburg (Americans defeated) 
*BeUair (ditto) ... 

"Baltimore (British defeated, and victor iou. 

Sept. II 
*New Orleans (British repulsed) Jan. 8, 12, <fe 13 

"Tolentino (Murat defeated) . . May 3 

*Ligny (BlUcher repulsed) . . June 16, 

*Quatre Bras (Ney repulsed) . . June 16 

]*WsAerloo (Napoleon finalhj beaten) June 18, 

^Algiers (bombarded hy ExmoiUh) . . Aug. 27. 
Kirkee (Hastings defeats Pindarrees) Nov. s 
Maheidpore (Hislop defeats Holkar) . Dec 21 
Dragaschau (Ipsilanii defeated) . . June 19. 
Valtezza (Turks defeated) . . May 27, 
Tripolitza (stormed by Greeks) . . Oct. 5 
Thermopylae (Greeks defeat Turks) . July 13 
Corinth (taken) .... Sept. 16, 
*Ayacucho (Peruvians defeat Spaniards) Dec. 9, 
*Bhurtpore (taken by Combermere) . Jan. 18, 
Athens (taken) .... May 17 

""■Navarino (Allies destroy Turkish fleet) Oct. 20, 
Brahilow (Russians and Turks) . . June 18; 
Akhalzikh (ditto) . . . . Aug. 27 

*Varna (surrenders to Russians) . . Oct. 11 

*Silistria (ditto) - June 30 

Kainly (Russians defeat Turks) . . July i 

"Balkan (passed by Russians) . . July 26, 

*Adrianople (Russians enter) . . Aug^o. 

*Algiers (conquered by French) . July 5, 

^Paxis (Bays of July) . . July 27, 28, 29 

*Grochow (Poles defeat Russians) . . Feb. 20, 

Praga (Poles and Russians) . . Feb. 2^. 

*Wawz (Skrzynecki defeats Russians) March 31 

*Seidlice (Pules defeat Russians) . April 10, 

"O.strolenka (ditto) .... May 26! 

Wilna (Poles and Russiatis) . . June 18 

*Warsa-w (taken by Russiaiis) . . Sept. 7, 

Beylau (Ibrahim defeats Turks) . . July 29, 

* Ant^er'^ (taken by Allien) . . Dec. 23 

*Konieh (Egyptians defeat Turks) . Dec. 21 

Hemani (CaHists defeated) . . May 5, 

*St. Sebastian (ditto) .... Oct. i! 

*Bilboa (siege raised ; British Legion) Dec. 24, 

Hemani March 15! 

*Irun (British Legion defeats Carlists) May 17 
Valentia (Carlists attacked) . . July 15 
*Herera (Don Carlos defeats Buerenn) Aug. 24, 
*Constantina (^i^icrs,- taken by French) Oct. i; 
*St. Eustace (Canadian rebels defeated) Dec. 14 
Pennecerrada (Carli.-ts defeated) . June 22! 
*Presoott (Canadio.n re'iels defeated) Nov. 17 
*Ghizriee (taken by Keane) . . July 23 

*Sidon (taken by Hopford) . . Sept. 26, 

^'BeyroxiX ( Allies defeat Egyptians) . Oct. 10! 
Afghan War. See India. 

* Xcre (stormed by Allies) . . Nov. 3 

Kotriah (Scinde : English victors) . . Dec. i 





Chuen-pe (English victors) . . Jan. 7, 
Canton (English take Bogue forts) . Feb. 26, 
Amoy (taken) ..... Aug. 27, 

Chin-hae (taken) Oct. 10, 

Candahar (Afghans defeated) . . March 10, 
'^m.gx>o (Chinese defeated) . . March 10. 
*Jellalabad (.K'/i?/6«'Pa.?s/o)x«?) . April 5, 6, 
Chin-keang (taken) .... July 21 
"Ghiznee (Afghans defeated) . . Sex^t. 6, 
^"Meeanee (Napier defeats Ameers) . Feb. 17, 
^Maharajpoor (ffoM(;/i defeats Mahrattas), Dec. 29. 

Isly (French defeat Moors) 
"Moodkee (Hardinge defeats Sikhs) 
*Ferozeshah (ditto) 
*iUiwal (Smith defeats Sikhs) . 
*Sobraon (Qough defeats Sikhs) . 
*Montery (Mexicans defeated by 

Aug. 14, 
. Dec. 18, 1845 
Dec. 21, 22 
Jan. 28, 
. Feb. 10, 
Sept. 21-23 
Palo Alto (Taylor defeats Mexicans) May 8, 9, 
Bueno Vista (Americans deft. Mexicans), Feb. 22, 1847 
St. Ubes (Portugal) . . . May g. 

Ozoiitero (Americans def. Mexicans), Aug. 19, 20, 
"^"Curtalone (Austriayis defeat Italians) May 29, 
Custoza (ditto) .... July 23 
yelencze (Croats and Hungarians) . Sept. 29, 
"■■Mooltan (Sikhs repulsed,) . . . Nov. 7, 
"Chilianwallah (Gough defeats Sikhs) Jan. 13' 

'•'Goojerat (ditto) Feb. 

''Novara (Radetzky defeats Sardinians) March 23 
Pered (Russians defeat Hungarians) June 21 
Acs (Hungarians repulsed) . . . July 10, 
Waitzen (taken by Russians) . July 17, 

Schassberg (Russians defeat Bein) . July 31 
''■''Veraosvr&x(Haynau defeats Hungarians) Aug. 10, 
Idstedt (Banes defeat Holsteiners) . July 25, 1850 


*01tenitza (Turks repulse Russians) 
"Citate (Turks defeat Russians) 
*Silistria (ditto) .... 

Giurgevo (ditto) 

Bayazid (Russians defeat Turks) . 
*Km-uk-Derek (ditto) 
*Alma (Allies defeat Russians) 
"Balaklava (ditto) .... 
■'Inkermann (ditto) 

Eupatoria (Turks defeat Russians) 
•■Malakoflf Tower (Allies and Russians) 

May 22, 23, 24, 

Capture of the Mamelon, <&c. . June 7, 

Unsuccessful attempt on MalakoS tower, and 

Redan (Allien and Russian-i) . . June 18, 

"Tchernaya or Bridge of Traktir (^Uies defeat 

Russians) Aug. 16, 

*Malakoflf taken by the French . Sept. 8, 
*Ingour (Turks defeat Russians) . . Nov. 6, 

Baidar (French defeat Russians) . . Dec. 8, 

. Nov. 4, 


. Jan. 6, 


June 13-15, 

July 8, 

. Jxily 30, 

• Aug. 5, 

. Sept. 20, 

. Oct. 25, 

. Nov. 5, 

. Feb. 17, 



*Bushire (English defeat Persians) 
Kooshab (ditto) 
Mohammerah (ditto) . 

. Dec. 10, 1856 
. Feb. 8, 1857 
March 26, ,, 

INDIAN MUTINY. (See Indig.) 

^Conflicts before Delhi. May 30, 31 ; June 8 ; 

July 4, 9, 18, 23, 

Victories of General Havelock, near Futteh- 

pore July 11, Cawnpore, &c. July 12 to Aug 16, 

Pandoo NudHee (rifto-yo/ iVeiZZ) . Aug. 15, 

Niijuffghur(rfenWi, of Nicholson, victor) Aug. 25, 

Assault and capture of Delhi . Sept. 16-20, 

Conflicts before Lucknow, Sept. 25, 26; 

Nov. 18, 25, 

Victoi-ies of Col. Greathed, Sept 27 ; Oct. 10, 

*Cawnpore (victory of Campbell) . Deo. 6, 

Futteghur (ditto) Jan. 2, 

Calpi .(J'ic^or?/ of Inglis) . . . Feb. 4, 
*Alumbagh (victory^f Oittram) . . Feb. 21, 

[The battles which are thus marked *■ are more fully de.<?cribed in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

Conflicts at Lucknow {taken) . Jfarch 14-19, 
Jhansi {Rose victorious) . . . April 4, 

Koonoh {ditto) May 11, 

Gwalior {ditto) .... June 17, 
RaighuT {Mitchell defeats Tantia 3'op««),Sept.i5, 
Dhoodea Khera («//(te rfe/. BeniAfahdn)Nov. 24, 
Gen. Horsford defeats the Begiim of Oude, 

Feb. 10, 1859 

ITALIAN WAR. (ScC Ital^.) 

Austrians cross the Ticino . . April 27, 1859 

French troops enter Piedmont . . May, ,, 

*MontebeUo {Allies victorious) . . May 20, ,, 

Palestro {ditto) .... May 30, 31, ,, 

*Magenta {ditto) ..... June 4, „ 

*Malegnano {ditto) .... June 8, , , 

*Solferino {ditto) June 24, ,, 

(Armistice agreed to, July 6, 1859 ) 

*Taku, at the mouth of the Peiho or Tien- 
Tsin-ho {English attack on the Chinese Forts 

defeated) June 25, ,, 

*Castillejo {Spaniards defeat Moors) . Jan i, i860 

*Tetuan ('/i«o) Feb. 4, 

"Guad-el-Ras {ditto) .... March 23, ", 

^Oalatifimi {Garibaldi defs. Neapolitans) May 15, ,, 

*Melazzo {Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans) July 21, „ 

Taku forts taken (see CAina) . . Aug. 21, ,, 
*Castel Fidardo {Sardinians defeat Papal troops) 

Sept. 18, ,. 
Insun-ection in New Zealand; English re- 
pulsed, March 14, 28 ; June 27 ; Sept. 10, 19 ; 

Oct. 9, 12, ,, 

Maohetia (JV/oom (?e/?atoO . . Nov. 6, ,, 

Chang-kia wan, Sept 18; and Pa-li-chiau 

{Chinese defeated) .... Sept. 21, ,, 

*Voltumo {Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans) Oct. i, „ 

Isemia {Sardinians defeat Neapolitans) Oct. 17, „ 

*Garigliano {ditto) .... Nov. 3, ,, 

Sardinians defeat Neapolitan re-actionists, 

Jan. 22, 1 861 

Gaeta taken by the Sardinians , Feb. 13, ,, 


*'Big Bethell {Federals repulsed) . . June 10, „ 
''Carthage {Federal victory) . . July 10, „ 
Rich Mountain (di«o) . . . July 11, 
*Bull Run or Manassas {Federal defeat and panic) 

July 21, ,, 
Wilson's Creek {Federals, victors, lose Gen. Lyon) 

Aug. 10, „ 
Carnifex ferry {Rosencrans defeats Floyd. Con- 
federate) Sept. 10, „ 

Lexington {taken by Confederate.^) . Sept. 20, ,, 
Pavon, South America {Mitra defeats Vrquiza) 

Sept. 17, ,, 

Turks defeat Montenegrins . Oct. 19, Nov. 21, 
*Jia.\\'s 'BUxn {Federals defeated) . Oct. 21, 
Mill Springs, Kentucky {Confederates defeated, 
and tlieir geyteral ZoUicoffer killed) Jan 19, 
Roanoke island, N.C. {Federals victors) Feb. 

Sugar Creek, Arkansas {Confederates defeated) 

Feb. 8, 
Fort Donnelson {taken, by Federals) . Feb. 16, 
Pea Ridge, Arkansas {Federals vict. ) March 6, 7, 
Hampton roads {Mernmac and Monitor used) 

March 9, 
"^Pittsburg landing, or Shiloh {indecisive) April 

Williamsburg {Federals repiilscd) , May s, 
Puebla {Mexicans de.feat French) . May 5, 
Successful sortie of Confederates from Rich- 

• mond May 14, 

Orizaba {Mexicans defeat French) , May 18, 
AVinchcster {Federals repulsed) . May 25, 

Near Orizaba {French defeat Mexicans) June 13, 
^Fairoaks {before Richmond, indecisive) May 31, 

June I, 
^Severe conflicts between Federals and Con- 
federates before Richmond — the former re- 
treat . . ■. . June 26 to July i, 
Cedar Mountain {favourable to Confederates) 

Aug. 9, 

Severe confiictp on the Rappahannock 

Aug. 23-29, 

*Bull Run {defeat of Federals) . . Aug. 29, 

Aspromonte {Garibaldi and his volunteers cap- 

tiired by Royal Italian Troops) . Aug. 29, 

*Antietam {severe; Confederates retreat) Sept. 17, 

Perryville {Confederates worsted) . . Oct. 8, 

*Fredericksburgh {Federals defeated by Lee) 

Dec. 13, 

*Murfrcesburg {indecisive) . . Dec. 29-31, 

Nashville {Confederates defeated) . . -Jan. 2, 

*Chancellorsville {Confederates victors) May 2-4, 

Winchester {Ewell defeats Com federates) 3\xn& 13, 

*Gettysburg (sei'oc 6i<J indecisive), . July 1-3 

*Chicamauga (Con/edera<e« yictorioKs) Sept. 19-20, 

Campbell's Station, &c. {Longstreet defeats 

Burnside) ..... Nov. 14-17, 

Spottsylvania, *c., in the Wilderness, near 

Chancellorsville (indecisive) . May 10-12, 

Petersburg, near Richmond {indecisive, but 

Gran^ advances) . . . June 15-18, 

Petersburg {lee defeated ; Richmond evacuated) 

March 31; April 2, 

Ta,Tm\iile{Lee finally defeated) . . April 6, 




Oeversee {Danes and Allies) . . Feb. 6, 
Dtippel {taken by the Prussians) . . April 18, 
Alsen {ditto) June 29, 

[The battles which are thus marked * arc more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 
BAUGE. See Anjou. 

BAUTZEN and WURTZCHEN (in Nortli Germany), the sites of battles fought May 20, 
and 21, 1813, between the French commanded by Napoleon, and the allies nnder the 
emperor of Taissia and the king of Prussia. The struggle commenced on the 19th with a 
contest on the outposts, which cost each army a loss of above 2000 men. On the 20th (at 
Bautzen) the French were more succes.sful ; and on the 21st (at Wurtzchen) the Allies 
were compelled to retire ; but Napoleon obtained no permanent advantage from these san- 
guinary engagements. Duroc was among the hilled at Bautzen, to the great soitow of the 
emperor and the French army. 

BAYAEIA (part of ancient Noricum and Vinddicia), a "kingdom in South Germany, 
conquered from tlie Celtic Gauls (Boii) by the Franks between 630 and 660. The country 
was afterwards governed by dukes subject to the French monarchs. Tassillon II. was 
deposed by Charlemagne, who established margraves in 788, The first duke was Leopold I. 

t We have no space for the numerous smaller conflicts, of which the accounts are verj' uncerfaiin. 






1 120. 
1 1 26. 

1 1 38. 
1 1 42. 






Guelf I. , an illustrious warrior. 

Guelf II. 

Henry the Black. 

Henry the Proud. He competed with Conrad 

of Hohenstaufen for the empire and failed,- 

and was deprived of Bavaria. 
Leopold of Austria. 
Henry of Austria. 
Henry the Lion (son of Henry the Proud), 

restored by the emperor Frederick Barba- 

rossa, but afterwards expelled by him ; and 
Otho, count of Wittelsbach, made duke. 
Louis of Wittelsbach. 
Otho II., the Illustrious: his son Louis was 

raised to the electoi-al dignity. 
Henry and Louis the Severe. 
Louis III. (the palatinate separated). 
Stephen I. 
Albert I. 

John IF. and Sigismuud. 
Albert II. 
William I. 
Albert III. 
William II. 

895. Guelf of the house of Este was made duke by the emperor Henry IV. in 1071. His 
descendant Henry the Lion, dulce of Saxony, Bavaria, and Brunswick (ancestor of the 
present Brunswick family, see BrunsivicTc) , was dispossessed in 11 80 hj the emperor Frede- 
rick Barharossa (who had been previously his friend and benefactor). Otho of Wittelsbach 
became duke, whose descendants reigned till 1777, when the elector palatine acquired 
Bavaria, which was made an electorate 1623. In Dec. 1805, Bavaria was erected into a 
kingdom by Bonaparte, and obtained by the treaty of Presburg the incorporation of the 
whole of the Italian and German Tyrol, the bishopric of Anspach, and lordships in Germany. 
Bavaria suffered much by its alliances with France against Austria in 1726 and 1805. The 
king joined the Allies in Oct. 1813. Population, Dec. 1861, 4,689,837. 

1596. Maximilian the Great ; the first Elector ot 
Bavaria, 1623 ; the palatinate restored, 1648. 

1651. Ferdinand and Mary. 

1679. Maximilian Emanuel ; allies with France, 
1702 ; defeated at Blenheim, 1704 ; restored 
to his dominions, 1714 

1726. Charles Albert ; elected emperor of Germany 
in 1742 ; defeated, 1744. 

1745. Maximihan- Joseph I., as elector. The house 
of Wittelsbach extinct at his death, 177S. 

1778. Charles Theodore (the elector palatine of the 
Khine since 1743). The French take Munich ; 
treats with them, 1796. 

1799. Maximilian- Joseph II. , as elector; territories 
changed by treaty of Luneville, 1801 ; made 
king, by treaty of Presbui-g, Dec., 1S05. 


1805. Maximilian-Joseph I. deserts Napoleon, and 
has his enlarged territories confirmed to him, 
Oct. 1813 ; grants a constitutional charter, 

1825. Louis-Charles, Oct. 13; abdicated March 20.* 

1848. Maximihan-Joseph II. (son) born Nov. 28, 
1811 ; dies March 10, 1864. 

1864. Louis II. (son) March 10; born, Aug. 25, 1845 : 
Heir : his brother Otho, born April 27, 1848. 

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, said to have been wrought by Matilda, queen of William I. It 
is 19 inches wide, 214 feet long, and is divided into compartments showing the events, from 
the visit of Harold to the Norman court, to his death at Hastings ; it is now preserved in 
the town house at Eouen. A copy, drawn by C. Stothard, and coloured after the original, 
was published by the Society of Antiquaries in 182 1-3. 

BAY ISLANDS (the chief, Ruatan), in the Bay of Honduras, Central America, belonged 
to Spain till 1821, then to Great Britain, which formed them into a colony in 1852, but 
ceded them to Honduras, Nov. 28, 1859. See Honduras. 

BAYLEN (S. Spain), where on July 20, 1808, the French, consisting of 14,000 men 
commanded by generals Dupont and Wedel, were defeated by the Spaniards under Reding, 
Coupigny, and other generals, Avhose force amounted to 25,000. The French had nearly 
3000 killed and wounded, and the division of Dupont (about 8000 men) was made pri- 

BAYONET, the short dagger fixed at the end of fire-arms, said to have been invented at 
Bayoune, in France, about 1647, 1670, or 1690. It was used at Killiecrankie in 16S9, and 
at Marsaglia by the French, in 1693, "with great success, against the enemy unprepared for 
the encounter with so formidable a novelty." The ring bayonet was adopted by the British, 
Sept. 24, 1693. Aspin. 

BAYONNE (S. France), an ancient city. It was held by the English from 1265 till it 
was taken by Charles VII. The queens of Spain and France met here in 1565 the cruel 
duke of Alva, it is supposed to arrange the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Charles IV. of 
Spain abdicated here in favour of "his friend and ally" the emperor Napoleon ; and Ferdi- 
nand, prince of Asturias, and Don Carlos and Don Antonio renouuced their rights to the 
Spanish throne, ]\Iay 5, 1S08. In the neighbourhood of Bayonne was mucli desperate 
fighting between the French and British armies, Dec. 10, 11, and 13, 1813. Bayonne was 

» The abdication of Charles-Louis was mainly caused by his attachment to an intriguing woman, 
known throughout Europe by the assumed name of Lola Montes, who, in the end, was expelled the king- 
dom for her interference in state affairs, and afterwards led a wandering life. She dehvercd lectuz-es iu 
London, in 1859, and thence proceeded to the United States. She died at New York, Jan. 17, 1S61. 


invested by the British, Jan. 14, 1814 ; on April 14 the French made a sally, and attacked 
the English with success, but were at length driven back. The loss of the British was con- 
siderable, and lieut.-gen. sir John Hope was wounded and taken prisoner. — A Franco-Spanish 
industrial and fine-arts exhibition was opened at Bayouue in July, 1864. 

BAYEEUTH (N. Germany), a margraviate, held formerly by a branch of the Branden- 
burg family, was with that of Anspach abdicated by the reigning prince in favour of the 
king of Prussia, 1790. The archives were brought (in 1783) from Plassenburg to the city of 
Ba;^euth, which was incorporated with Bavaria by Napoleon in 1806. 

BAZAAR, or Covered Market, a word of Arabic origin. The bazaar of Ispahan is magni- 
ficent, yet it is excelled by that of Tauris, which has several times held 30,000 men in order 
of battle. In London, the Soho-square bazaar was opened by Mr. Trotter in 1816 to relieve 
the relatives of persons killed in tlie war. Tlie Queen's bazaar, Oxford-street, a very exten- 
sive one, was (with the Diorama) burnt down, and the loss estimated at 50,000/., May 27, 
1829. It was rebuilt, and converted into the Princess's Theatre, opened Sept. 30, 1841. 
The St. James's bazaar was built by Mr. Crockford in 1832. There are also the Pantheon, 
the Western Exchange, &c. The most imposing sale termed a bazaar was opened for the 
benefit of the Anti-Corn-Law League, in Covent-garden theatre, May 5, 1845 ; in six weeks 
25,000?, was obtained, mostly by admission money. 

BE ACHY HEAD, a promontory on the S.E. coast of Sussex, where the British and 
Dutch combined fleet, commanded by the earl of Torrington, was defeated by a superior 
French force, iinder admiral Tourville, June 30, 1690 ; the allies suffered very severely. 
The Dutch lost two admirals, 500 men, and several ships — sunk to ]n-event them from 
falling into the hands of the enemy ; the English lost two ships and 400 n^en. The 
admirals on both sides were blamed ; ours, for not fighting ; the French, for not pursuing 
the victory. 

BEACONS. See Lighthouses. 

BEADS were early used in the East for reckoning prayers. St. Augustiu mentions them, 
366. About 1090, Peter the Hermit is said to have made a series of 55 beads. To Dominic 
de Guzman is ascribed the invention of the Ilosary (a series of 15 large and 150 small beads), 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin, about 1202. Beads soon after were in general use. The 
Bead-roll was a list of deceased persons, for the repose of whose souls a certain number of 
prayers was recited, which the devout counted by a string of beads. Beads appear to have 
been used by the Druids, being found in British barrows. 

BEAM AND Scales. The apparatus for weighing goods was so called, "as it weighs so 
much at the king's beam.'" A public beam was set up in London, and all commodities 
ordered to be weighed by the city officer, called the weigh-raaster, who was to do justice 
between buyer and\seller, statute 3 Edw. II. 1309. Sto^u. Beams and scales, M'ith weights 
and measures, were ordei-ed to be examined by the justices at quarter ses.sious, 35 Geo. III. 
1794. See Weights and Measures. 

BEANS, Black and White, were used by the ancients in gathering the votes of the 
people for the election of magistrates. A M'liite bean signified absolution, and a black one 
condemnation. The precejit of Pythagoras to abstain from beans, ahslinc a fabis, has been 
variously interpreted. "Beans do not favour mental tranquillitj-. " Cicero. The finer 
kinds of beans were brought to these countries at the j)eriod of the introduction of most 
other vegetables, in Henry YIII.'s reign. 

BEAE-BAITING, an ancient popular English sport, prohibited by act of parliament in 


BEAPiDS.* The Egyptians did not wear beards ; the Assyrians did. They have been 
worn for centuries by the Jews, who were forbidden to mar their beards, B.C. 1490. Lev. 
xix. 27. The Tartars waged a long war with the Persians, declaring them infidels, because 
they would not cut their beards, after the custom of Tartary. The Greeks wore their beards 

* A bearded woman was taken Ly the Russians at the battle of Piiltowa, and presented to the czar, 
Peter 1. 1724: ber beard measured i| yard. A ^voman is said to have been seen at Pari.s with a bushy 
beard and her whole body eovcrcd with hair. Diet, de Trevoiu. The great Margaret, governess of the 
Nethe'rhands, had a very long stiff beard. In Bavaria, in the time of Wolfius, a virgin had a long black 
beard Mdlle. Bois de Chene, borne at Geneva (it was said) in 1834, was exhibited in London, in 1852-3, 
when consequently, eighteen years of age: she had a profuse head of hair, a strong black beard, large 
whiskers and thick hair on her arms and down from her neck en her back, and mascuJine features. 


till the time of Alexander, wlio ordered the Macedonians to be shaved, lest the beard should 
give a handle to their enemies, 330 B.C. Beards were worn by the Romans, 297 b.c. The 
emperor Julian wrote a diatribe (entitled " Misopogon") against wearing beards, a.d. 362. — 
In England, they were not fashionable after the Conquest, 1066, until the I3tli centurjr, and 
were discontinued at the Restoration. Peter the Great enjoined-the Russians, even of rank, 
to shave, but was obliged to keep officers on foot to cut off the beard by force. Since 185 1 
the custom of wearing the beard has gradually increased. 

BEAUGE. See Anjm. 

BEAULIEU, Abbey of, founded by king John, in the New Forest, Hampshire, in 1204. 
It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, had the privilege of sanctuary, and was devoted to 
monks of the reformed Benedictine order. It aff'orded an asylum to Margaret, queen of 
Henry VI., after the defeat of the earl of "Warwick at Barnet, April 14, 1471. Here, too, 
Perkin "VVarbeck obtained refuge in the reign of Henry VII., in 1497. 

BEAUVAIS (N. France), the ancient Bellovaci, and formerly capital of Picardy. On the 
town being besieged by Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, at the head of 80,000 men, the 
women under the conduct of Jeanne Fourquet, or Lain^, also De la Hachette, from her using 
that weapon, particularly distinguished themselves, and the duke was obliged to raise the 
siege, July 10, 1472. In memory of this, the women of Beauvais walk first in the procession 
on the anniversary of their deliverance. Renault. 

BECKET'S MURDER.* Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered at 
the altar, Dec. 29, 11 70. The king was absolved of guilty knowledge of the crime in 11 72, 
and did penance at the tomb in 11 74. Tlie bones of Becket were enshrined in gold and 
jewels in 1220 ; but were burned in the reign of Henry VIII. 1539. 

BED. The ancients slept on skins. Beds were afterwards made of loose rushes, heather, 
or straw. The Romans are said to have first used feathers. Feather-beds were in use in 
England in the reign of Henry VIII. The bedsteads of the Egyptians and later Greeks, like 
modern couches, became common among the Roman upper classes. The ancient great bed 
at "Ware, Herts, capable of holding twelve persons, was sold, it is said, to Charles Dickens, 
Sept. 6,1864. A bedstead of gold was presented to the queen on ifov. 2, 1859, by the 
Maharajah of Cashmere. Air-beds and water-beds have been made since the manufacture of 
india-rubber cloth by Clark in 1813 ; and by Macintosh in 1823. Dr. Aruott's hj'drostatic 
bed was invented in 1830. 

BED OF Justice, a French court jjresided over by the king, whose seat was termed 
a " bed." It controlled the ordinances of the parliament. The last was held by Louis XVI. 
at Versailles in 1787. 

BEDER (Arabia). Here Mahomet gained his first victory (over the Koreish of 
Mecca), 623. It was considered to be miraculous. 

BEDFORD, a town, IST.JST.W. London, renowned for its many free educational establish- 
ments endowed in i56i~bysir "Wm. Harpur, a London alderman. Here John Bunyan 
j)reached, wrote " The Pilgrim's Progress," and died (in 1688). 

BEDFORD LEVEL, a portion of the great fen districts in the eastern corrnties, drained 
in the early part of the 17th century by the earl of Bedford, aided by the celebrated Dutch 
engineer, sir Cornelius Vermuyden, amid great opposition. See Levels. 

BEDLAM. See Bctlilehcm. 

BEDOUIN'S, wandering tribes of Arabs, living on the plunder of travellers, &c. They 
profess a form of Mahoniedanism, and are governed by sheikhs. They are said to be descen- 
dants of Ishmael, and appear to fulfil the prophecy respecting him, Gen. xvi. 12, 1911 B.C. 
They are the scourge of Arabia and Egj'pt. 

BEEF-EATERS. See Battle-axz. 

* Thomas Becket was bom in iiig. His father Gilbei-t wa.s a London trader, and his mother is stated 
to have been a convert from Mahomedanism. He was educated at Oxford, and made archdeacon by Theo- 
bald, archbishop of Canterbnrjr, who introduced him to the king Henry II. He became chancellor in 11 55, 
but on being elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, he resigned the chancellorship, to the gi-eat offence 
of the king. He opposed strenuously the constitutions of Clarendon in 1164, and fled the country ; and, 
in 1 166, excommunicated all the clergy who agreed to abide by them. He and the king met at Fretville, 
in Touraine, on July 22, 11 70, and were formaUy reconciled. On his return he re-commenced his struggle 
with the king, which led to his tragical death. The Merchant- Adventurers were at one time termed " the 
Brotherhood of St. Thomas a Becket." 


BEEF-STEAK SOCIETY, the members of which dine together in a room hehind the 
Lyceum theatre, was founded in 1735 by John Eich, patentee of Covent-garden theatre, and 
George Lambert, the scene-painter, in whose work-room the society originated. Beef-steak 
clubs existed in 1709 and 1733. 

BEER. ^QQ Ale, Porter, Victuallers. 

BEES. Mount Hybla, on account of its odoriferous flowers, thjine, and abundance of 
honey, has been poetically called the "empire of bees." Hymettus, in Attica, was also 
famous for its bees and honey. The economy of bees was admired in the earliest ages ; and 
Eumelus, of Corinth, wrote a poem on bees, 741 B.C. There are 292 species of the bee or 
apis genus, and 1 1 1 in England. Bees were first introduced into Boston, New England, by 
the English in 1670, and have since spread over the whole continent. Mandeville's satirical 
" Fable of the Bees" appeared in 1723. Huber published his observations on bees in 1792. 
The Apiarian Society had an establishment at Muswell Hill, near London (1860-2). The 
Ligurian variety of the honey-bee was successfully introduced into England in i860. 

BEET-ROOT is of recent cultivation in England. Beta vulgaris, red beet, is used for 
the table as a salad. Margraff first produced sugar from the ■jy/iite beet-root in 1747. M. 
Achard produced excellent sugar from it in 1799 ; and the chemists of France, at the 
instance of Bonaparte, largel}' extracted 'sugar from the beet-root in 1800. 60,000 tons of 
sugar, about half the consumption, are now manufactured in France from beet. It is also 
largely manufactured in other countries. A refinery of sugar from beet-root has been erected 
at the Thames-bank, Chelsea. 

BEGGARS were tolei-ated in ancient times, being often musicians and ballad-singers. In 
modern times severe laws have been passed against them. In 1572, by 14 Eliz. c. 5, sturdy 
beggars were ordered to be "giievously whipped and burnt through the right ear." By the 
Vagi'ant Act (1824), 5 Geo. IV. c. 83, all public beggars are liable to a month's imjirisoument. 
See Poor Laws and Mendicity Society. The "Beggar's Opera," bj' John Gay, a satire 
against the government of sir Robert Walpole, was produced at the Lincoln's-inn-fields 
theatre, 1727, and had a run of 63 nights, 

BEGUINES, a congregation of ni;ns, first established at Liege, and afterwards at Nivelle, 
in 1207, some say 1226. The "Grand Beguinage" of Bruges was the most extensive. Some 
of these nuns imagined that they could in this life arrive at impeccability. The council of 
Vicnne condemned this error, and abolished a branch of the order in 131 1. They still exist 
in Geimany and Belgium, acting as nurses to the sick and wounded, &c. 

BEHEADING, the Dccollatio of the Romans, introduced into England from Normandy 
(as. a less ignominious mode of putting high criminals to death) by William the Conqueror, 
1076, when Walthcoff, eaii of Huntingdon, Northampton, and Northumberland, was first so 
executed. Since then this mode of execution became frequent, particularly in the reigns of 
Henry VIII. and Mary, when even women of the noblest blood thus perished,* 

BEHISTUN, in Persia, At this place is a rock containing important inscriptions in 
three languages, in cuneiform (or M'edge-shaped) characters, which were deciphered and 
translated by sir H. Rawlinson in 1844-6 and published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. Each paragraph commences with " I am Darius the Great King." 

BEHRING'S STRAIT, discovered by captain Vitus Behring, a Danish navigator in the 
service of Russia. He thus proved that the continents of Asia and America are not united, 
but are distinct from each other about thirty-nine miles, 1728. He died at Behring's island 
in 1741. The current from the west between the shores is very inconsiderable, the depth 
not being more than from twelve to thirty fathoms. In 1788 captain James Cook accurately 
surveyed the coast of both continents. 

BELFAST, capital of Ulster, Ireland, First mentioned about 1315 ; its castle, supposed 
to have been built by John do Courcy, was then destroyed by the Scots under Edward Bruce. 
See Orange. 

* Among other instances (besides queens of England) m.ay be mentioned the hidy Jane Grey, beheaded 
Feb. 12, 1554; and the venerable countess of Salisbury, — the latter remarkable for her resistance of the 
executioner. When he directed her to lay her head on the block, she refused to do it : telling him that 
she knew of no guilt, and would not submit to die like a criminal. He pursued her round and round the 
scaffold, aiming at her hoary head, and at length took it off, alter mangling the neck and shoulders of the 
illustrious victim in a horrifying manner. She was daughter of George, duke of Clarence, and last of the 
royal line of Plants genet. May 27, 1541. Hume. 





BELFAST, continued. 

Belfast granted by James I. to sir Arthur 

.Chichester, then lord deputy, 1612; and 

erected into a corporation .... 

The long bridge with 21 arches, 2362 feet long, 

built . . ■ I 

The first edition of the Bible published in Ire- 
land, printed here 1704 

The castle burnt April, 1708 

The bank built 1787 

The mechanics' institute established . . . 1825 
The Queen's bridge (5 arches) built on site of 

the long bridge 1841 

Of three colleges established in Ireland under 
the act 8 & 9 Vict. c. 66, passed in 1845, one 

was inaugurated in Belfast . . . Oct. 1849 
(See Colleges in Ireland.) 
Much rioting at Belfast through Mr. Hanna 
persisting in open-air preaching, July, Aug., 

and Sept 1857 

Victoria chambers were burnt down ; the loss 

was estimated at 100, 000 J. . . July 2, 1859 
Exciting religion* revivals , . . Sept. ;, 
Fierce conflicts between Roman Catholics and 
Protestants on account of the foundation of 
the O'Connell moniiment at Dublin — 9 lives 
lost and ISO persons injured . Aug. 10 — 27, 1864 

Rioting again April 30, 1865 

Election riots July, „ 

BELGIUM, late the southern portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and anciently 
■ the territory of the Belgse, who were finally conquered by Julius Caesar, 51 b. c. Its size is 
about one-eighth of Great Britain. The population, December 31, 1862, was 4,836,566. Its 
government is a liberal constitutional monarchy, founded in 1831. For previous history, 
see Flanders, Netherlands, and Holland. 

The revolution commences at Brussels, Aug. 25, 
The Provisional Government declares Belgium 

independent Oct. 4, 

Antwerp taken .... Dec. 23, 

Belgian independence acknowledged by the 

alhed powers Dec. 26, 

Duke de Nemours elected king (his father, the 

French king, refused his consent) . Feb. 3, 
Surlet de Chokier is elected regent Feb. 24, 
Leopold, prince of Coburg, elected king, July 12, 

enters Brussels .... July 19, 

The king of the Netherlands commences war 

Conference of ministers of the five great powers 
held in London : acceptance of 24 articles of 
pacification Nov. 15, 

France sends 50,000 troops to assist Belgium, 
and an armistice ensues . . . Aug. 

Antwerp besieged, Nov. 30 ; and taken by the 
French Dec. 23, 

The French army returns to France Dec. 27, 

Riot at Brussels (see Brussds) . . April 6, 

Treaty* between Holland and Belgium signed 
in London April 19, 

Queen of England visits Belgium . . Aug. 





The king and his son visit England . Oct. 1852 

Increase of army to 100,000 men voted May 10, 1853 
Opposition to religious charities' bill t June, 1857 
A new ministry under M. Charles Rogier Nov. g, „ 
The chambers dissolved ; re-assembled Dec. 10, ,, 
The king proclaims Belgium neutral in the 

Italian war May, 1859 

Death of M. Potter .... July 22, ,, 
The king visits England . . . June, i860 
Vague rumours of annexation to France produce 

warm loyal addresses to the king . June 13, „ 
The octrois abolished . . . July 21, „ 
Successful military volunteer movement Aug. ,, 
Commercial treaty with France signed May i, i86i 
Continued illness of the king ; with occasional 

amendment .... May, June, 1862 
Commercial treaty with Great Britain adopted 

by the chamber .... Aug. 22, ,, 
Great distress through decay of trade Aug. „ 
Fierce dissensions between Roman Catholics, 
Jan. ; the ministry resigns, but resumes 
office, Feb. 4 ; dissolution of the chambers, 
July 17 ; the Protestants superior in the 
election Aug. 1864 


31. Leopold,t first king of the Belgians ; bom 
Dec. 16, 1790 ; inaugurated July 21, 1831, at 
Brussels ; married Aug. g, 1832, Louise, 
eldest daughter of Louis PhiUppe, king of 

the French; she died Oct. 11, 1850. The 
PRESENT king, 1865. J 
Heir : his son Leopold, duke of Brabant ; bom 
April 9, 183 s ; married archduchess Maiia 
of Austria, Aug. 22, 1853. 

BELGRADE, an ancient city in Servia, on the right bank of the Danube. It was taken 
from the Greek emperor by Solomon, king of Hungary, in 1086 ; gallantly defended by 
John Huniades against the Turks, under Mahomed II., July to Sept. i486, when the latter 
was defeated with the loss of 40,000 men. Belgrade was taken by sultan Solyman, 1522, and 
retaken by the Imperialists in 1688, from whom it again reverted to the Turks in 1690. It 
was besieged in May, 171 7, by prince Eugene. On Aug. 5 of that year, the Turkish army, 
200,000 strong, approached to relieve it, and a sanguinary battle was fought at Peter- 
waradein, on August 22, in which the Turks lost 20,000 men ; after this battle Belgrade 
sun-endered. In 1739 it was ceded to the Turks, after its fine fortifications had been 
demolished. It was again taken in 1789, and restored at the peace of Reichenbach, in 
1790. The Servian insurgents had possession of it in 1806. In 1815 it was placed under 

* This treaty arose out of the conference held in London on the Belgian question ; by the decision 
of which, the treaty of Nov. 15, 1831, was maintained, and the pecuniary compensation of sixty miUions of 
francs offered by Belgium for the territories adjudged to Holland, was declared inadmissible. 

_ t At the revolution in 1830, the Roman CathoUc clergy lost the administration of the public charities, 
which they have struggled to recover ever since. In April, 1857, M. Decker, the head of the ministry, 
brought in a bill for this purpose; the principle of which was carried. This led, however, to so much 
agitation that the ministry were compelled to witbdi-aw the bill, and eventvially to resign. 

t Leopold married, in May, 1816, the princess Charlotte of "Wales, daughter of the prince regent, 
afterwards George lY. of England; she died in childbed, Nov. 6, 1817. 




prince Miloscli, subject to Turkey. The fortifications were restored in 1820. On June 19, 
1862, the Turkish pacha was dismissed for firing on the town during a riot. University 
established by private munificence, 1863. See Servia. 

BELL, Book, axd Candle : in the Eomish ceremony of Excommunication (tchich sec), 
the bell is rung, the book is closed, and candle extinguished ; the effect being to exclude the 
excommunicated from the society of the faithful, divine service, and the sacraments. Its 
origin is ascribed to the 8th century. 

BELL-ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, nearly in front of the Frith of Taj^ one of the finest in 
Great Britain ; it is 115 feet high, is built upon a rock that measures 427 feet in length 
and 200 feet in breadth, and is about 12 feet under water.* It was erected in 1806-10 ; it is 
provided with two bells for hazy weather. 

BELLAIE, in North America. The town was attacked by the British forces under sir 
Peter Parker, who, after an obstinate engagement, were repulsed with considerable loss ; 
their gallant commander M'as killed, Aug. 30, 1814. 

BELLEISLE, an isle on the south coast of Brittany, France, was erected into a duchy in 
favour of marshal Belleisle, in 1742, in reward of his brilliant military and diplomatic 
services, by Louis XV. Belleisle was taken by the British forces under commodore Keppel 
and general Hodgson, after a desperate resistance, June 7, 1761, but was restored to France 
in 1763. 

BELLES-LETTRES, ok Polite Learning, ^qq Academies and Literature. 

BELLMEN", appointed in London to proclaim the hour of the night before public 
clocks became general, were numerous about 1556. They were to ring a bell at night and 
cry " Take care of your fire and candle, be charitable to the poor, and pray for the dead." 

BELLOWS. Anacharsis, the Scythian, is said to have been the inventor of them, about 
569 B.C. ; to him is also ascribed the invention of tinder, the potter's wheel, anchors for 
ships, &c. Bellows were not used in the furnaces of the Romans. The production of thi 
great le\-iathan bellows of our foundries (suggested by the diminutive domestic bellows) must 
have been early, but we cannot trace the time. See Blowing-Machines. 

BELLS were used among the Jews, Greeks, and Romans. The responses of the Dodonrean 
oracle were in part conveyed by bells. Strabo. The monument of Porsenna was decorated 
by pinnacles, each surmounted by bells. Pliny. Introduced by Paulinus, bishop of Nola, 
in Campagna, about 400. First knoA\-n in France in 550. The army of Clothaire II., king of 
France, was frightened from the siege of Sens by the ringing of the bells of St. Stephen's 
church. The second excerption of our king Egbert commands every priest, at the proper 
hours, to sound the bells of his church. Bells were used in churches by order of pope John 
IX., about 900, as a, defence, hy ringing them, against thunder and lightning. First cast in 
England by Turketel, chancellor of England, under Edmund I. His successor improved the 
invention, and caused the first tuneable set to be put up at Croyland abbey, 960. Stow. 
The celebrated "Song of the Bell," by Schiller (died 1805), has been freq^uently translated. 
The following list is that given by Mr. E. Beckett Denison in his discourse on bells at the 
Royal Institution, March 6, 1857. 

Weight— Tons Cwt. 
Moscow, 1736 ;t broken, 

1737 ..... 250 ? 
Auother, 1817 . . . 110 1 

Weight— Tons. Cwt. 
Three others . 16 to 31 
Novgorod . , . . 31 o 
Ohntitz 17 iS 

Weigh'— Ton% Cwt. 
Vienna, 1711 . . . 17 14 
Westminster, 18564 "Big 
Ben" . . ' . . 15 8i 

♦ Upon this rock, tradition says, the abbots of the ancient monasteiy of Aberbrothock succeeded in 
fixing a bell in such a manner that it was rung by the impulse of the sea, thus warning mariners of their 
impending danger. Tradition also tells us that this apparatus was carried away by a Dutchman, who was 
afterwards lost uison the rock, with his sihrp and crew. 

t The metal has been valued, at the lowest estimate, at 66,565?. Gold and silver are said to have been 
thrown in as votive offerings, 

t The largest bell in England (named Big Ben, after sir Benjamin Hall, the then chief commissioner 
of works), cast at Houghton-le-Siiring, Durham, by Messrs. Wai-ner, under the superintendence of Mr. E. 
Beckct Denison and the rev. W. Taylor, .at an expense of 3343?. i4«. gd. The composition wa.s 22 parts 
copper and 7 tin. The diameter was 9 ft. sJ in. ; the height 7 ft. loi iu. The clai)per weighed 12 cwt. 
Rev. W. Taylor. 





BELLS, continued. 

Weight— Tons Cwt. 

We!g7it—ToTi3 Cwt. 

WeigJit— Tons Cwt. 

Erfiirt, 1497 . . . . 13 IS 

York, 1S4S 

. 10 15 

Lincoln, 1834 . ..58 

Westminster, 1858,* " St. 

Bruges, 1680 

• 10 s 

St. Paul's, 17 16 1 . .54 

Stephen " . ' . . . 13 io| 

St, Peter's, Rome . 


Ghent 4 18 

Sens 13 ? 

Oxford, 1680 . 

7 12 

Boulogne, new . . . 4 18 

Paris, 1680 . . . . 12 16 

Lucerne, 1636 . 

7 " 

Exeter, 1675 . . . 4 10? 

Montreal, 1847 . . . 12 15 

Halberstadt, 1457.. 

7 10 

Old Lincoln, 16 10 . . 48 

Cologne, 1448 . . . II 3 

Antwerp . 

7 3 

Fourth quavtei--bell, West- 

Breslau, 1507 . . . 11 

Briissels . ... 

7 4 

minster, 1857 . ..40 

Gorlitz 10 17 

Dantzic, 1453 . 

6 I 

Ringing of Bells, in changes of regular peals, 
Is almost peculiar to the BngUsh, who boast of 
having brought the practice to an art. There 
were formerly societies of ringers in London. 
Holden. A sixth bell was added to the peal of 
five, in the church of St. Michael, 1430. Stow. 
Nell Gwynne left the ringers of the , bells of St. 
Martin's- in-the-fields money for a weekly entertain- 
ment, 1687, and many others have done the same. 

Baptism of Bells. — They were anointed and 
baptized in churches it is said from the loth century. 
Du Fresnoy. The bells of the priory of Little Dun- 
mow, in Essex, were baptized by the names of St. 
Michael, St. John, Virgin Mary, Holy Trinity, <&c., 
in 1501. Weever. The great bell of Notre Dame, in 
Paris, was baptized by the name of Duke of Angou- 
l§me, 1816. On the continent, in Roman Catholic 
states, they baptize bells aa we do ships, tout. with 
religious solemnity. Ashe. 

BELOOCHISTAlSr, tlie ancient Gedrosia (S. Asia). The capital was taken by the British 
in the Afglian war, in 1839 ; abandoned in 1840 ; taken and held for a short time in 1841. 

BELYIDEEE EXPLOSIOJST. See Gunpowder (note). 

BEISTARES, in India, a holy city of the Hindoos, abounding in temples. It was ceded 
by the nabob of Oude, Asoph-ud-Dowlah, to the English in 1775. An insurrection took 
place here, which had nearly proved fatal to the British interests in Hindostan, 1781. The 
rajah, Cheyt Sing, was deposed in consequence of it, in 1783. Mr. Cherry, capt. Conway, 
and others, were assassinated at Benares, by vizier Aly, Jan. 14, 1799. In June, 1857, col. 
ISTeil succeeded in suppressing attempts to join the Sepoy mutiny. See India. 

BEISTBURB, near Armagh (JS. Ireland). Here O'lSTeill totally defeated the English under 
Monroe, Jime 5, 1646. Moore says that it was "the only great victory since the days of 
Brian Boru, achieved by an Irish chieftain in the cause of Ireland." 

BElSTCOOLEISr (Sumatra). The English East India Company made a settlement here 
which preserved to them the pepper trade after the Dutch had dispossessed them of Bantam, 
1682. Anderson. York Fort was erected by the East India Company, 1690. In 1693 a 
dreadful mortality raged here, occasioned by the town being built on a pestilent morass : 
among others the governor and council perished. The French, under count D'Estaign, 
destroyed the English settlement, 1760. Bencoolen was reduced to a residency under the 
government of Bengal, in 1801, and was ceded to the Dutch in 1825, in exchange for their 
possessions in Malacca. See India. 

BENDEE (Bessarabia, European Eussia) is memorable as the asylum of Charles XII. of 
Sweden, after his defeat at Pultowa by the czar Peter the Great, July 8, 1709. The peace of 
Bender was concluded in 171 1. Bender was taken by storm, by the Eussians, in Sept. 
1770 ; was again taken by Potemkin in 1789, and again stormed in 1809. It was restored 
at the peace of Jassy, but retained at the peace of 1812. 

BENEDICTINES, an order of monks founded by St. Benedict (lived 480— 543^ who 
introduced the monastic life into western Europe, in 529, when he founded the mona.stery 
on Monte Cassino in Campania, and eleven others afterwards. His Regicla Monachorum {vvile 
of the monks) soon became the common rule of western monachism. No religious order has 
been so remarkable for extent, wealth, and men of note and learning, as the Benedictine. 
Among its branches the chief were the Cistercians, founded in 1098, and reformed by St. 
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in 11 16; and the Carthusians, from the Chartreux (hence 
Charter-house), founded by Bruno about 1084. The Benedictine order was introduced into 
England by Augustin, in 596 ; and William I. built an abbey for it on the plain where the 

* The bell "Big Ben," having been found to be cracked on Oct. 24, 1857, it was broken up and another 
bell cast with the same metal, in May, 1858, by Messrs. Mears, Whitechapel. It ia rather different in shape 
to its predecessor, "Big Ben," and about 2 tons lighter. Its diameter is 9 ft. 6 in. ; the height 7 ft. 10 in. 
It was struck for the first time, Nov. 18, 1858. The clapper weighs 6 cwt.— -half that of the former bell. 
The note of the bell is E natural; the quarter-beUs being G, B, E, F. On Oct. i, 1859, this bell was also 
found to be cracked. It remains in this state (Sept. 1865). 

+ The clapper of St. Paul's bell weighs 180 lbs. ; the diameter of the beU is 10 feet, and its thickness 10 
inches. The hour strikes upon this beU, the quarters upon two smaller ones. See Clocks. 

H 2 




battle of Hastings was fought, 1066. See Battle- Abbey. William de Warrenne, eaii of 
Warrenne, built a convent at Lewes, in Sussex, in 1077. "At Hammersmith is a nunnery, 
whose inmates are denominated Benedictine dames." Leigh. Of this order it is reckoned 
that there have been 40 popes, 200 cardinals, 50 patriarchs, 116 archbishops, 4600 bishops, 
4 emperors, 12 empresses, 46 kings, 41 queens, and 36CX) saints. Their founder was 
canonised. Baronius. The Benedictines have taken little part in politics, but have 
produced many valuable works : especially tlie congregation of St. ilaur, who published the 
celebrated I' Art de Va-ifier les Dates, in 1750, and edited many ancient authors. 

BENEFICE (literally a good deed or favour), OE Fief. Clerical benefices originated in 
the 12th century, when the priesthood began to [imitate the feudal lay system of holding 
lands for performing certain duties : till then the priests were supported by alms and oblations 
at mass. Vicarages, rectories, perpetual curacies, and chaplaincies, are termed benefices, in 
contradistinction to dignities, bishoprics, &c. A rector is entitled to all the tithes ; a vicar, 
to a small part or to none. — All benefices that should become vacant in the space of six 
months, were given by pope Clement YII. to his nephew, in 1534. Notitia Monastica. An 
act for the augmentation of poor benefices, by the sale of some of those in the presentation 
of the lord chancellor, was passed in 1863. 


BENEFIT SOCIETIES. See Friendhj Societies. 

BENEVENTUM (now Benevento), an ancient city in South Italy, said to have been 
founded by Diomedes the Greek, after the f^ill of Troy. Pyrrhus of Macedou, during his 
invasion of Italy, was totally defeated near Beneventum, 275 B.C. Near it was erected 
the triumphal arch of Trajan, a.d. 114. Benevento was fonned into a duchy by the 
Lombards, 571. A.t a battle fought here, Feb. 26, 1266, Manfred, king of Sicily, was 
defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou, who thus became virtually master of Italy. The 
castle was built 1323 ; the town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, 168S, when the 
archbishop, afterwards pope Benedict XIII. , was dug out of the ruins alive, and contributed 
to its subsequent rebuilding again, 1703. It was seized by the kiug of Naples, but restored 
to the pope on the suppression of the Jesuits, 1773. Talleyrand de Perigord, Bonaparte's 
arch-chancellor, had the title of prince of Benevento conferred upon him. Benevento was 
restored to the pope in 18 14. 

BENEVOLENCES (AMs, Free Gifts, actually Forced Loans) appear to have been claimed 
Tjy our Anglo-Saxon sovereigns. Special ones were levied by Edward IV. 1473, ^V Kichard 
III. 1485 (although a statute foi-bidding them was enacted in 1484), by Henry VII. 1492 ; 
and by James I. in 1613, on occasion of the marriage of the princess Elizabeth with the king 
-of Bohemia. In 1615 Oliver St. John, M.P., was fined 5000?., and chief justice Coke 
disgraced, for severely censuring such modes of raising money. Benevolences were declared 
illegal by the bill of rights, Feb. 1689. 

BENGAL, the chief presidency of British India, containing Calcutta, the capital. It 
-was ruled by governors delegated by the sovereigns of Dellii, till 1340, when it became 
independent. It was added to the Mogul empire by Baber, about 1529. See India and 

The Englisli first permitted to trade to Bengal 1534 
They establish a settlement at Hooghly about 1652 
Factories of the French and Danes set up . . 1664 
Bengal made a distinct agency . . . . 1680 
The English settlement removed to Hooghly . 1698 
Imperial grant vesting the revenues of Bengal 
in the companj', by which it gained the 
sovereignty of the covin try . . Aug. 12, 1765 

India Bill ; Bengal made the chief presidency ; 
supreme court of judicature established 

June 16, 1773 
Bishop of Calcutta appointed . . July 21, 1813 
Railvray opened Aug. 15, 1854 

See India. 

BENZOLE, a compound of hydrogen and carbon, discovered by Faraday in oils (1825), 
and by C. B. Mansfield in coal tar (1849), the latter of whom unfortunately died in con- 
sequence of being severely burnt while experimenting on it (Feb. 25, 1855). Benzole has 
become useful in the arts. Chemical research has produced from it aniline {loliich see), the 
source of the celebrated modern dyes, mauve, magenta, &c. 

BEOWULF, an ancient Anglo-Saxon epic poem, describing events which probably 
occurred in the middle of the 5 th century, and supposed to have been written subsequent 
to 597. An edition by Keiuble was published in 1833. It has been translated by Kemble, 
Thorpe, and Wackerbath. 

BER 101 BER 

BERBICE (British Guiana, S. America), settled by tlie Dutch, who surrendered it to the 
British, April 23, 1796, and again Sept, 22, 1803. It was finally ceded to England in 

BERENGARIANS, followers of Berenger, or Berengarius, ai'chdeacon of Angers, a 
learned man, who about 1049 uttered opinions opposed to the Romish doctrine of transub- 
stantiation or the real presence in the Lord's supper. Several councils of the church were 
held condemning his doctrine. After much controversy he recanted about 1058. He 
died grieved and wearied in 1088. 

BERESIISTA, a river in Russia, crossed by the French main army after its defeat by the 
Russians, Nov. 25-29, 18 12. The French lost upwards of 20,000 men, and their retreat was 
attended by great calamity and suffering. 

BERG (W. Germany), on the extinction of the line of its counts, in 1348, was incorporated 
with Juliers. Napoleon I., made Murat grand-duke in 1806. The principal part is now held 
by Prussia. 

BERGEN (in Germany), Battle of, between the French and allies, the latter defeated, 
April 13, 1759. — (In Holland) The allies under the duke of York were defeated by the 
French, under gen. Brune, with great loss, Sept. 19, 1799. In another battle, fought Oct. 
2, same year, the duke gained the victory over Brune ; but on the 6th, the duke was 
defeated before Alkmaer, and on the 20th entered into a convention, by which he exchanged 
his army for 6000 French and Dutch prisoners in England. 

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, in Holland. This place, whose works were deemed impregnable, 
was taken by the French, Sept. 16, 1747, and again in 1794. An attempt made by the 
British under general sir T. Graham (afterwards lord Lynedoch), to carry the fortress by 
storm, was defeated ; after forcing an entrance, their retreat was cut off, and a dreadful 
slaughter ensued ; nearly all were cut to pieces or made prisoners, March 8, 18 14. 

BERKELEY CASTLE, Gloucestershire, was begun by Henry I. in 1 108, and finished in 
the next reign. Here Edward II. was cruelly murdered by the contrivance of his queen 
Isabella (a princess of France), and her paramour, Mortimer, earl of March, Sept. 21, 1327. 
Mortimer was hanged at the Elms, near London, Nov. 29, 1330 ; and Edward III. confined 
his mother in her own house at Castle Rising, near Lynn, in Norfolk, till her death. 

BERLIN (capital of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg), was founded by the mar- 
gi'ave Albert, surnamed the Bear, about 1163. Its five districts were united under one 
magistracy, in 17 14 ; and it was subsequently made the capital of Prussia. It was taken by 
an army of Russians, Austrians, and Saxons, in 1760 ; but they were obliged to retire in a 
few days. On Oct. 27, 1806, after the battle of Jena (Oct. 14), the French entered Berlin ; 
and from this place Napoleon issued the famous Berlin decree or interdict against the com- 
merce of England, Nov. 20. It declared the British islands to be in a state of blockade, 
and ordered all Englishmen found in countries occupied by French troops to be treated as 
prisoners of war. On Nov. 5, 1808, Napoleon entered into a convention with Prussia, by 
which he remitted to Russia the sum due on the war-debt, and withdrew many of his troops 
to reinforce his armies in Spain. An insurrection commenced here in March 1848. Berlin 
was declared in a state of siege, Nov. 1848. The continuation of this state of siege was 
declared to be illegal Avithout its concurrence by the lower chamber, April 25, 1849. The 
railway to Magdeburg was opened, Sept. 10, 1841. The first constituent assembly was held 
here on June 21, 1842. 

BERMUDAS, ok Someks' Isles, a group in the North Atlantic ocean, discovered by 
Joao Bermudas, a Spaniard, in 1522 or 1527, but not inhabited until 1609, when sir George 
Somers was cast away upon them. They were settled by a statute 9 James I. 1612. Among 
the exiles from England during the civil war, was Waller, the poet, who wrote, while resi- 
dent here, a poetical description of the islands. There was an awful hurricane here, Oct. 31, 
1780, and another, by which a third of the houses was destroyed, and all the shipping driven 
ashore, July 20, 18 13. 

BERNAL COLLECTION of articles of taste and virtu, formed by Ralph Bernal, Esq., 
many years chairman of committees of ways and means in the house of commons. He died 
Aug. 26, 1854. The sale in March, 1856, lasted 31 days, and enormous prices were given. 
The total sum realised was 62,68oZ. 6s. Sd. 

BERNARD, MOUNT ST., so called from a monastery founded on it by Bernardine 
Menthon in 962. Velan, its highest peak, is about 8000 feet high, covered with perpetual 
snow. Hannibal, it is said, conducted the Carthaginian army by this pass into Italy 

BER 102 BHO 

(218 B.C.); and it was by the same route, in May, 1800, that Bonaparte led his troops to 
the plains of Lombardy, before the battle of Marengo, fought June 14, 1800. On the 
summit of Great St. Bernard is a large community of monks, who entertain travellers in 
their convent. 

BERNARDINES, a strict order of Cistercian monks, established by St. Bernard, of 
Clairvaux, about 11 15. He founded seventy- two monasteries. 

BERNE, the sovereign canton of Switzerland, joined the Swiss League 1352 ; the to^vn 
Berne surrendered to the French under general Bruue, April 12, 1798. The town has bears 
for its arms, and some of these animals are still maintained on funds specially provided for 
the purpose, 

BERRY, an ancient province {Biturigum regis), central France, held by the Romans 
since the conquest of Gaul by Csesar (58 — 50 B.C.) till it was subdued by the Visigoths; 
from whom it was taken by Clovis in 507. It was erected into a duchy by John in 1360, 
and was not incorporated into the royal domains till 1 601 ; since then the title of duke has 
been merely nominal. 

BERSAGLIERI, the sharpshooters of the Sardinian anny, first employed about 1848. 

BERWICK-ON-TWEED, a fortified town on the north-east extremity of England. It 
has been the theatre of many bloody contests between the English and Scots ; and while 
England and Scotland remained two kingdoms, was always claimed by the Scots as belonging 
to them, because it stood on their side of the river. It was taken from the Scots, and annexed 
to England in 1333 ; and after having been taken and retaken many times, was finally ceded 
to England in 1482. In 155 1 it was made independent of both kingdoms. The town 
surrendered to Cromwell in 1648, and afterwards to general Monk in 1659. Since the union 
of the crowns (James I. 1603), the fortifications, which were formerly very strong, have been 
much neglected. 

BESSARABIA, a frontier province of European Russia, part of the ancient Dacia. After 
being possessed by the Gotlis, Huns, &c., it was conquered by the Turks in 1474, and ceded 
to Russia in 1812. 

BETHLEHEM (Syria) now contains a large convent, enclosing, as is said, the very birth- 
place of Christ ; a church erected by the empress Helena, in the form of a cross, about 
325 ; a chapel, called the Chapel of the Nativity, where they pretend to show the manger in 
which Christ was laid ; another, called the Chapel of Joseph ; and a third, of the Holy 
Innocents. Bethlehem is much visited by pilgrims, — The Betlilehemite monks existed in 
England in 1257. 

BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL (so called from having been originally the hospital of St. 
Mary of Bethlehem), a royal foundation for the reception of lunatics, incorporated by Henry 
VIII. in 1546. The old Bethlehem Hospital, Moorfields, erected in 1675, pulled down in 1814, 
was built in imitation of the Tuileries at Paris. The present hospital in St. George's-fields 
was begun April, 1812, and opened in 1815. In 1856 extensive improvements were 
completed under the direction of Mr. Sydney Smirk, costing between nine and ten 
thousand pounds. 

BETTING-HOUSES, affording much temptation to gaming, and consequent dis- 
bonesty, in the lower classes, were suppressed by an act passed in 1853 (16 & 17 Vict, c. 119), 
a penalty of lool. being enforced on the owners or occupiers. 

BEYROUT (the ancient Beiytus), a seaport of Syria, colonised from Sidon. It was 
destroyed by an earthquake, 566 ; was rebuilt, and was alternately possessed by the 
Christians and Saracens ; and after a frequent change of masters, fell into the power of 
Amurath IV., since when it remained with the Ottoman empire up to the revolt of Ibrahim 
Pacha, in 1832. The total defeat of the Eg)rptian army by the allied British, Turkish, and 
Austrian forces, and evacuation of Beyrout (the Egyptians losing 7000 in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners, and twenty pieces of cannon), took place Oct. 10, 1840. Sir C. Napier was 
the English admiral engaged. • Beyrout suffered greatly in consequence of the ma-ssacres in 
Syria in May i860. In Nov. i860 above 27,000 persons were said to be in danger of starving. 
See Syria. 

BHOOTAN, a country north of Lower Bengal, with whom a treaty was made April 25, 
1774. After fruitless negotiations, Bhootan was invaded by the British in Dec. 1864, in 
consequence of injurious treatment of an envoy. Sec India, 1864-5. 




BHURTPORE (India), capital of Bhurtpore, was besieged by the Biitisli, Jan. 3, 1805, 
and attacked Jive times up to March 21, without success. Tlie fortress was taken by general 
Lake, after a desperate engagement with Holkar, the Mahratta chief, April 2, 1805. The 
defeat of Holkar led to a treaty, by which the rajah of Bhurtpore agreed to pay twenty lacs 
of rupees, and ceded the territories that had been granted to him by a former treaty, 
delivering up his son as hostage, April 17, 1805. On the rajah's death, during a revolt 
against his son, Bhurtpore was taken by storm, by lord Conibermere, Jan. 18, 1826. See 

BIAN'CHI ("Whites), a political party at Florence, in 1300, in favour of the Ghibelines 
or imperial party, headed by Vieri de' Cerchi, opposed the Neri (or Blacks), headed by 
Corso de' Douati. Tlie latter expelled their opponents, among whom was the poet Dante, 
in 1301. 

BIARCHY. "When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, died, he left two sons, twins, Eury- 
sthenes and Procles ; and the people not knowing to whom precedence should be given, 
placed both upon the throne, and thus established the first biarchy, 1102 B.C. The descen- 
dants of each reigned alternately for 800 years. Herodotus. 

BIARRITZ, a bathing-place, near Bayonne. Here resided the comtesse de Montijo and 
her daughter Eugenie, now empress of the French, tiU her marriage Jan. 29, 1853; since 
when it has been annually visited by the emperor and empress. 

BIBERACH ("Wurtemberg). Here Moreau twice defeated the Austrians, — under Latour, 
Oct. 2, 1796, and under Kray, May 9, 1800. 

BIBLE (from the Greek hiblos, a book), the name especially given to the Holy Scriptures. 
The Old Testament is said to have been collected and arranged by Ezra between 458 and 
450 B.C. The Apocrypha are considered as inspired writings by the Roman Catholics, but 
not by the Jews and Protestants.* See Apocrypha. 


Genesis contains the history 

of the world from B.C. 4004 — 1635 
Exodus . . . 1635 — 1490 
Leviticus . . . 1490 
Numbers . . . 1490 — 1451 
Deuteronomy. . . 1451 
Job . . about 1520 

Joshua . . from 1451 — 1420 
Judges .... 1425 — 1 120 
Buth . . . . 1322 — 1312 
ist and 2nd Samuel . 1171 — 1017 
ist and 2nd Kings . . 1015 — 562 
1st and 2nd Chronicles 1004 — 536 
Book of Psalms (princi- 
pally by David) . . 1063 — 1015 
Proverbs wi'itten about 1000 — 700 
Song of Solomon about 1014 
Ecclesiastes . about 977 
Jonah. . . about S62 
Josl . . . about 800 

Hosea . 


Isaiah . 


Nahum . 







Obadiah . 



Haggai . 



Malaohi . 




760 — 698 
750 — 710 






607— 534 






520 — 518 




Gospels by Matthew, Mark, 

Luke, and John. B.C. 5 — a.d. 33 

Acts of the Apostles . ad. 33 — 65 

Epistles — istand 2nd,toThes- 

salonians . . about 54 

Galatians . . . . 58 

ist Corinthians . . .59 

2nd Corinthians . . . 60 

Bomans .... 60 

Of James 60 

1st of Peter .... 60 
To Ephesians, Philippians, 
Colossians, Hebrews, 
Philemon . . .64 
Titus and ist to Timothy 65 
2nd to Timothy . . . 66 
2nd of Peter . . . .66 
OfJude . . . ; . 66 
ist, 2nd, and 3rd of John 

after 90 
Revelation ... .96 

The most ancient copy of the Hebrew Scriptures 
existed at Toledo, called the Codex of Hillel ; it 
was of very early date, probably of the 4th century 
after Christ, some say about 60 years before Christ. 
The copy of Ben Asher, of Jerusalem, was made 
about 1 100. 

The oldest copy of the Old and New Testament in 
Greek, is that in the Vatican, which was written 
in the 4th or 5th century, and published in 1586. 
The next in age is the Alexandrian Codex (referred 
to the 5th century) in the British Museum, pre- 
sented by the Greek patriarch to Charles I. in 

1628. It has been printed in England, edited by 
Woide and Baber, 1786 — 1821. — Codex Ephraemi, 
or Codex Begins, ascribed to the 5th century, in 
the Boyal Library, Paris : published by Tischen- 

• dorf in 1843. 

The Hebrew Psalter was printed at Bologiia in 1477. 
The complete Hebrew Bible was first printed by 
Soncino in Italy in 1488, and the Greek Testament 
(edited by Erasmus) at Botterdam, in 1516. Aldus's 
edition was printed in 1518; Stephens' in 1546; 
and the textus receptus (or received text) by the 
Elzevirs in 1624. 

* In April, 1865, was published a proposal for raising a fund for exploring Palestine in order to 
illustrate the Bible by antiquarian and scientific investigation. The first meeting was held June 22, 1865, 
the archbishop of York in the chair. 

t The division of the Bible into chapters has been ascribed to archbishop Lanfranc in the nth and to 
archbishop Langton in the 13th century ; but T. Hartwell Home considers the real author to have been 
cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro, about the middle of the 13th century. The division into sections was 
commenced by Babbi Nathan (author of a Concordance), about 1445, and completed by Athras, a Jew, in 
1661. The present division into verses was introduced by the celebrated printer, Robert Stephens, i7i his 
Greek Testament (1551) and in his Latin Bible (1556-7). 




BIBLE, continued. 


The Old Testament, in Gretl; termed the Septnagint 
(which see), generally considered to have been made 
by order of Ptolemj' Philadelphus, king of Egypt, 
about 286 or 285 b.c. ; of this many fabulous ac- 
counts are given 

Origen, after spending twenty-eight years in col- 
lating MSS., commenced his jioh/plot Bible at 
Cajsarea in a.d. 231 ; it contained the Greek ver- 
sions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotiou, all 
made in or about the 2nd century after Christ. 

The following are ancient versions : — Syriac, ist or 
and century ; the old Latin version, early in 
the 2nd century, revised by Jerome, in 384 ; who, 
however, completed a new version in 405, now 
called the Vulgate, which see; the first edition 
was printed in 1462 ; — Coptic, 2nd or 3rd century ; 
Sthiopic ; Armtnian, 4th or 5th century ; Sclavoyiic, 
9th century ; and the Maso-Gothic, by Ulfilas, 
about 370, a manuscript copy of which, called the 
Codex Argentcus, is at Upsal. The Psalms were 
translated into Saxon by bishop Aldhelm, about 
706 ; and tbe Gospels by bishop Egbert, about 
721 ; the whole Bible by Bede, in the loth 


MS. paraphrase of the whole Bible at the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, dated by Usher . 1290 

Versions (from the Vulgate) by 'Wickliffe and 
his followers about 1380 

[Part published by Lewis, 1731 ; by Baber, iSio ; 
the whole by Madden and Forshall, 1850.] 

William Tyndale's version of Matthew and Mark 
from the Greek, 1524 ; of the whole New Testa- 
ment 1525 or 1526 

Miles Coverdale's version of the whole Bible . 1535 

[Ordered by Henry VIII. to be laid in the choir 
of every church, "for every man that would 
to look and read therein."] 

T. Matthews' (fictitious name for John Rogers) 
version (partly by Tyndale f and Coverdale) . 

Cranmer's Great Bible (Matthews' revised) 

Geneva version (the first with figured verses) 

1540— 1557 

Archbishop Parker's, called "The Bishop's 
Bible " (eight of the fourteen persons em- 
ployed being bishops) 

King James' Bible, J the present authorised ver- 
sion — Translation began 1604 ; published 

Roman Catholic authorised version : New Tes- 
tament, at Rheims, 1582 ; Old Testament, at 
Douay 1609-10 

Dr. Benjamin Blayney's revised edition . . 1769 

Authorised Jewish English version . . . 1851-61 











Flemish . 

. A.D 


Italian . 





Spanish (Valencian) 

1478 . . . 



Georgian . 


German . 



Russian (parts) 



Portuguese . 



English . . . 



AVelsh . . . 






French . 



Hungarian . 



Turkish . 


1814 . . . 



Bohemian . , . 





Danish . 



Polish . 



Modern Greek 



Dutch . . . 


Virginian Indians . 



Chinese . . . 



The British and Foreign Bible Society continue to make and print translations of the Bible 
in all the dialects of the world. See Polyglot. 

BIBLE DICTIONARIES. The most remarkable are Calmet's "Dictionary of the Bible," 
1722-8 ; Kitto"s "Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature," 1843 ; and Smith's " Dictionary of 
the Bible,"' i860. See Coiuordances.X 

BIBLE SOCIETIES. Among the principal and oldest societies which have made the 
dissemination of the Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive object, are the following : — The 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was formed 1698 ; Society for Propagating the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701 ; Society in Scotland, for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
1 709 ; Societj' for Promoting Religious Knowledge among the Poor, 1 750 ; Naval and 
Military Bible Society, 1780; Sunday School Society, 1785; French Bible Society, 1792; 
British and Foreign Bible Society, 1804 ;§ Hibernian Bible Society, 1806 ; City of London 
Auxiliary Bible Society, 1812. AbuUfrom the Pope against Bible Societies appeared in 1817. 

BIBLIA PAUPERUM (the Bible for the Poor), consisting of engravings illustrating 
scripture histoiy, with texts, carved in wood, a "block book," printed early in the 15th 
century, was compiled by Bonaventura, general of the Franciscans, about 1260. A fac- 
simile was published by J. Russell Smith, in 1859. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, the Science of Books. Gcsncr's " Bibliotheca Universale " appeared 
in 1545 : and De Bure's "Bibliographic Instructive" in 1763. The following works on this 
subject are highly esteemed : Peignot, Manuel, 1823 ; Home, Introduction to the Study of 

* " The Bible of Every Land," ed. i860, published by Messrs. Bagsters, London, is full of information 
respecting ancient and modem versions of the Bible. 

t He was strangled at Antwerp in 1536, at the instigation of Henry VIII. and his council. His last 
words were, " Lord, open the king of England's eyes ! " 14 editions of his Testament had then been 

t An " Index to the Persons, Places, and Subjects occurring in the Holy Scriptures," by B. Vincent, 
editor of the present work, is sold by the Queen's printers. 

§ At the end of 1850 this society had issued 24,247,667 copies of the Bible or parts of it ; in May, 1863, 
the number had risen to 43,044,334. In 1857 they published a catalogue of their library, which contains a 
large number of remarkable editions of the Bible. 

BIB 105 BIL 

Bibliography, 1814 ; Scriptural, Orme, Bibliotlieca Biblica, 1824 ; Darling, CyclopEedia, 
Bibliographica, 1854-8 ; Classical, the works of Fabricius, Clarke, and Dibdin ; English, 
Watts' Bibliotlieca Britannica, 1824 ; Lowndes, Manual, 1834 (new edition by Bohn, 
1857-64) ; French, Querard, 1828-64 ; Brimet's Manuel du Libraire (first published in 18 10) 
is exceedingly valuable : the 5th edition, 1862-5; British Catalogues, by Sampson, Low, 
1835-62.. . 

BIBLIOMANIA (or book-madness) very much prevailed in 181 1, when Dr. Dibdin's 
work with this title was published. See Boccaccio. 

BIDASSOA. The allied army under lord "Wellington, having driven the French from 
Spain, effected the passage of this river, Oct. 8, 18 13, and entered France, 

BIDDENDEN MAIDS. A distribution of bread and cheese to the poor takes place at 
Biddenden, Kent, on Easter Sundays, the expense being defrayed from the rental of twenty 
acres of land, the reputed bequest of the Biddenden maids, two sisters named Chalkhurst, 
who, tradition states, were born joined together by the hips, and shoulders, in iioo, and 
having lived in that state to the age of thirty-four, died within six hours of each other. 
Cakes, bearing a corresponding impression of the figures of two females, are given on Easter 
day to all who ask for them. Hasted deems this tale fabulous, and states that the print on 
the cakes is of modern origin, and that the land was given by two maiden ladies named 
Preston, See Siamese Tivins. 

BIGAMY. The Eomans branded the guilty party with an infamous mark ; with us 
the punishment of this offence, formerly, was death. The first act respecting it was passed 
5 Edw. I. 1276. Viners Statutes. Declared to be felon}^, without benefit of clergy, i James 
I. 1603. Subjected to the same punishments as grand or petit larceny, 35 Geo. III. 1794. 
K'ow punished, according to cii'cumstances, by imprisonment or transportation. 

BIG BETHEL (Virginia, U.S.). On June 10, 1861, the Federals were defeated in an 
attack on some Confederate batteries at this place. 

BILBOA (KE. Spain), was taken by the French in 1795. This place, which had 
been invested by the Carlists under Yillareal, and was in considerable danger, was delivered 
by the defeat of the besiegers by Espartero, assisted by British naval co-operation, Dec. 24, 
1836. Espartero entered Bilboa in triumph next day. 

BILL OF EXCEPTIONS. The right of tendering to a judge upon a trial between parties 
a bill of exceptions to his charge, his definition of the law, or to remedy other errors of the 
court, was provided by the 2nd statute of Westminster, 13 Edw. I. 1284. Such bills are 
tendered to this day, 

BILL OF PAIN'S, &c. See Queen Caroline's Trial. BILL of Eights, &c. See Rights. 

BILLIARDS. The French ascribe their invention to Henrique Devigne, an artist in 
the reign of Charles IX., about 1571. Slate billiard tables were introduced in England 
in 1827. 

BILLINGSGATE, the celebrated market-place for fish in London, is said to have derived 
its name from Belinus Magnus, a British prince, the father of king Lud, 400 B.C., but Stow 
thinks from a former owner. Mortimer. It was the old port of London, and the customs 
werepaidhereunder EthelredlL, A.D. 979. Stoic. Billingsgate was made a perfect free market, 
1669. Chamberlain. Fish by Zaiw^- carriage, as well as seaborne, now arrives daily here. 
In 1849, the market was very greatly extended and improved, and is now well cleaned, 
lighted, and ventilated. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE were invented by the Jews as a means of removing their 
property from nations where they were persecuted, 1160. Anderson. Bills are said to have 
been used in England, 1307. The only legal mode of sending money from England, 4 
Eichard II. 1381. Eegulated, 1698; firfet stamped, 1782; duty advanced, 1797; again, 
June, 1 801 ; and since. It was made capital to counterfeit bills of exchange in 1734. In 
1825, the year of disastrous speculations in bubbles, it was computed that there were 
400 millions of pounds sterling represented by bills of exchange and promissory notes. The 
present amount is not supposed to exceed 50 millions. The many statutes regarding bills of 
exchange were consolidated by act 9 Geo. IV. 1828. An act regulating bills of exchange 
passed 3 Vict. July, 1839. Great alterations were made in the law on the subject by 17 & 
18 Vict. c. 83 (1854), and 18 & 19 Vict. c. 67 (1855). 

BILLS OF MORTALITY for London. These hills were first compiled by order of 
Cromwell, about 1538, 30 Hen. VIII., but in a more formal and Tccognised manner in 




1603, after the great plague of that j^ear. No complete .series of them has been preserved. 
They are now superseded by the weekly returns of the registrar-general. The following 
show the numbers at decennial periods : — 

1780 . 
180Q . 

■ 16,634 
. . 18,980 
• 19.176 


■ 20.507 
. 18,038 
. 23,068 



Christenings. Burials. 

, . 19,930 . . 19,892 

. 26,158 . . 19,348 

. . 27,028 . . 23,524 


1840 , . 30,387 . 
1850. . . 39,973 


■ 26,774 

• • 36,947 



Births. Deaths. 



1840 . 

1849 . 


■ 502,303 . 
• . 543.521 

• 578.159 • 
. . 612,391 

■ 356,634 

• 349.366 

• 440,839 

• 421,097 

1856 . 
1859 . 


■ 657,453 • • 390.506 
. • 655,481 . . 449,656 

. 689,881 . . 441,790 
. . 684,048 . . 422,721 


1861 . . 696,406 . 

1862 . . 712,684 . 

1863 . . 729.399 • 

1864 . . 739,763 . 

■ 436,114 

• 436,573 

• 475,582 

• 495,520 





i8s4 . 
1858 {Fe 

males, 43,400). 

84,684 ; 
86,833 • 
88,620 (Fema 

les, 31,3 

• 73.697 

■ 57,786 
9) 63,882 

1859 (Females, 45 
1862 . 
1864 . 

367). g2,ss6 (Feriiales, 2°, 

■ 97.114 
. . 102,187 • • • 

166) 61,617 
, 66,950 
• 77.723 

BINARY ARITHMETIC, that which counts by twos, for expeditiously ascertaining the 
property of numbers, and constructing tables, was invented by Baron Leibnitz of Leipsic, 
the celebrated statesman, philosojiher, and poet, 1694. Morei-i. 

BINOMIAL ROOT, in Algebra, composed of only two parts connected with the signs 
plxis or minus ; a term first used by Recorda, about 1550, when he published his Algebra. 
The celebrated binomial theorem of Newton was first mentioned in 1688. Hutton. 

BIOGRAPHY (from the Greek bios, life, and gra2)hu, I write), defined as history teaching 
by example. The book of Genesis contains the biography of the patriarchs ; and the Gospels 
that of Christ. Plutarch wrote the Lives of Illustrious Men ; Cornelius Nepos, Lives of 
Military Commanders ; and Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Ctesars (all three in the first 
century after Christ); Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosojihers (about 205). — Boswell's 
Life of Johnson (published in 1 790) is the most remarkable English biography. 

BIOLOGY, a name given to the science of life and living things, by Treviranus, of 
Bremen, in his work on Physiology, published 1802-22.- Biology includes zoology, antlu'o- 
pology, and ethnology, ivhich see. 

BIRCH TREE. The black (Behda nigra), brought from North America, 1736. The 
birch tree known as the Bctula jntmila, introduced into Kew-gardens, England, by Mr. 
James Gordon, from North America, 1762. The tree known as the ^w'c/i is now largely 
cultivated in all the countries of Europe. Hardy's Annals. 

BIRDS were divided by into six orders (1735) ; by Blnmenbach, into eight 
(1805) ; and by Cuvier, into six (1817). The most remarkable works on birds are those 
published by John Gould, F.R.S. ; they are to consist of about 31 folio volumes of coloured 
j)lates, &c. Each set bound will cost about 500Z. 

BIRKENHEAD (Cheshire), a prosperous modern town on the Mersey, immediately 
opposite to Liverpool. The great dock here was projected by Mr. John Laird, constructed 
by Mr. Rendell, and opened in Aug. 1847 by lord Morpeth. In 1861 Birkenhead was made 
a parliamentary borough, and Mv. Laird was elected first representative. Population in 1831, 
200; in 1861, 51,649. See Wrecks, 1852. 

BIRMAN EMPIRE, or Empire of Ava, See Burmese Empire and India. 

BIRMINGHAM, formerly Bromwicham and Bruromegem (Warwickshire), existed in the 
reign of Alfred, 872 ; and belonged to the Bermengehams, at Domesday survey, 1086. 
There were "many smythes " here in the time of Henry VIII. {Leland), but its great 
importance commenced in the reign of William III. It has been st3-led "the toyshop of 
Europe. " 

Grammar scliool founded 1552 

Besieged and taken by prince Eupert . . . 1643 
Button manufactures established . . . 1689 
Soho works established by JIatthew Eoulton 

about 1764 ; and steam engine works about . 1774 
Birmingham canal was originated . . . . 1768 
Kiots against petsons commemorating the 

French revolution .... July 14, 1791 

Theatre destroyed by fire . , Aug. 17, 1792 

More commotions Nov. 1800 

Theatre burnt Jan. 7, 1820 

Political Union, headed by T. Attwood, formed, 

Feb. 1831 

Birmingham made a borough by Refonn Act . 1832 

Town-hall built 1833 

Political Union dissolved itself . . May 10, 1834 




BIRMINGHAM, continued. 

Birmingham and Liverpool railway opened as 

the Grand Junction . . . July 4, 1837 
London and Birmingham railway opened its 

entire length ' . . . . Sept. 17, 1838 
Great Chartist riot ; houses biimt . July 15, 1839 
Town incorporated, and PoUce Act passed . ,, 
Meeting of British Association . Aug. 29, ,, 

Queen's College incorporated 1843 

Com Exchange opened . . . Oct. 27, 1847 
Meeting of British Association (2nd time) 

Sept. 12, 1849 
Queen's College organised . . . Jan. 1853 
Public park opened (ground virtually given by 

Mr. Adderley) Aug. 3, 1856 

New music-haU opened . . . . Sept. 3, ,, 
Another park opened by the duke of Cambridge, 

100,000 persons present (gi-ound given by 
lord Calthorpe) .... June i, 1857 
Death of G. P. Muntz, M.P. . . July 30, ,, 

J. Bright elected M.P., A\]g. 10, 1857, <fc April, 1859 
The Queen and Prince Consort visit Birming- 
ham, Warwick, <&c., for the first time, and 
open Aston park . . . June 14-16, 1858 

The Free Library opened . . . April 4, i85x 
Dreadful factory explosion ; g kUled and many 

injured June 23, 1862 

The people's park purchased by the corpora- 
tion Sept. 1864 

New Exchange solemnly opened . . Jan. 2, 1865 
The bank of Attwoods and Spooner stop pay- 
ment and cause much distress . March 10, ,, 
Meeting of British Association (3rd time) 

Sept. 6, „ 

BIRTHS. The births of children were taxed in England, viz., birth of a duke 30Z., of a 
common person 2S., 7 Will. III. 1695. Taxed again, 1783. The instances of four children 
at a birth are niunerous ; but it is recorded that a woman of Konigsberg had five children at 
a birth, Sept. 3, 1784, and that the wife of Nelson, a journeyman tailor, of Oxford-Market, 
London, had also five children at a birth, in Oct. 1800. See Bills of Mortality and Registers. 
The Queen usually presents a small sum of money to a poor woman giving birth to three or 
more children at one time. 

BISHOP (Greek episco2)os, overseer), a name given by the Athenians to those who had 
the inspection of the city. The Jews and Romans had also lilce officers. The bishop has 
the government of chnrch affairs in a certain district. St, Peter, st3ded the first bishop of 
Rome, was martyred 65. The episcopate became an object of contention about 144. The 
title of pope was anciently assumed by all bishops, and was exclusively claimed by Gregory 
VII. (1073-85). 

BISHOPS IN England* were coeval with the introduction of Christianity. 
London is said to have been founded by Lucius, king of Britain, 1 79. 

The see of 

Bishops made barons 

The Conge d'Mire of the king to choose a bishop 

originated in an arrangement of king John. 
Bishops were elected by the king's Congd 

d'^iire, 25 Hen. VIILt 

Bishops to rank as barons by stat. 31 Hen. 



Seven were deprived for being married . . 1554 
Several suffered martyrdom under queen Mary, 

See Cranmer. iSS5-6 

Bishops excluded from voting in the house of 

peers on tempoi'al conceriis, 16 Charles I. . 1640 
Several committed for protesting against the 

legality of all acts of parliament passed while 

they remained deprived of their votes, Dec. 28, 1641 
The order of archbishops and bishops abolished 

by the parliament . . . . Oct. 9, 1646 
Bishops regain their seats . . . Nov. 1661 
Seven sent to the tower for not reading the 
king's declaration for liberty of conscience 
(intended to bring the Eoman Catholics into 
ecclesiastical and civil power), June 8, and 
tried and acquitted . . June 29-30, 1688 
The archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Sancroft) 
and five bishops (Bath and Wells, Ely, Glou- 
cester, Norwich, and Peterborough) sus- 
pended for refusing to take the oaths to 
WUliam and Mary, 1689 ; deprived . . 1690 


Sees. Founded. 

London (a&jjc.) . (?) 179 
Tork(a6;3C.) . 4th cent. 
Sodor and Man . 4th cent. 
LlandafE . . 5th cent. 
St. David's , . 5th cent. 
Bangor t . . about 516 

St. Asaph . . about 560 
Canterbury . . 598 
London (see above) . 609 
Rochester . . 604 

Sees. Founded. 

East Anglia (after- 
wrfs. Norwich, 1091) 630 

Lindisfame, or Holy , 
Island (afterwards 
Durham, 995) . . 634 

West Saxons (after- 
wards Winchester, 
70s) . . .63s 

Mercia (afterwards 
Lichfield, 669) . . 656 

Sees. Founded 

Hereford . . . 676 
Worcester . . . 680 
Lindisse (afterioards 

Lincoln, 1067) . . „ 
Sherborne (afterioards 

Salisbury, 1042) . 705 
Cornwall (afterwards 

Devonshire, aflw- 

■wrds. Exeter, 1050) 909 
WeUs . . . ,, 

Bath . 
Ely . . 
Gloucester § 
Bristol § . 
Ripon . 



* Bishops have the titles of Lord and Righl Rev. Father in God. The archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, taking place of aU dukes, have the title of Grace. The bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester 
have precedence of all bishops ; the others rank according to seniority of consecration. 

t Retirement of Bishops. In 1856 the bishops of London and Durham retired on annuities. The new 
bishops held their sees subject to future provision. In 1857 the bishop of Norwich also resigned. 

I An order in council, Oct. 1838, directed the sees of Bangor and St. Asaph to be united on the next 
vacancy in either, and Manchester, a new see, to be created thereujwn : this order, as regarded the union 
of the sees, was rescinded 1846. 

§ The sees of Bristol and Gloucester were united, 1856. 




BISHOPS IN Ireland are said to have been consecrated in the 2nd century. 

Prelacies were constituted, find divisions of the 
bishoprics in Ireland made, by cardinal Pa- 
paro, legate from pope Eugene III. . . 1151 

Several prelates deprived by queen Alary . . 1554 
Bp. Atherton suffered death ignominiously . 1640 
Two bishops deprived for not taking the oaths 

to William and Mary 1691 

Church Temporalities Act, for reducing the 
number of bishops in Ireland, 3 <fe 4 Will. IV. 
c. 37, passed Aug. 14,. 1833 

[By this statute, of the four archbishoprics of 
Armagh, Dublin, Tuam, and Cashel, the last 
two were to be abolished on the decease of the 
then archprelates which has since occurred ; and 
it was enacted that eight of the then eighteen 
bishoprics should, as they became void, be 
henceforth united to other sees, which was ac- 
complished in. 1850: so that the Irish Church 
establishment at present consists of two arch- 
bishops and ten bishops.] 


Ossoi-y . . . 402 
Killala . about 434 

Trim . . .432 
Armagh, 445 ; abpc. 11 52 
Emly . . about 448 
Elphin . . . 450 
Ardagh . . . 454 
Clogher . before 493 
Down . . about 499 
Ardfert and Aghadoe 

before 500 

Connor . about 500 
Tuam, .about 501 ; 

Kildare . 
Meath . 
Achonry . 
Louth . 

. 1152 

about 510 

before 519 

. . 520 

• S30 

- • 534 

. • 548 

• • 558 

about 570 

Ferns . . 
Cork . 
Glandalagh . 

LeighUn . 
Mayo . 
Raphoe . 




















Cashel, before goi ; 

jabpc. . . .1152 
Killaloe, abpc. . . loig^ 
Waterford . . . 1096 
Limerick . before 1106 
Kihnore . . . 1136 
Dublin, of-pc. . .1152 
Kilfenora . before 1254 
(For the new combina- 
tions, see the sepa- 
rate articles.) 

BISHOPS IN Scotland were constituted in the 4th century. Episcopacy was abolished 
in 1638 ; but restored by Charles II. 1661, which caused an insurrection. Episcopacy was 
again abolished in Scotland in 1689.* 

Orkney . Uncertain. 
Isles . . . 360 
Galloway . before 500 
St. Andrew's, 800 ; 

abpc. . . . 1470 
Glasgow, about 560 ; 

abpc. . . . 1488 
Caithness . about 1066 


Brechin . 

before 1155 

Moray . 

. . 1115 

Ross . 

. 1124 


. . 1125 

Dunkeld . 

. 1 130 

Dunblane . 

before 11 53 

ArgyU . 

. 1200 


• • 1633 


Edinbiu-gh . . 1720 
Aberdeen and the 

Isles . . . 1721 

Moray (and Ross) . 1727 



Glasgow (and Gallo- 
way) . . . „ 

St. Andrew's (Dun- 
keld, Dunblane, 

&C.) . . . . 1733 

Ai-gyll and the Isles 1847 

BISHOPS, Colonial. The first was Samuel Seabury, conseofated of Connecticut 
by four nonjuring prelates, at Aberdeen, in Scotland, Nov. 14, 1784. The bishops of New 
York and Pennsylvania were consecrated in London, by the archbishop of Canterbury, Feb. 
4, 1787, and the bishop of A''irgiuia in 1790. The first Roman Catholic bishop of the United 
States was Dr. Carroll of Maryland, in 17S9. By 15 & 16 Vict. c. 52, and 16 & 17 Vict. 
0. 49, the colonial bishops may perform all episcopal functions in the United Kingdom, 
but have no jurisdiction. 


Nova Scotia 

• ^787 


• 1793 

Calcutta . 

. 1814 

Barbadoes . 

. 1824 

Jamaica . 

• >. 


. 1S35 


. 1836 

Montreal . 

. •> 

Bombay . 

• 1837 

NewfoJindland . 

. 1839 

Toronto .. 

• .1 

Gibraltar .. 

. 1841 

Now Zealand . 
Antigua . , . 
Guiana , 
Huron. . . . 

Columbo . . . 
Adelaide . . . 
Cajie Town 
Newcastle . . - 
Sydney (formerly 


Australia) . 
Rupert's Land 
Victoria . 
Sierra Leone 
Natal . 
Christchurch . 
Perth . 




Brisbane . 
British Columbia 
Goulbum . . „ 
St. Helena . . . „ 
Waiapu . . . ,, 
Melanesian Lslands . i860 
King.ston, Canada . 1861 
Ontario, Canada . ,, 
Nas.sau, Bahamas 
Central Africa . 
Grafton, Australia 
Niger territory 




BIS5IUTH was recognised as a distinct metal by Agricola, in 1529. It is very fusible 
and bi-ittle, and of a yeUowish white colour. 

BISSEXTILE. See Calendar and Zea2} Year. 

* Bishop Rose connected the established episcopal church of Scotland with that foiin of it which is now 
merely tolerated, he having been bishop of Edtnbiu-gh fi-om 1687 till 1720, when, on his death, Dr. FuUarton 
became the first jxjst-revolution bishop of that see. Fife (now St. Andrew's, so called m 1844) now unites 
the bishopric of Dunkeld (re-instituted in 1727) and that of Dunblane (re-instituted in 1731). Ross (of 
uncertain d.ate) was united to Moray (re-instituted in 1727) in 1838. Argyll and the Isles never existed 
independently until 1847, having been conjoined to Moray and Ross, or to Ross alone, previously to that 
year. Galloway has been added to the see of Glasgow. 




BITHYNIA, a province in Asia Minor, previously called Behricia, is said to have been 
invaded by the Thracians under Bithynus, son of Jupiter, -who gave it the name of Bithynia. 
It was subject successively to the Assyrians, Lydians, Persians, and Macedonians. Most of 
the cities were built by Grecian colonists. 

Dydalsus revolted and reigned about . B.C. 430 — ^440 

Botyras, his son, succeeds 378 

Bas, or Bias, son of Botyras, 376 ; repulses the 

Greeks 328 

Zipoetas, son of Bias, resists Lysimachus . . 326 
He dies, leaving four sons, of whom the eldest, 
Nicomedes I., succeeds (he invites the Gauls 

into Asia) 278 

He rebuilds Astacus, and names it Nicomedia . 264 
Zielas, son of Nicomedes, reigns . . . . 243 
Intending to massacre the chiefs of the Gauls 
at a feast, Zielas is detected in his design, 
and is himself put to death, and his son 
Prusias I. made king, about .... 
Prusias defeats the Gauls, and takes cities . . 
Prusias alUes with Philip of Macedon, and 
marries Apamea, his daughter 



He receives and employs Hannibal, then a 


Who poisons himself to escape betrayal to the 

Eomans i 

Prusias II. succeeds i 

Nicomedes II. kills his father Prusias and 


Nicomedes III., sumamed PhUopator 
Deposed by Mithridates, king of Pontus . . 

Restored by the Romans 

Bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans . . 
Pliny the younger, pro-consul . . . a.d. 
The Oghusian Tartars settle in Bithynia . . 
The Othman Turks take Prusa, the capital (and 

make it the seat of their empire till they 

possess Constantinople) . . . . . 1327 




BITONTO (ISTaples). Here Montemar and the Spaniards defeated the Germans, on May 
26, 1 730, and eventually acquii-ed the kingdoua of the Two SicUies for Don Carlos. 

BLACK ASSIZES. See under Oxford. 

BLACK BOOK* (Libir Niger), a book kept in the exchequer, which received the orders 
of that court. It was'published by Hearn in 1 728. 

BLACKBURN', Lancashire, so called in Domesday-book. The manufacture of a cloth 
called Blackburn cheque, carried on in 1650, was superseded by Blackburn greys. In 1767, 
James Hargreaves, of this town, invented the spinning-jenny, for which he was eventually 
expelled from the county. About 1810 or 1812, the townspeople availed themselves of his 
discoveries, and engaged largely in the cotton manufacture, now their staple trade. 


See Plagues, 1340. 
See Dominican. 

BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE, London. The first stone was laid Oct. 31, 1760, and it was 
completed by Mylne, in 1770. It was the first work of the kind executed in England, in 
which arches, approaching to the form of an ellipsis, were substituted for semicircles. It was 
repaired in 1834, and in 1837-1840. Since 1850 the bridge gradually sank. The old bridge 
was pulled down : and a new temporary one opened for use in 1864. The foiindation stone 
of the new bridge (to be erected according to a design by Mr. J. Cubitt) was laid by the lord 
mayor, Hale, July 20, 1865. The first railway train (London, Chatham, and Dover) entered 
the city of London over the new railway bridge, Blackfriars, Oct. 6, 1864. 

BLACKHEATH, near London. Here Wat Tyler and his followers assembled June, 
1381 ; and here also Jack Cade and his 20,000 Kentish men encamped, June i, 1450. See 
Tyler and Cade. Battle of Blackheath, in which the Cornish rebels were defeated and 
Flannock's insurrection quelled, June 22, 1497. The cavern, on the ascent to Blackheath, 
the retreat of Cade, and the haunt of banditti in the time of Cromwell, was re-discovered 
in 1780. 

BLACK-HOLE. See Calcutta. 

BLACK LEAD. See Graphite. 

BLACK LETTER, employed in the first printed books in the middle of the 15 th 
century. The first printing types were Gothic ; but they were modified into the present 
Roman type about 1469 ; Pliny's Natural History being then printed in the new characters. 

BIjACK-MAIL, a compulsory payment made in parts of Scotland by the lowlanders 
to the highlanders, for the protection of their cattle, existed till within a few months 
of the outbreak of the rebellion, 1745. It rendered agricirltural improvement almost 

* A book was kept in the English monasteries, wherein details of the scandalous enoi-mitie%. practised 
in religious houses were entered for the inspection of visitors, under Henry VIII. 1535, in order to blacken 
them and hasten their dissolution : hence possibly the phrase, " I'll set you down in the black book." 

BLA 110 BLE 

BLACK MONDAY, Easter Monday, April 6, 1351, "when the hailstones are said to 
have killed both men and horses, in the army of onr king Edward III. in France." Bailey. 
"This was a memorable Easter Monday, which in the 34th of Edward III. happened to he 
full dark of mist and hail, and so cold that many men died on their horses' hacks with the 
cold," 1351. Stow. In Ireland, Black Monday Avas the day on which a number of the 
English were slaughtered at a village near Dublin, in 1209. 

BLACK KOD has a gold lion at the top, and is carried by the usher of the Order of the 
Knights of the Garter (instituted 1349), instead of the mace. He also keeps the door when 
a chapter of the order is sitting, and during the sessions of parliament attends the house of 
lords and acts as their messenger to the commons. 

BLACK SEA, the Euxine (Pontus Euxinus of the Ancients), a large internal sea 
between the S. W. provinces of Eussia and Asia INIinor, connected with the sea of Azoff by 
the straits of Yenikale, and with the sea of Marmora b}'' the channel of Constantinople. 
This sea -was much frequented by the Greeks and Italians, till it was closed to all nations by 
the Turks after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Russians obtained admission by the 
treaty of Kainardji, in 1774. In 1779 it was partially opened to British and other traders, 
since which time the Russians gradually obtained the preponderance. It was entered by the 
British and French fleets, Jan. 3, 1854, at the requisition of the Porte, after the destruction 
of the Turkish fleet at Sinope by the Russians, Nov. 30, 1853. A dreadful storm in this 
sea raged from Nov. 13 to 16, 1854, and caused gi-eat loss of life and shipping, and valuable 
stores for the allied armies. See Russo-TurJash War. By the treaty of 1856 the Black Sea 
was opened to the commerce of all nations. 

BLACKWALL (London). The site of fine commercial docks and warehouses. See 
Docks. The Blackwall railway was opened to the public, July 4, 1840'; the eastern terminus 
being at Blackwall wharf, and the western in Fenchurch-street. 

BLACK WATCH, armed companies of the loj'al clans (Campbells, Mouros, &c.) 
employed to watch the Highlands from about 1725 to 1739, when they were formed into the 
celebrated 42ud regiment, which was formally enrolled " The Royal Highland Black Watch," 
in 1861. Their removal probably facilitated the outbreak in 1745. They wore dark tartans, 
and hence were called Black Watch. 

BLACKWATER, Battle of, in Ireland, Aug. 14, 1598, when the Irish chief- O'Neal 
defeated the English under Sir Henry Bagnall. Pope Clement Vlll. sent O'Neal a conse- 
crated plume, and granted to his followers the same indulgence as to cmisaders. 

BLADENSBURG. See Washington, 1814. 
BLANK VERSE, See Verse. 

BLANKETEERS. A number of operatives who on March 30, 1817, met in St. Peter's 
field, near Manchester, many of them having blankets, I'ugs, or great coats rolled up and 
fastened to their backs. This was termed the Blanket meeting. They proceeded to march 
towards London, but were dispersed by the magistracy. It is stated that their object was 
to comuience a general insurrection. See Derby. Eventually the ringleaders had an inter- 
view with the cabinet ministers, and a better understanding between the working classes and 
the government ensued. 

BLANKETS are said to have been first made at Bristol by T. Blanket, about 1705. 

BLASPHEMY was punished with death by the law of Moses (Lev. xxiv. 149 1 B.C.) ; 
and by the code of Justinian, a.d. 529. It is punishable by the civil and canon law of 
England, regulated by 60 Geo. III. c. 8 (1819). In Scotland the blasphemer's tongue was 
cut out ; he was punished with line and imprisonment by law, 1696-7. Daniel Isaac Eaton 
•was tried and convicted in London of blasphemy, IMarch 6, 1812. Robert Taylor, a protestant 
clergj'man, was tried twice for the same crime. He was sentenced to two years' imprison- 
ment, and largely fined, July, 1831. In Dec. 1840, two publishers of blasphemous writings 
were convicted. 

BLAZONRY. Bearing coats-of-arms was introduced and became hereditary in France 
and England about 1192, owing to the knights painting their banners with difl'erent figures, 
thereby to distinguish them in the crusades. Dugclale. 

BLEACHING was known in Egypt, SjT-ia, India, and Gaul. Pliny. An improved 
chemical system was adopted by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and Scotland in 
1768. J'here are large bleach-fields in Lancashire, Fife, Forfar, and Renfrew, and in the 
vale of the Leven, in Dumbarton. The application of the gas chlorine to bleaching is due 
to BerthoUet about 1785. Its combination with lime (as chloride of lime) was devised by 




Mr. Tennant, of Glasgow, who took out a patent for the process in 1798, and by his firm it 
is stUl extensively manufactured. In 1822 Dr. Ure published an elaborate series of experi- 
ments on this substance. In i860 bleaching and dyeing works were placed under the regu- 
lations of the Factories' Act. 

BLENHEIM, or Blindheim, in Bavaria, the site of a battle fought Aug. 2 (new style, 13) > 
1 704, between the English and confederates, commanded by the duke of Marlborough, and 
the French and Bavarians, under marshal Tallard and the elector of Bavaria. The latter 
were defeated with the loss of 27,000 killed, and 13,000 prisoners (including Tallard). 
Bavaria became the prize of the conquerors. The British nation gave Marlborough the 
honour of Woodstock and hundred of Wotton, and erected for him the house of Blenheim.* 

BLIND. The first public school for the blind Avas established by Valentine Haiiy, at 
Paris, in 1784, The first in England was at Liverpool, in 1791 ; in Scotland, in Edinburgh, 
in 1792 ; and the first in London in 1799. Printing in raised or embossed characters for the 
use of the blind was begun at Paris by Haiiy in 1786. The whole Bible was printed at 
Glasgow in raised Eoman characters about 1848. A sixpenny magazine for the blind, edited 
by the rev. W. Taylor, F.E.S., so eminent for his exertions on behalf of these sufferers, was 
published in 1855-6. There is hardly any department of human knowledge in which blind 
persons have not obtained distinction. + Laura Bridgman, born in 1829, became dumb and 
blind two years after : she was so well taught by Dr. Howe, of Boston, U.S., as to become 
an able instructor of blind and dumb persons. By the census of 1851, there were in Great 
Britain, 21,487 blind persons, 11,273 males ; 10,214 females : about one blind in 975. 

BLINDING, by consuming the eyeballs with lime or scalding vinegar, was a punishment 
inflicted anciently on adulterers, perjurers, and thieves. In the middle ages the penalty 
was frequently changed from total blindness to a diminution of sight. A whole army was 
deprived of their eyes, by Basil, in the i ith century. See Bulgarians. Several of the 
eastern emperors had their eyes torn from their heads. 

BLISTEES, used by Hippocrates (460-357 B.C.), made, it is said, of cantharides, tvJiich see. 

BLOCK BOOKS. See Printing. 

BLOCKADE is the closing an enemy's ports to all commerce ; a practice introduced by 
the Dutch about 1584. The principle recognised by the European powers is that every 
blockade, in order to be binding, must be effective. The Elbe was blockaded by Great 
Britain, 1803 ; the Baltic, by Denmai'k, 1848-49 and 1864 ; the gulf of Finland, by the 
AUies, 1854 ; and the ports of the Southern States of North America by president Lincoln, 
April 19, 1 86 1. See Orders in Council, and Berlin. 

BLOCKS employed in the rigging of ships were much improved in their construction by 
"Walter Taylor, about 1781. In 1801, Mark I. Brunei invented a mode of making blocks 
which was put into operation in 1808, and in 18 15 was said to have saved the country 
2o,oooZ. a year. 

BLOOD. The circulation of the blood through the lungs was 'known to Michael 
Servetus, a Spanish physician, in 1553. Csesalpimis published an account of the general 
circulation, of which he had some confused ideas, improved afterwards by experiments, 1569. 
Paul of Yenice, or Father Paolo (real name Peter Sarpi), discovered the valves which serve for 
the circulation ; but the honour of the positive discovery of the circulation belongs to 
William Harvey, between 1619 and 1628. Freincl. 

Eating Blood was prohibited, to Noah, Gen. ix., to 
the Jew9, lev. xvii., (fee, and to the Geutile con- 
verts by the apostles at an assembly at Jerusalem, 
A.D. 52, Acts XV. 

Blood- Drinking was anciently tried to give vigour 
to the system. Louis XI. , iu his last illuess, drank 
the warm blood of infants, in the vain hope of 
restoring his decayed strength, 1483. HenaxM. 

In the 15th century an opinion prevailed that the 
dechning vigour of the aged might be rex)aired by 

TRANSFUSING into their veins the blood of young 
persons. It was countenanced in Krance by the 
physicians about 1668, and prevailed for many 
years, till the most fatal effects having ensued, it 
was suppressed by an edict. It was attempted 
again in France in 1797, and more recently there, 
in a few cases, with success ; and in England (but 
the instances are rare) since 1823. Med. Journ. 
"An Enghsh physician (Louver, or Lower) prac- 
tised in this way; he died in 1691." Freind. 

* On Feb. 5, 1861, a fire broke out at this place, which destroyed the " Titian Gallery " and the 
pictures ; the latter, a present from Victor Amadous, king of Sardinia, to John, the great duke of 

t James Holman, the " blind traveller " (bom 17S6, died 1857), visited almost every place of note in the 
world. His travels were published in 1825. In April, 1858, a blind clergyman, rev. J. Sparrow, was 
elected chaplain to the Mercers' Company, London, and read the service, <fec., from embossed books. 
Viscount Cvanbourne (bhnd) was the avithor of many interesting historical essays. He died in June, 
1865. On July 13, 1865, Henry Fawcett, the blind professor of pohtical economy at Cambridge, was elected 
M.P. for Brighton. 

BLO 112 BOD 

BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's household, 
Tvith his confederates, seized the duke of Ormond in his coach, and had got him to Tyhum, 
intending to hang him, when he was rescued by his friends, Dec. 4, 1670. Blood after\vards, 
in the disguise of a clergyman, attempted to steal the regal crown from the Jewel-office in 
the Tower, May 9, 1671 ; yet, notwithstanding these and other oifences, he was not only 
pardoned, but had a pension of 500Z. per annum settled on him by Charles II., 1671. He 
died in 1680, in prison, for a libel on the duke of Buckingham. 

"BLOODY ASSIZES," held by Jeffreys in the west of England, in Aug. 1685, after the 
defeat of the duke of Monmouth in the battle of Sedgmore. Upward of 300 persons were 
executed after short trials ; very many were whipped, imprisoned, and fined ; and nearly 
JOOO were sent as slaves to the American plantations. 

BLOOMER COSTUME. See a note to article Dress. 

BLOOMSBURY GANG, a cant term applied to an^ influential political party in the 
Teign of George III., in consequence of the then duke of Bedford, the chief, being the 
owner of Bloomsbury square, &c. The marquess of Stafford, the last survivor, died Oct. 
26, 1803. 

BLOREHEATH (Staffordshire), Battle of, September 23, 1459, in which the earl of 
Salisbury and the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians, whose leader, lord Audley, was slain 
•with many Cheshire gentlemen. A cross commemorates this conflict. 

BLOWING-MACHINES, the large cylinders, used in blowing-machines, were erected 
hy Mr. Smeaton at the Carron iron works, 1760. One equal to the supply of air for forty 
forge fires was erected at the king's dock-yard, Woolwich. The hot-air blast, a most 
important improvement, was invented by Mr. James B. Neilson, of Glasgow, and patented 
in 1828. He died Jan. 18, 1865. It causes great economy of fuel. 

BLOW-PIPE. The origin is unknown. An Egyptian using a blow-pipe is among the 
paintings on the tombs at Thebes. It was employed in mineralogy, by Andrew Von Swab, a 
Swede, about 1733, and improved by AVoUaston and others. In 1802, professor Robert Hare, 
of Philadelphia, increased the action of the blow-pipe by the apiDlication of oxygen and 
hj'drogen. By the agency of Newman's improved blow-pipes, in 1816, Dr. E. D. Clarke 
fused the earths, alkalies, inetals, &c. The best work on the blow-pipe is by Plattner and 
Muspratt, 1854. 

BLUE was the favourite colour of the Scotch covenanters in the i6th centur}'. Blue 
and orange or yellow, became the wliig colours after the revolution in 1688 ; and were 
adopted on the cover of the whig periodical, the "Edinburgh Review," first published in 
1802. The Prussian blue dye was discovered by Diesbach, at Berlin, in 1710. Fine blues 
are now obtained from coal-tar, 1864. See Aniline. Blue-coat Schools, so called in 
reference to the costume of the children. The Blue-coat school in Newgate-street, London, 
was instituted by Edward VI. in 1552. See Christ's Hosintal. Blue-stocking, a term 
•applied to literary ladies, was originally conferred on a society comprising both sexes 
(1760, et seq.). Benjamin Stillingfleet, the naturalist, an active member, wore blue worsted 
stockings ; hence the name. The beautiful Mrs. Jerningham is said to have worn blue 
•stockings at the conversaziones of lady Montagu. 

BOARD OF ADMIRALTY, Control, Gkeen-Cloth, Health, Trade, &c. See 
under Admiralty, &c. 

BOATS. Flat-bottomed boats, made in England in the reign of William I. ; again 
"brought into use by Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690. See Life-Boat. A mode of 
building boats by the help of the steam-engine was invented by Mr. Nathan Thompson 
of New York in i860, and premises were erected for its application at Bow, near London, 
in f86i. 

BOCCACCIO'S DECAMERONE, a collection of a hundred stories or novels (many 
very immoral), severely satirising the clergy, feigned to have been related in ten days, during 
the plague of Florence in 1348. Boccaccio lived 13 13 — 75. A copy of the first edition 
(that of Valdarfer, in 1471) was knocked down at the duke of Roxburgh's sale, to the duke 
of Marlborough, for 2260^., June 17, 1812. This identical copy was afterwards sold by 
public auction, for 875 guineas, June 5, 1819, 

BODLEIAN LIBRARY, Oxford, founded in 1598, and opened in 1602, by sir Thos. 
J3odley (died, 1612). It is open to the public, and claims a copy of all works published in 
this country. For rare works and JISS. it is said to be second only to the Vatican. 




BQiOTIA, ta division of Greece, north of Attica, known successireJy as Aonia, Messapia, 
Hyantis, Ogygia, Cadmeis, and Boeotia. Thebes, the capital, was celebrated for its exploits 
and misfortunes of its kings and heroes. The term Boeotian was used by the Athenians as a 
synonym for dulness ; but unjustly, — since Pindar, Hesiod, Plutarch, Democritus, Epami- 
nondas, and Corinna, were Boeotians. The earlv dates are doubtful. See Thebes. 

Arrival of Cadmus, founder of Oadmea {Hales, 
1494; Clinton, 1313) .... B.C. 1493 

Reign of Polydore 1459 

Labdachus ascends the throne .... 1430 

Amphion and Zethus besiege Thebes, and de- 
throne Laius 13S8 

CEdipus, not knowing his father Laius, kills 
him in an affray, confirming the oracle fore- 
telling his death by the hands of his son 

CEdipus resolves the Sphinx's enigmas . . 

War of the Seven Captains .... 

Thebe.i besieged and taken 

Tber.sander reigns 1198 ; slain .... 

The Thebans abolish royalty (ages of obscurity 
follow) about 1 1 20 

The Thebans fight with the Persians against 
the Greeks at Platasa 479 


Battle of Coronea, in which the Thebans defeat 
the Athenians b.c. 447 

The Thebans, under Epaniinondas and Pelopi- 
das, enrol their Sacred Band, and join Athens 
against Sparta 377 

Epaminondas defeats the Lacedaimonians at 
Leuctra, and restores Thebes to independence 371 

Pelopidas kiUed at the battle of Cynoscephalae . 364 

Epaminondas gains the victory of Mantiuea, 
but is slain 362 

Philip, king of Maoedon, defe'ats the Thebans 

and Athenians near Chseronea " . . . 338 

Alexander destroys Thebes, but" spares the 
house of Pindar 335 

Boeotia henceforth partook of the fortunes of 
Greece ; and was conquered by the Turks 
under Mahomet II. .... a.d. 1456 

BOGS, probably the remains of forests, covered with peat and loose soil. An act for 
the drainage of Irish bogs, passed March, 1830. The bog-land of Ireland has been estimated 
at 3,000,000 acres ; that of Scotland at upwards of 2,000,000 ; and that of England at near 
1,000,000 of acres. In Jan. 1849, Mr. Rees Reece took out a patent for certain valuable 
products from Irish peat. Candles and various other articles produced from peat have been 
since sold in London. 

BOHEMIA, formerly the Hercynian Forest (Boiemum, Tacihis), derives its name from. 
the Boii, a Celtic tribe. It was governed by dukes, till Ottocar assumed the title of king, 
1 198. The kings at first held their territory from the empire, but at length threw off 
the yoke : and the crown was elective till it came to the house of Austria, in which it is 
now hereditary. Prague, the capital, is famous for sieges and battles. Population in 1857, 
4,705,525. See Prague. 

The Slavonians seize Bohemia about . . 550 

City of Prague founded 795 

Introduction of Christianity .... 894 
Bohemia conquered by the emperor Henry 
III., who spreads devastation through the 

country 1041 

Ottocar (or Premislas) I., first king of Bohemia 1198 
Ottocar II., rules over Austria, and obtains 

Styria, &c., 1253; refuses the imperial crown 1272 
Ottocar vanquished by the emperor Budolph, 
and deprived of Austria, Styria, and Car- 
niola, 1277 ; killed at Marchfeld . . . 1278 
King John (blind), slain at the battle of Crecy 1346 
John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two of the 
first Reformers, are burnt for heresy, which 
occasions an insurrection . . 141S, 1416 

Ziska, leader of the Hussites, takes Prague, 

1419 ; dies of the plague 1424 

Albert, duke of Austria, naarries the daughter 
of the late emperor and king, and receives 
the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary . . 1437 
The succession infringed by Ladislas, son of 

the king of Poland, and George Podiebrad, a 

Protestant chief 1440-145 8 

Ladislas, king of Poland, elected king of Bo- 
hemia, on the death of Podiebrad . . . 1471 
The emperor Ferdinand I. marries Anne, sister 

of Louis the late king, and obtains the crown 15:27 
The emperor Ferdinand II., oppressing the 
Protestants, is deposed, and Frederic the 
elector-palatine, elected king . Sept. 5, 1619 
Frederic, totally defeated at Prague, flies to 

Holland Nov. g, 1620 

Bohemia secured to Austria by treaty . . 1648 
Silesia and Glatz c eded to Prussia . . . 1742 
Prague taken by the Prussians .... 1744 
The Prussians defeat the Austrians at Prague 

May 6, 1757 

Revolt of the peasantry 1775 

Edict of Toleration promulgated . . .1781 
The French occupy Prague . . . . . 1806 
Insurrection at Prague, June 12 ; submission, 
state of siege raised . . . . July 20, 1848 

119S. Premislas I., or Ottocar I. 

1230. Wenceslas III. 

1253. Premislas II., or Ottocar II. 

1278. Wenceslas IV., king of Poland. 

1305. Wenceslas V. 

1306. Rudolph of Austria. 

1307. Henry of Carinthia. 

1310. John of Luxemburg (killed at Crecy). 

1346. Charles I., emperor (1347). 

1378. Wenceslas VI., emperor. 

1419. Sigismund I., emperor. 

1437. Albert of Austria, emperor. 

1440. Ladislas V. 

1458. George von Podiebrad. 

1471. Ladislas VI., king of Hungary (in 1490). 

1 5 16. Louis king of Hungary (killed at Mohatz). 

1 526. Bohemia united to Austria under Ferdinand I. , 
elected king. 

BOHEMIAN BRETHREN, a body of Christians in Bohemia, appear to have separated 
from the Calixtines {which see), a branch of the Hussites in 1467. Dupin says "They 





rejected the sacrament of the church, were governed l)y simple laics, and held the scriptures 
for their only rule of faith. They presented a confession of faith to king Ladislas in 1504 to 
justify themselves from errors laid to their charge." They appear to have had communica- 
tion with the Waldenses, but were distinct from them. Luther, in 1533, testifies to their 
purity of doctrine, and Melanchthon commends their severe discipline. They were doubt- 
less dispersed during the religious wars of Germany in the 1 7th century. 

BOII, a Celtic people of N. Italy, who emigi-ated into Italy, and were defeated at the 
Yadimonian lake, 283 B.C. They were finally subdued by Scipio Nasica, 191 B.C. 

BOILING OF Liquids. Dr. Hooke, about 1683, ascertained that liquids were not 
increased in heat after they had once begun to boil, and that a fierce fire only made them 
boil more rapidly. The following boiling points have been stated : — 

Ether . 

. 94° Fahr. 

Nitric acid 

. .187° Fahr. 

Oil of turpentine . 

.312' Fahi- 

Alcohol . 

• • 173 ;. 

Sulphuric acid . 

. 600 ,, 

Sulphur . 

• 822 ,, 

Water . 

. . 212 ,, 


• • 554 » 


. 662 „ 

BOILING TO Death, made a capital punishment in England, by .statute 22 Henry VIII., 
1531. This act was occasioned by seventeen persons having been poisoned by John Eoose, 
the bishop of Kochester's cook, two of whom died. Margaret Davie, a young woman, suffered 
in the same manner for a similar crime, in 1542. 

BOIS-LE-DUC, Dutch Brabant, the site of a battle between the British and the French 
republican army, in which the British were defeated, and forced to abandon their position 
and retreat to Schyndel, Sept. 14, 1794. This place was captured by the French, Oct. 10 
following ; it surrendered to the Prussian army, under Bulow, in Jan. 18 14. 

BOKHAEA, the ancient Sogdiana, after successively fonning part of the empires of 
Persia, of Alexander, and of Bactriana, was conquered by the Turks in the 6th century, by 
the Chinese in the 7th, and by the Arabs about 705. After various changes of masters it 
Avas subdued by the Uzbek Tartars, its present possessors, in 1505. The British Envoys, 
colonel Stoddart and captain ConoUy, were murdered at Bokhara, the capital, by the khan, 
in 1843. 

BOLIVIA, a republic in South America, foiTaerly part of Peni. Population in 1858, 

The insurrection of the ill-\ised Indians, headed 

by Tupac Amaru Andres, took place here, 1780-2 
The country declared its indei^endence, Aug. 6, 1824 
Took the name of Bolivia, in honour of general 

Bolivar Aug. 11, 1825 

First congress met .... May 25, 1826 

Slavery aboUshed 1836 

General Sucre governed ably . . . 1826-8 

BOLLANDISTS. See Acta Sanctorum. 

Santa Cruz ruled 1828-34 

Free-trade proclaimed 1853 

General Cordova, jjresident .... 1855-7 
Succeeded by the dictator Jos^ Maria Linares, 

March 31, 1859 
George Cordova, constitutional president . . i860 
Succeeded by Jos^ M. de Acha. . May, i86t 

BOLOGNA, central Italy, the ancient Bononia, a city distinguished for its architecture. 

University founded by Theodositis , 
Bologna joins the Lombard league . . . 
Pope Julius II. takes Bologna ; enters in 

triumph Nov. 11, 

It becomes part of the States of the Chm-ch 
In the church of St. Petronius, remarkable for 
its pavement, Cassini drev? his meridian hne 
(over one drawn by Father Ignatius Dante 

in 1575) 

Bologna was taken by the French, 1796; by 
the Austrians, 1799; again by the French, 

1 167 



after the battle of Marengo, in iSoo ; and re- 
stored to the pope in 

A revolt suppressed by Austrian interference . 

The Austrians evacuate Bologna : and cardmal 
Fei-retti departs : the citizens rise and form 
a provisional government . . June 12, 

Which decrees that all piiblic acts shall be 
headed "Under the reign of king Victor 
Emmanuel," &c Oct. i. 

He enters Bologna as Sovereign , May 2, 

183 1 


BOIMARSUND, a strong fortress on one of the Aland isles in the Baltic sea, taken by 
sir Charles Napier, commander of the Baltic expedition, aided by the French military con- 
tingent under general Baragtiay d'Hilliers, Aug. 16, 1854. The governor Bodisco, and the 
garrison, about 2000 men, became prisoners. The fortifications were destroyed. 

BOMBAY, the most westerly and smallest of our Indian presidencies, was visited by the 
Portuguese in 1509, and acquired by them in about 1530. It was given (with Tangier in 
Africa, and 300,000?. in money) to Charles II. as the marriage portion of the infanta, 
Catherine of Portugal, 1661. In 1668, it was granted to the East India Companj'-, who had 




long desired it, "in free and common socage," as of the manor of East Greenwich, at an 
annual rent of lo?. Confirmed by William III. 1689. The two principal castes at Bombay 
are the Parsees (descendants of tlie ancient Persian fire-worshippers) and the Borahs (sprun" 
from early converts to Islamism). They are both remarkable for commercial activity. '^ 

First British factory established at Ahmed- 

Mr. Gyfford, deputy-governor, 100 soldiers, and 

other English, perish through the chmate, 

Oct. 1675— Feb. 

Captain Keigwin usurps the government . i6i 

Bombay made chief over the company's settle- 
ments . . ' 

The whole island, except the fort, seized and 
held for a time by the mogul's admiral . 

Bombay becomes a distinct presidency . . 

Additions to the Bombay territory : — Bancoot 
river, 1756 ; island of Salsette 

Bishopric established 

Population of the presidency, 12,034,483 . 





The benevolent sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, a 
Parsee (who erected several hospitals, &c.) 
dies April 15, 

His son, sir Cursetjee, visits England 

Rioting against the income-tax suppressed 
Nov. ii Dec. 

Sir Henry Bartle Frere appointed governor 


Greatly increased prosperity through the cot- 
ton trade, leads to immense speculation, Nov. 

Reported failure of Mr. Byramjee Cama, a Par- 
see, for 3,300,000?. ; other failures, and great 
depression ; the projected international ex- 
hibition in 1:867 abandoned . . . May, 

Recovering from commercial crisis . Aug. 


BOMBS (iron shells filled with, gunpowder), said to have been invented at Venlo, in 
1495, and used by the Turks at the siege of Khodes in 1522. They came into general use 
in 1634, having been previously used only by the Dutch and Spaniards. Bomb- vessels were 
invented in France in 1681. Voltaire. The shrapnel shell is a bomb filled with balls, and 
a lighted fuse to make it explode before it reaches the enemy ; a thirteen-inch bomb-shell 
Aveighs 198 lbs. 

BOIfAPARTE FAMILY, &c. See France, I'jgs, and note. 

BONDAGE, or Villanage. See Yillanage. 

BONE-SETTING cannot be said to have been practised scientifically iintil 1620. Bell. 

BONES. The art of softening bones was discovered about 1688, and they were used in 
the cutlery manufacture, &c., immediately afterwards. The declared value of the bones of 
-cattle and of other animals, and of fish (exclusive of whale-fins) imported into the United 
Kingdom from Russia, Prussia, Holland, Denmark, &c., amounts annually to more than 
300,000^. (in 1851 about 32,000 tons). Bone-dust has been extensively employed in manure 
since the publication of Liebig's researches in 1840. 

BONHOMMES, hermits of simple and gentle lives, appeared in France about 1257 ; in 
England about 1283. The prior of the order was called le bon Jiotnme, by Louis YI. 

BONN, a town on the Rhine (the Roman Bonna), was in the. electorate of Cologne. It 
has been frequently besieged, and was assigned to Prussia in 1814. The Prince Consort of 
England was a student at the university, founded in 181 8. 

BOOK OF SPORTS. See Sjjorts. 

BOOKS (Anglo-Saxon, boc; Geiman, huch). Books were originally made of boards, or 
the inner bark of trees : afterwards of skins and parchment. Papyrus, an indigenous plant, 
was adopted in Egypt. Books with leaves of vellum were invented by Attains, king of 
Pergamus, about 198 B.C., at which time books were in volumes or rolls. The MSS. in 
Herculaneum consist of Papyrus, rolled and charred and matted together by the fire, and 
are aboi;t nine inches long, and one, tAvo, or three inches in diameter, each being a separate 
treatise. The most ancient books are the Pentateuch of Moses and the poems of Homer and 
Hesiod. The first Ppjnted Books (see Printing) were printed on one side only, the leaves 
being pasted back to back. 

Books of astronomy and geometry were or- 
dered to be destroyed in England as being 
infected with magic, 6 Edw. VI. Stoio . . 1552 

2032 volumes of new works, and 773 of new 
editions, were published in London in , . 1839 

3359 new works, and 1159 new editions, exclu- 
sive of 908 pamphlets, were published in . 1852 

3SS3 volumes were published in . . . . 1864 

In Paris, 6445 volumes were published in 1842 ; 
and 7350 in 1851. See Bibliograxihy. 

Prices of Books. — Jerome (who died 420) states 
that he had ruined himself by buying a copy of the 
works of Origen. A large estate was given by 
Alfred for one on cosmography, about 872. The 
Roman de la Rose was sold tor about 30?. ; and a 
homily was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quar- 
ters of wheat. Books frequently fetched double or 
treble their weight in gold. They sold at prices 
varying from lol. to 40I. each in 1400. A copy of 
Macklin's Bible, ornamented by Mr. Tomldns, was 
declared worth 500 guineas. Butler. A j-et more 
superb copy was insured in a Loudon office for 3000?. 
See Boccaccio. 

I 2 




BOOKS {continued). 

Book-Binding. — The book of St. Cuthbert, the 
earliest orniimental book, is supposed to have 
been bound about 650 

A Latin Psalter, in oak boards, was bound in 
the gth century. 

A MS. copy of the Four Evangelists, the book 
on which our kings from Henry I. to Edward 
VI. took their coronation oath, was bound in 
oakfen boards, nearly an inch thick . . iioo 

Velvet was the covering- in the 14th century ; 
and silk soon after. Vellum was introduced 
early in the 15th century ; it was stamped 
and ornamented about 1510 

Leather came into use about the same time. 

The rolling machine, invented by Mr. Wm. 
Burr, was substituted for the beating-ham- 
mer, and gas-stoves began to take the place 
of the charcoal fires used to heat the gilder's 
finishing tools about 1830 

Cloth binding superseded the common boards 
generally about 1831 

Caoutchouc, or India-rubber, backs to account- 
books and large volumes, were introduced in 1841 

Book-Hawking Societies (already in Scotland) 
began in England in 1851 by archdeacon 
Wigram (since bishop of Rochester). The 
hawkers vend moral and religious books in 
a similar manner to the French colporteurs. 

BOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-entrj-, called originally Italian book-keeping, 
was taken from the course of Algebra published by Burgo, in the 15th century, at Venice. 
John Gowghe, a printer, published a treatise "on the kepyng of the famouse reconynge 
. . . Debitor and Creditor," London, 1543. This is our earliest work on book-keeping. 
James Peele published his Book-kccinng in 1569. John Mellis published " ABriefe Instruc- 
tion and Manner how to Keepe Bookes of Accompts," in 1588. Improved sj'stems were pub- 
lished by Benjamin Booth in 1789 and by Edw. Thos. Jones in 1821 and 1831. 

BOOKSELLERS, at first migratory like hawkers, became known as stationarii, from 
their y^ractice of having booths or stalls at the corners of streets and in markets. They 
were long subject to vexatious restrictions, from which they were freed in 1758.* 

BOOTHIA FELIX, a large peninsula, the N.W. point of America, discovered by sir 
John Eoss in 1831, and named after sir Felix Booth, who had presented him with 20,ocx)?. 
to fit out his Polar expedition. Sir Felix died at Brighton in Feb. 1850. 

BOOTS, said to have been the invention of the Carians, were made of iron, brass, or 
leathei'. Leather boots were mentioned by Homer 907 B.C., and frequently by the Roman 
historians. A variety of forms may be seen in Fairholt's " Costume in England." An 
instrument of torture termed " the boot'' was used in Scotland so late as 1690. 

BORAX (Boron), known to the ancients, is used in soldering, brazing, and casting gold 
and other metals, and was called clirysocolla. Borax is produced naturally in the mountains 
of Thibet, and was brought to Europe from India about 17 13. Homberg in 1702 discovered 
in borax boracic add, which latter in 1808 was decomposed by Gaj^-Lussac, Thcnard, and H. 
Davy, into oxygen, and the previously unknown element, boron. Borax has lately been 
found in Saxony ; and is now largely manufactured from the boracic acid found by Hcefer to 
exist in the gas arising from certain lagoons in Tuscany ; an immense fortune has been made 
by their owner M. liardarel since 181 8, 

BORDEAUX. See Bourdeaux. 

BORNEO, an island in the Indian Ocean, the largest in the world except Australia, was 
discovered by the Portuguese about 1520. 

The Dutch trade here in 1604, and establish 
factories in 1776 

The pirates of Borneo chastised by the British 
in 1813, and by captain Keppel in March, 1843 

By a treaty with the sultan, the island of La- 
booan, or Labuan (N.W. of Borneo), and its 
dependencies, incorporated with the British 
empire, and formally taken possession of in 
presence of the Bomean chiefs . Dec. 2, 1846 

James Brooke, rajah of Sarawak, by whose 
exertions this island was annexed to the 
British crown, governor of Labuan and 
consul-general of Borneo, visits England and 
receives many honours . . . Oct. 1847 

He destroys many of the Bomean pirates . 1849 

Labuan made a bishopric ; the bishop was con- 

secrated at Calcutta, the first English bishop 
consecrated out of England . . Oct. 18, 1855 

The Chinese in Sarawak rise in insurrection, 
and massacre a number of Europeans ; sir J. 
Brooke escapes bj' swimming across a creek ; 
he speedily returns with a force of Malays, 
&c., and chastises the insurgents, of whom 
2000 were killed .... Feb. 17, 18, 1857 

He comes to England to seek help from the 
government, without success 1858 

His health being broken up, an appeal for a 
subscription for him made ,, 

Deputation of merchants waits on the earl of 
iJerby, recommending the purchase of Sara- 
wak, which is decUned . . . Nov. 30, „ 

Sir J. Brooke returns to Borneo . . Nov. 20. i860 

* Booksellers' Association. In 1829 a number of eminent publishers m London formed themselves 
into an association for the regulation of the trade, and fixed the amount of discount I0 be allowed, Dec. 
29, 1829, and for some years re>tiicted the retail booksellers from selling copies of works under the full 
publishing price. A dispute afterwards arose as to the right, maintained by the latter, to dispose of 
books (when they hnd once become theirs by purchase) at siich less profit as they might deem sufficiently 
remuneivative. The dispute was rtfcrred to lord chief justice Campbell, before whom the parties argued 
their respective cases, at Stratheden House, Ajiril 14, 1852. His lordship gave judgment in eSect a^-ainst 
the association ; this led to its immediate dissolution. May 19 fullovring. ° 




BORNOtr, an extensive kingdom in central Africa, explored by Denliam and Clapperton, 
who were sent out by the British government in 1822. The population is estimated by 
Denham at 5,000,000, by Barth at 9,000,000. 

BOEODINO, a Russian village on the river Moskwa, near which a sanguinary battle was 
fought, Sept. 7, 1812, between the French under Napoleon, and the Russians rrnder Kutusoff ; 
240,000 men being engaged. Each party claimed the victory, but it was rather in favour of 
Napoleon ; for the Russians retreated, leaving Moscow, which the French entered, Sept. 14. 
See Moscow. 

BORON. See Borax. 

BOROUGH, or Buegh, anciently a company of ten families living together, now such 
towns as send members to Parliament, since the election of bm-gesses in the reign of Henry 
III. 1265. Charters were granted to towns by Henry I., 1132; which were remodelled by 
Charles II. in 1682-4, but restored in 1688. 22 new English boroughs were created in 1553. 
Burgesses were first admitted into the Scottish parliament by Robert Bruce, 1326 ; and 
into the Irish, 1365. The "Act to amend the Representation of the Peoi^le in England and 
Wales" was passed June 7, 1832 ; and the Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations, 
Sept. 9, 1835. See Constituency. 

BOROUGH-BRIDGE (W. R. of York), the site of a battle between the earls of Hereford 
and Lancaster and Edward II., March 16, 1322. The latter, at the head of 30,000 men, 
pressed Lancaster so closely, that he had not time to collect his troops together in sufficient 
force, and being defeated and made prisoner, was led, mounted on a lean horse, to an 
eminence near Pontefract, or Pomfret, and beheaded by a Londoner. 

BOROUGH-ENGLISH, an ancient tenure by which the younger son inherits, is men- 
tioned as occurring 834. It was abolished in Scotland by Malcolm III. in 1062. 

BOSCOBEL, near Donington, Shropshire, where Charles II. concealed himself after his 
defeat at Worcester {wliich see), Sept. 3rd, 1651.* The " Boscobel Tracts " were first pub- 
lished in 1660. In 1861 Mr. F. Manning published " Yiews," illustrating these tracts. 

BOSNIA, a province in Turkey, formerly a dependent upon Sema, was couc[uered by 
the Turks about 1526, who still retain it after losing it several times. 

BOSPHORUS, Theacian (now channel of Constantinople). Darius Hystaspes threw a 
bridge of boats over this strait when about to invade Greece, 493 B.C. See Constantinople. 

BOSPORUS (improperly Bosphoeus), now called Circassia, near the Bosphorus 
Cimmerius, now the straits of Kertch or Yenikale. The history of the kingdom is involved 
in obscurity, though it continued for 350 years. It ■was named Cimmerian, from the 
Cimmeri, who dwelt on its borders, about 750 B.C. 

Battle of Zela, gained by Julius Csesar over 
Phamaces II. (Csesar writes home, Veni, vidi, 
vici, " I came, I saw, I conquered ") . b.c. 47 

Asander usurps the crown 

Caesar makes Mithridates of Pergamus king 

Polemon conquers Bosporus, and, favoured by 
Agrippa, reigns j , 

Polemon killed by barbarians of the Palus 
Ma^otis x.D. 2q 

Polemon II. reigns, 33; Mithridates 1 1, reigns' 41 

Mithridates conducted a prisoner to Eome, by 
order of Claudius, and his kingdom made a 
province of the empire. 

The Archeenactidse from Mitylene rule, B.C. 502-480 

They are dispossessed by Sj)artacus I. . 480-438 

Seleucus, 431 ; Satyrus 1 407 

Leucon, 393 ; Spartacus II., 353 ; Parysades . 34S 

Eumelus, aiming to dethrone his brother Saty- 
rus II., is defeated ; but Satyrus is killed . 310 

Prytanis, his next brother, ascends the thi'one, 
but is murdered by Eumelus . . . 310-9 

Eumelus puts to death all his relations, 309 ; 
and is killed /304 

The Scythians conquer Bosporus . . . . 285 

Mithridates VI. , of Pontus, conquers Bosporus 80 

He poisons himself ; and the Ronaans make his 
son, Phamaces, king 63 

BOSTON, a city in the United States, built about 1627. Here originated that resistance 
to the British authorities which led to American independence. The act of parliament laying 
duties on tea, papers, colours, &c. (passed June, 1767), so excited the indignation of the 
citizens of Boston, that they destroyed several himdreds of chests of tea, Nov. 1773. Boston 
seaport was shut by the English parliament, until restitution should be made to the East 
India Company for the tea lost, March 25, 1774. The town was besieged by the British 
next year, and 400 houses were destroyed. A battle between the royalists and independent 
troops, in which the latter were defeated, took place on June 17, 1775. The city was 
evacuated by the king's troops, April, 1776. The inhabitants were very zealous against 
slavery. An industrial exhibition was opened here in Oct. 1856, and lasted two weekst 

* The king, disguised in the clothes of the Pendrills, remained from Sept. 4-6, at White Ladies ■ on 
Sept. 7 and 8 he lay at Boscobel house, near which exists an oak, said to be the scion of the Eoyal Oak in 
which the king was part of the time hidden with col. Careless. Sharpe. 

BOS 118 BOU 

BOSWORTH FIELD, Leicestershire, the site of the thirteenth and last battle between 
the houses of York and Lancaster, Aug. 22, 1485 ; Richard III. was defeated by the earl 
of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., and slain. Sir Wm. Stanley at a critical moment 
changed sides, and thus caused the loss of the battle. It is said that Henry was crowned on 
the sjiot Avith the crown of Richard found in a hawthorn bush, near the field.- 

BOTANY. Aristotle is considered the founder of the science of botany (about 347 B.C.). 
Historia Plantarum of Theophrastus was written about 320 B.C. Authors on botany 
hecame numerous at the close of the 15th century. Fuchsius, Bock, Bauhin, Cresalpinus, 
and others, wrote between 1535 and 1600. The system and arrangement of the^ great 
Linneeus was made known about 1750; and Jussieu's system, founded on Tournefort's, and 
called "the natural system," in 1758. At Linnoeus's death, 1778, the species of plants 
actually described amounted in number to 11,800. The number of species now recorded 
cannot fall short of 100,000.* J. C. Loudon's " Encyclopajdia of Plants," a most compre- 
hensive work, first appeared in 1829. De Candolle's " Prodromus Systematis Naturalis 
Regni Vegetabilis" (of which Vol. I. ai^peared in 1818), is nearly completed (1865). 



ished alov.t 





Leipsic . 


Paris (Jardin 


Plantes) . 






EatahlisUed about 
Upsal . • .1657 
Chelsea . . . 1673 
Edinburgh . . 1680 
Vienna , . . 1753 
Madrid . . . ,, 
Kew (greatly im- 
proved, 1841-65) , 1760 I 

Established about 





St. Petersburg 




Dublin . 


Horticultural Soci- 

ety's, Chiswick 


Royal Botanic So- 
ciety's, Regent's 
Park . . . 1839 
Eoyal Hoi-ticultural 
Society's, S. Ken- 
sington . . . i860 

BOTANY BAY, Australia, was discovered by captain Cook, April 28, 1770, and took its 
name from the great variety of plants which abounded on the shore. It was fixed on for a 
colony of convicts from Great Britain. The first governor, capt. Arthur Phillip, who sailed 
from England in May, 1787, arrived at the settlement in Jan. 1788. The colony was 
eventually established at Port Jackson, about thirteen miles to the north of the bay. See 
New South Wales and Transportation, 

BOTHWELL BRIDGE, Lanarksliire. The Scotch covenanters took up arms against 
the intolerant government of Charles II. in 1679, and defeated the celebrated Claverhouse 
at Drumelog. They were however totally routed by the earl of Monmouth at Bothwell 
Bridge, Jtiue 22, 1679, and many of the prisoners were cruelly tortured and afterwards 

BOTTLE-CONJUROR. On Jan. 16, 1748, a charlatan at the old Ha3'market theatre 
had announced that he would jump into a quart bottle. The theatre was besieged by 
thousands anxious to gain admittance and witness the feat. The duped crowd nearly pulled 
down the edifice. 

BOTTLES in ancient times were made of leather. Bottles of glass were first made in 
England about 1558. See Glass. The art of making glass bottles and drinking-glasses was 
known to the Romans at least before 79 ; for these articles and other vessels have been found 
in the ruins of Pompeii. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was blown, we are told, 
at Leith, in Scotland, in Jan. 1747-8. 

BOULOGNE, a seaport in Picardy, N. France, was taken by the British under Henry 
VIII. on Sept. 14, 1544, but restored at the peace, 1550. Lord Nelson attacked Boulogne, 
disabling ten vessels and sinking five, Aug. 3, 1801. In another attempt he was repulsed 
with great loss, and captain Parker of the Medusa and two-thirds of his crew were killed, 
Aug. 18 following. In 1804 Bonaparte assembled 160,000 men and 10,000 horses, and a 
flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors to invade England. The coasts of Kent and 
Sussex were covered with martello towers and lines of defence ; and nearly half the adult 
population of Britain was formed into volunteer corps. It is suj)posed that this French 
armament served merely for a demonstration, and that Bonaparte never seriously intended 
the invasion. Sir Sidney Smith imsuccessfully attempted to burn the flotilla with fire- 
machines called catamarans, Oct. 2, 1804. Congreve-rockets wore used in another attack, 
and they set the town on fire, Oct. 8, 1806. The army was removed on the breaking out of 
war with Austria in 1805. Louis Napoleon (now emperor) made a descent here with about 

* Robert Brown, who accompanied Flinders in his survey of New Holland in 1803, died June lo, 1858, 
aged 85. Ho was acknowledged to be the chief of the botanists of his day {facile princeps). 

BOU 119 BOW 

50 followers, Aug. 6, 1840, without success. Oa July 10, 1854, he reviewed the Frencli 
troops destined for the Baltic, and on Sept. 2, following, he entertained prince Albert and 
the king of the Belgians. See France. 

BOUNTIES,^ premiums granted to the producer, exporter, or importer of certain articles ; 
a principle introduced into commerce by the British parliament. The first granted on corn. 
in 1688, were repealed in 1815. They were first legally granted in England for raising naval 
stores in America, 1703, and have been granted on sail-cloth, linen and other goods. 

BOUNTY MUTINY, took place on board the Bounty, an armed ship which quitted 
Otaheite, with bread-fruit trees, April 7, 1789. The mutineers put their captain, Bligh, and 
nineteen men into an open boat, near Annamooka, one of the Friendly Isles, April 28, 1789 ; 
these reached the island of Timor, south of the Moluccas, in June, after a perilous voyage 
of nearly 4000 miles ; their preservation was next to miraculous. Some of the mutineers were 
tried, Sej)t. 15, 1792; six av ere condemned and three executed. For the fate of the others, 
see Pitcairn's Island. 

BOUEBON, HoxTSE of (from which come the royal houses of France, Spain, and Naples), 
derives its origin from the Archambauds, lords of Bourbon in Berry. Robert, count of 
Clermont, son of Louis IX. of France, married the heiress Beatrice in 1272 : their son 
Louis 1. was created duke of Bourbon and peer of France by Charles IV. in 1327. The last 
of the descendants of their elder son Peter I. was Susanna, wife of Charles, duke of Mont- 
pensier, called constable of Bourbon, who, offended by his sovereign Francis I. , entered into 
the service of the emperor Charles Y., and was killed at the siege of Rome, May 6, 1527- 
From James, the yoionger son ot Louis I., was descended Antony, duke of Yendonie, who 
married (1548) Jean d'Albret, daughter of Henry, king of Navarre. Their son the great 
Henry lY. was born at Pau, Dec. 23, 1553, and became king of France, July 31, 1589- — 
The crown of Spain was settled on a younger branch of this family, 1700, and guaranteed by 
the peace of Utrecht, 17 13. Bapin. The Bourbon Family Compact (w/wc/i see) was made 
1761. The Bourbons were expelled France, 1791 ; restored, 1814 ; again expelled on the 
return of Bonaparte from Elba, and again restored after the battle of Waterloo, 181 5. The 
elder branch was expelled once more, in the person of Charles X. and his family, in 1830, in 
consequence of the revolution of the memorable days of July in that year. The Orleans 
branch ascended the throne in the person of the late Louis- Philippe, as " king of the 
French," Aug. 9, following. He was deposed Feb. 24, 1848, when his family also was 
expelled. The Bourbon family fled from Naples, Sept. 6, i860 ; and Francis 11. lost his 
kingdom. See France, Spain, Naples, Orleans, Parma, Conde, and Legitimists. 

BOURBON, Isle of (in the Indian Ocean), discovered by the Portuguese about 1545. 
The French are said to have first settled here in 1642. It surrendered to the British, 
under admiral Rowley, Sept. 21, 1809, and was restored to France in 181 5. Alison. An 
awful hurricane in Feb. 1829 did much mischief. See Mauritms. 

BOURDEAUX, ok Bokdeatjx (W. France), was united to the dominions of Henry 11. 
of England by his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine. Edward the Black Prince In'oughfc 
his royal captive, John, king of France, to this city after the battle of Poictiers in 1356, and 
here held his court during eleven years : his son, our Richard II., was born at Bourdeaux, 
1366. Bourdeaux finally surrendered to Charles YII. of France in 1453. The fine eques- 
trian statue of Louis XY. was erected in 1743. Bourdeaux was entered by the victorious 
British army after the battle of Orthes, fought Feb. 27, 1814. 

BOURIGNONISTS, a sect founded by Antoinette Bourignon, who, in 1658, took the 
Augustine habit and travelled in France, Holland, England, and Scotland ; in the last .she 
made many converts about 1670. She maintained that Christianity does not consist in faith 
and practice, but in inward feeling and supernatural impulse. A disciple named Court left 
her a good estate. She died in 1680, and her works, in 21 volumes 8vo, were published 
in 1686. 

BOURNOUS, the Arabic name of a hooded garment worn in Algeria, which has been 
introduced in a modified form into England and France since 1847. 

BOUYINES (N. France), the site of a desperate battle, July 27, 12 14, in which Philip 
Augustus of France obtained a complete victory over the emperor Otho and his allies, 
consisting of more than 150,000 men. The earls of Flanders and Boulogne were taken 

BOWIjS, or Bowling, an English game as early as the 13th century. Charles I. played 
at it, and also Charles II. at Tunbridge. Grammont. 

EOW 120 BRA 

BOW-STKEET. See Magistrates. 

BOWS AND Arrows. See Archery. 

BOXING, OR Prize-Figiitixg, tlie jmoilaius of the Koraans, once a favourite sport with 
the British, who possess an extraordinary strengtli'in the arm, an advantage which gives the 
British soldier gi-eat superiority in battles decided by the bayonet. A century ago boxing 
formed a regular exhibition, and a theatre was erected for it in Tottenham-court. — Brough- 
ton's ampliitheatre, behind Oxford-road, was built 1742. Schools were opened in England 
to teach boxing as a science in 1790. Mendoza opened the Lyceum in the Strand in 1791. 
Boxing was much patronised from about 1820 to 1830, but is now out of favour.* John 
Gully, originallj' a butcher, afterwards a prize-fighter, acquired wealth and became M.P. for 
Pontefract in 1835. He died March 9, 1863. 

BOXTEL (in Dutch Brabant), where the British and allied army, commanded by tlie 
duke of York, was defeated by the French republicans, who took 2000 prisoners and eight 
jneces of cannon, Sept. 1 7, 1 794. 

BOX-TREE, indigenous to this countrj^ and exceedingly valuable to wood-engravers. 
In 1815 a large box-tree at Box-hill, Surrey, was cut down, and realised a large sum. 
Macculloch says, that "the trees were cut down in 1815, and produced upwards of 10,000?." 
About 1820 the cutting of aU the trees on the hill produced about 6000?. 

BOYDELL'S LOTTERY for a gallery of paintings was got up in 1791 at a vast expense 
by alderman Boydell, lord mayor of London, a gceat encourager of the arts. The collection 
was called the Shakspeare gallery, and every ticket was sold at the time the alderman died, 
Dec. 12, 1804, before the decision of the wheel. 

BOYLE LECTURES, instituted in 1691 by Robert Boyle (son of the great earl of 
Cork), a philosoiilier, distinguished by his genius, virtues, and benevolence. Eight lectures 
(in vindication of the Christian religion) are delivered at St. Mary-le-bow church, London, 
on the first Monday in each month, from January to May and September to November. 

BOYNE (a river in Kildare, Ireland), near which William III. defeated his father-in- 
law, James II., July i, 1690. The latter lost 1500 (out of 30,000) men ; the Protestant army 
lost about a third of that number (out of 30,000). James lied to Dublin, thence to Water- 
ford, and escaped to France. The duke of Schomberg was killed in the battle, having been 
shot by mistake by his own soldiers as he was crossing the river. Here also was killed the 
rev, George Walker, who defended Londonderry in 1689. Near Drogheda is a splendid 
obelisk, 150 feet in height, erected in 1736 by the Protestants of the empire in commemora- 
tion of this victorj'. 

BOYNE, man-of-war of 98 guns, destroj-ed by fire at Portsmouth, May 4, 1795, by the 
exj)losion of the magazine ; numbers perished. Portions were recovered June, 1840. 

BRABANT (now part of the kingdoms of Holland and Belgium), an ancient duchj', part 
of Charlemagne's empire, fell to the share of his son Lothaire. It became a separate duchy 
(called at first Lower Lorraine) in 959. It descended to Philip II. of Burgundy, and in 
regular succession to the emperor Charles Y. In the 17th centiiry it was held by Holland 
and Austria, as Dutch Brabant and the Walloon provinces, and underwent many changes 
through the wars of Europe. The Austrian division was taken by the French in 1746 and 
1794. It was united to the Netherlands in 1814, but has formed part of Belgium, under 
Leopold, since 1830. His heir is styled duke of Brabant. See Belgium. 

BRACELETS were worn by the ancients, and armillai were Roman military rewards. 
Those of pearls and gold were worn by the Roman ladies. 

BRADFIELD RESERVOIR. See Sheffield, 1864. 

BRADFORD. See Poison. 

BRADSHAW'S RAILWAY GUIDE was first published by Mr. G. Bradshaw in Dec. 
1 84 1. He had previously published occasionally a Railway Comjjanimi. 

"' On April 17, i860, a large number of persons of all classes assembled at Famborough to witness .a 
desperate conflict between Thomas Sayers, the (Tiiampion of England, a light Sussex man, about 5 feet 
8 inches high, and John Heenan, the " Benecia li'iy," a huge American, in height 6 feet i inch. Strength, 
however, was matched by skill ; and eventually the fight was interrupted. Both men received a silver 
belt on May 31 following. Tom King beat Mace, and obtained the champion's belt, <&c., Nov. 26, 1862 ; 
he beat Goss, Sept. i, 1863, and Heenan (nearly to death) Dec. 10, 1863. A trial, in consequence of the 
last fight ensued : the culprits were discharged, on promising not to offend again, April 5, 1864. On Jan. 
4, 1865, Wormald obtained the championship after a contest with Marsden. 

BRA . 121 BRA 

BRAGANZA, a city in Portugal, gave title to Alfonso, natural son of Pedro I. of Portugal 
(in 1422), founder of the house of Braganza. When the nation, in a bloodless revolution in 
1640, threw off the Spanish yoke, John, duke of Braganza, as John IV., was called to the 
throne ; his family continues to reign. See Portugal and Brazil. 

BRAHMINS, the highest of tlie four castes of the Hindoos. Pythagoras is thoirght to 
have learned from them liis doctrine of the Metempsychosis ; and it is affirmed that some of 
the Greek philosophers went to India on purpose to converse with them. Tlie modern 
Brahmins derive their name fi-om Brahmah, one of the three beings whom God, according 
to their theology, created, and with whose assistance he formed the world. The modern 
Indian priests are still the depositaries of the sacred learning of India. See Yedas. 

BRAINTREE CASE (in Essex), which was decided in 1842 by Dr. Lushington, who 
determined that a minority in a parish vestry cannot levy a chiirch rate. 

BRAMHAM (W. R. York) : near here the earl of Northumberland and lord Bardolf were 
defeated and slain by sir Thomas Rokeby, the general of Henry IV., Eeb. 19, 1408; and 
Fairfax was defeated by the royalists under the duke of ISTeAvcastle, March 29, 1643. 

BRANDENBURG, a city in Prussia, founded by the Slavonians, who gave it the name 
of Banber, which signified Guard of the Forest, according to some ; others say. Burg, or 
city of the Brenns. Henry I., surnamed the Fowler, after defeating the Slavonians, fortified 
Brandenburg, 926, as a ramjjart against the Huns, and bestowed the government on Sigefroi, 
count of Ringelheim, with the title of Margrave, or protector of the marches or frontiers. 
The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual investiture to Frederick IV. of Nuremburg, ancestor 
of the Royal family of Prussia, who was made elector in. 1417. For a list of the Margraves 
since 1 134, see Prussia. 

BRANDENBURG HOUSE, Hammersmith. See Queen Caroline. 

BRANDY (German Branntwein, burnt wine), the spirit distilled from wine. It appears 
to have been known to Raymond LuUy in the 13th century, and to have been manufactured 
in France early in the I4tli. It was at first used medicinally, and miraculous cures were 
ascribed to its influence. In 1851, 938,280 gallons were imported with a duty of 155. per 
gallon. It is now manufactured in Britain. 

BRANDYWINE, a river in N. America, near which a battle took place between the 
British and the revolted Americans, in which the latter (after a day's fight) were defeated 
with great loss, and Pliiladelphia fell into the possession of the victors, Sept. 11, 1777. 

BRASS was known among all the early nations. Usher. Tlie British from the remotest 
period were acquainted with its use. WhitaJcer. When Lucius Mummius burnt Corinth * 
to the ground, 146 B.C., he found immense riches, and during the conflagration, it is said, 
all the metals in the city melted, and running together, formed the valuable composition 
described as Corinthian Brass. This, however, may well be doubted, for the Corinthian 
artists had long before obtained great credit for their method of combining gold and silver 
with copper ; and the Syriac translation of the Bible says, that Hiram made tlie vessels for 
Solomon's temple of Corinthian brass. Du Fresnoy. Some of the Englisli sepulchral 
engraved brasses are said to be as old as 1277. 

BRAURONIA, festivals in Attica, at Brauron, where Diana had a temple. The most 
remarkable that attended these festivals were young virgins in yellow gowns, dedicated to 
Diana. They were about ten years of age, and not under five ; and therefore their consecra- 
tion was called " dekateuein," from deka, ten ; 600 B.C. 

BRAY, THE ViCAE, OF. Bray, in Berks, is famous in national song for its vicar, the 
rev. Symon Symonds, who is said to have been twice a papist and twice a Protestant — in 
four successive reigns — those of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, between 
the years 1533 and 1558. Upon being called a turn-coat, he said he kept to his principle, 
that of "living and dying the vicar of Bray." Fuller's Church History. 

BRAZEN BULL, contrived by PeriUus, a brass-founder at Athens, for Phalaris, tyrant of 
Agrigentum, 570 B.C. He cast a brazen bull, larger than life, with an opening in the side 
to admit the victims. A fire was kindled underneath to roast them to death ; and the throat 
was so contrived that their dying groans resembled the roaring of a bull. Phalaris admired 
the invention and workmanship, but said it was reasonable the artist should make the first 
experiment, and ordered his execution. Ovid mentions that the Agrigentes, maddened by 
the tyrant's cruelties, revolted, seized him, cut his tongue out and roasted him in the brazen 
bull, 549 B.C. 




BRAZIL, an empire in South Aruerica, was discovered by Alvarez de Cabral, a Portu- 
guese, -who was driven upon its coasts by a tempest, Jan. 26, 1 500. He called it the land of 
the Holy Cross ; but it was subsequently called Brazil, on account of its red wood. The 
French having seized on Portugal in 1807, the royal family and nobles embarked for Brazil, 
and landed March 7, 1808. The dominant religion is Roman Catholic ; but others are 
tolerated. Population in 1856, 7,677,800. See Porhcgal. 

Pedro Alvarez Cabal discovers Espirito Santo, 

coast of Brazil, and lands . . . May 3 1500 
Brazil explored by Amerigo Vespucci, about . 1504 
Divided into captaincies by the king of Portugal 1 530 
Martin Le Souza founds the first European 

colony at San Vincente 1531 

Jews banished from Portugal to Brazil . . 1548 
San Salvador (Bahia) foimded by Thome de 

Souza 1549 

French Protestants occupy bay of Bio Janeiro . 1555 

Expelled 1567 

Sebastian founded ,, 

Brazil, with Portugal, becomes subject to Spam 1580 
James Lancaster captures Pemambuco . . 1593 
The French estabUsh a colony at Maranham . 1594 

Belem founded by C'aldeira 1615 

The French expelled „ 

The Dutch seize the coast of Brazil, and hold 

Pemambuco 1630 

Defeated at Guararapfes 1646 

Give up Brazil . 1661 

Gold mining commences 1693 

Destruction of Palmares 1697 

The French assaxilt and capture Rio Janeiro 1710-11 
Diamond mines discovered in Sezzo Frio . . 1729 

Jesuits expelled 1758-60 

Capital transferred from Bahia to Rio Janeiro 1763 
Roj'al family of Portugal arrive at Brazil, Mar. 7, 1808 
First printing-press established . . . . ,, 
Brazil becomes a kingdom .... 1815 

King John VI. returns to Portugal, and Dom 

Pedro becomes regent 1821 

Brazil declares its independence . Sept. 7, 1822 

Pedro I. crowned emperor . . Dec. i, ,, 

Kew constitution ratified . . March 25, 1824 
Independence recognised by Portvigal, Aug. 29, 1825 
Abdication of Dom Pedro 1. . . Apiil 7, 1831 

Reform of the constitution 1834 

Accession of Pedro II. 1840 

Steamship line to Europe commenced . . 1850 
Suppression of the slave-trade ; railways com- 
menced 1852 

Rio Janeiro lit with gas 1854 

The British ship "Prince of Wales" wrecked 
at Albardas, on coast of Brazil, is plundered 
by some of the natives, and some of the crew 

killed, about June 7, 1861 

Reparation long refused ; reprisals made ; five 
Brazilian merchant ships being seized by the 

British Dec. 31, 1862 

The Brazilian minister at London pays 3,2001. 
as an indemnity, under protest . Feb. 26, 1863 

The Brazilian government request the British 
to express regret for reprisals ; dechned ; 
diplomatic intercovrrse between the two 
countries suspended . . May 5-28, „ 

Dispute between the British and Brazilian 
governments respecting the arrest of some 
British officers at Rio Janeiro (June 17, 1862) 
is referred to the arbiti-ation of the king of 
Belgium, who decides in favotu' of the latter 

June 18, „ 

New ministry formed ; F. J. Furtado, presi- 
dent — prosjject of reconciliation with Great 
Britain Aug. 30, 1864 

U. S. war-steamer "Waehusett" seizes the 
Confederate steamer " Florida," in the port 
of Bahia, while under protection of Brazil, 
Oct. 7 ; after remonstrance, Mr. Seward, 
U. S. foreign minister, apologises. [Tho 
" Florida" had been (inadvertently?) sunk.] 

Dec. 26, „ 

The C'omte d'Eu and the Princess Isabella (on 
their marriage tour) land at Southampton 

Feb. 7, 1865 

War with Urugu.ay — the Brazilians take Pay- 
sandti, and march upon Monte Video, Feb. 2, ,, 

Lopez, jiresident of Paraguay, declares war 
against the Argentine Republic, which unites 
with Brazil — New combinations forming 

April, May, ,, 

Amicable relations with England restored 

Aug. „ 

The emperor joins the army marching against 
Lopez Aug. ,, 


1825. Dom Pedro (of Portu^itl) first emperor, Oct 
12, abdicated the throne of Brazil in favour of his 

" infant son, April 7, 1831 ; died Sept. 24, 1834. 

1831. Dom Pedro II. (Ijom Dec. 2, 1825) succeeded 
on his father's abdicatii>n : assumed the govern- 
xoent July 23, 1840 ; crowned July 18, 1841 ; mar- 
ried Sept. 4, 1843, Princess Theresa of Naples ; the 
PRESENT emperor (1865). 

Heiress : Isabella, born July 29, 1846 ; married to 
Louis comte d'Eu, son of the Due de Nemours, 
Oct. 15, 1864. 

BREAD. Ching-iSToung, the successor of Fohi, is reputed to have been the first who 
taught men (the Chinese) the art of husbandry and the method of making bread fi'om wheat, 
and wine from rice, 1998 B.C. Uiiiv. Hist. Baking of bread was known in the patriarchal 
ages; see Exodus xii. 15. It became a profession at Rome, 170 B.C. After the conquest of 
Macedon, 148 B.C., numbers of Greek bakers came to Rome, obtained special privileges, and 
soon obtained the monopolj'^ of the baking trade. During the siege of Paris by Henry IV., 
owing to the famine which then raged, bread, which had been sold whilst any remained for 
a crown a pound, was at last made from the bones of the charnel-house of the Holy 
Innocents, a.d. 1594. Renault. In the time of James I. , barley bread was used by the 
poor ; and now in Iceland, cod-fish, beaten to powder, is made into bread ; potato-bread is 
used in Ireland. The London Bakers' Compan}'- was incorporated in 1307. Bread-street 
was once the London market for bread. Until 1302, the London bakers were not allowed 
to sell any in their own shops, fitow. Bread was made with yeast by the English bakers in 
1634. In 1856 and 1857 Dr. Dauglish patented a mode of making "aerated bread," in 
which carbonic acid gas is combined •v\ith water and mixed with the flour, which is said to 
possess the advantages of cleanliness, rapidity, and uniformity. In 1862 a company was 




An act for regulating bakehouses 

1805 . . . I2jd 

183s . 




181O . . . . 154 




1858 . 

. M. 


1812 (Aug.) . . 2li 


. 8 


1814 . . . . i2i 



1S60 . 

. 84 


1820 . - .11 

184s . 




• 9 





1862 . 

• 9 


Four-potmcl Loaf (iest). 

1854 . 




. 8 


1822 . . . lod. 




1864 . 

• 7 


1825 . . ■ . . II 

1856 . 




1830 . . . loi 





• • 7 


formed to encourage Stevens' bread-making machinery.'' 
was passed in July, 1863. 

Quartern Loaf (4^6. sioz.) 
173s • • ■• Shd. 
174s • • • • 4f 
175s • • • 5 
1765 . • • • 7 
1775 ... 6^ 
1785 . . . . 6i 
1795 . . . I2i 

t8oo . . . . 175 
1800 [For 4 weeks, zz^d.l 

BREAD-ERUIT TEEE, mentioned by Damx^ier, Anson, Wallis, and other voyagers. 
A vessel under captain Bligh was fitted out to convey these trees to various British colonies 
in 1789 (see Bounty), and again in 1791. The numbertaken on board at Otaheite was 1151. 
Some were left at St. Helena,, 352 at Jamaica, and iive were reserved for Kew Gardens, 1793. 
The tree was successfully cultivated in French Guiana, 1802. 

BREAKWATERS. The first stone of the Plymouth breakwater was lowered August 12, 
1812. It was designed to break the swell, and stretches 5280 feet across the sound ; it is 
360 feet in breadth at the bottom and more than thirty at the top, and consumed 3,666,000 
tons of granite blocks, from one to five tons ealch, up to April, 1841, and cost a million and 
a half sterling. The architects were Mr. John Rennie and his son sir John. The first stone 
of the lighthouse on its western extremity was laid Feb. i, 1841. Breakwaters are now in 
course of construction at Holyhead, Portland, Dover, &c. (1865). 

BREAST-PLATE. One was worn by the Jewish high priest, 149 1 B.C. {Exod. xxxix.). 
Goliath "was armed with a coat of mail," 1063 B.C. (i Sam. xvii.) Breast-plates dwindled 
to the diminutive gorgets. Ancient breast-plates are mentioned as made of gold and silver. 

BRECHIlSr, Scotland; sustained a siege against the army of Edward III., 1333. The 
battle of Brechin was fought between the forces of the earls of Himtly and Crawfurd ; the 
latter defeated, 1452. The see of Brechin was founded by David I. in 1150. One of its 
bishops, Alexander Campbell, was made prelate when but a boy, 1556. The bishopric, dis- 
continued soon after the revolution in 1688, was revived in 1731. 

BREDA, Holland, was taken by prince Maurice, of Nassau, in 1590; by the Spania:rds, 
under Spinola, in 1625 ; and by the Dutch, in 1637. Our Charles II. resided here at the 
time of the restoration, 1660. Bee Restoration. Breda was taken by the French in 1793. 
The French garrison was expelled by the burgesses in 1813. The " Comj^i'omise of Breda" 
was a proposal to Philip II., deprecating his harsh measures in the Netherlands, presented 
and refused in 1566. cu i^.Cc^ U P^ .^.^.L^"-— -^- v-- ^X*,vU»w-J <2^o.w£*-- -'^.Sv ^/. 

BREECHES. Among the Greeks, this garnient indicated slavery. It was worn by the 
Dacians, Parthians, and other northern nations ; and in Italy, it is said, Avas worn in the 
time of Augustus Ccesar. In the reign of Honorius, about 394, the braccarii, or breeches- 
makers, were expelled from Rome ; but soon afterwards the use of breeches was adopted iu 
"other countries, and at length became general. 

BREHOISTS, ancient judges in Ireland, are said to have administered justice with religious 
impartiality, but in later times with a tendency to love of coimtry. " It was enacted by the 
statute of Kilkenny, that no English subject should submit to the Brehonlaws, 40 Edw. III., 
1365. These laws, however, were recognised by the native Irish till about 1650. A trans- 
lation of them was proposed in 1852, the publication of which may be expected. 

BREITI^NFELD, Battle op. 8ee Leipsic. 

BREMEN (N. Germany), said to have been founded in 788, and long an archbishopric 
and one of the leading towns of the Hanseatic league, was allowed a seat and a vote in the 
college of imperial cities in 1640. In 1648 it was secularised and erected into a duchy and 

* Assize of Bread. The first statute for the regulation of the sale of bread was 3 John, 1203. The 
chief justiclaiy, and a baker commissioned by the king, had the inspection of the assize. Mattheio Paris. 
The assize was further regulated by statute in 51 Henry III. 1266, and 8 Anne, 1710. Bread Act, Ireland, 
placing its sale on the same footing as in England, i Vict. 1838. Bi-ead was directed to be sold by weight 
in London in 1822 ; the statute " Assessa Panis " was repealed in 1824 ; and the sale of bread throughout 
the country was regulated in 1836. 

BRE 124 BRI 

held by Sweden till 171 2, ■when it was taken possession of by Denmark in 1731, by whom 
it was ceded to Hanover. It was taken by the French in 1757, who were expelled by the 
Hanoverians in 1758. Bremen was annexed by Napoleon to the French empire in 1810 ; 
but its independence was restored in 1813, and all its old franchises in 1815. Population of 
the province in 1862, about 90,000. See Hanse, Toums. 

BRESCIA, N. Italy (the ancient Brixia), became important under the Lombards, and 
suffered by the wars of the Italian Repiiblics. It was taken by the French under Gaston de 
Foix in 15 12, when it is said 40,000 of the inhabitants were massacred. It surrendered to 
the Austrian general Haynau, Marcli 30, 1849, on severe terms. 

BRESLAU,' in Silesia, was burnt by the Mongols in 1241, and conquered by Frederick 
II. of Prussia, in Jan. 1741. A fierce battle took place here between the Austrians and 
Priissians, the latter under prince Bevern, who was defeated Nov. 22, 1757. Breslau was 
taken : but was regained, Dec. 21, the same year. It was besieged by the French, and sur- 
rendered to them Jan. 1807, and again in 1813. 

BREST, a sea-port, N.W. France, was besieged by Julius Caesar, 54 B.C. — possessed by 
the English, A.D. 1378 — given up to the duke of Biittany, 1390. Lord Berkeley and a 
British fleet and army were repulsed here with dreadful loss in 1694. The magazine burnt, 
to the value of some millions of pounds sterling, 1744. The marine hospitals, with fifty 
galley slaves, burnt, 1766. The magazine again destroj'ed by fire, July 10, 1784. From 
this great depot of the French navy, numerous squadrons were equipped against England 
during the late war, among them the fieet which lord Howe defeated on the ist of June, 
1794. England maintained a large blockading squadron off the harbour from 1793 to 1815 ; 
but with little injury to France. It is now a chief naval station of that country, and from 
the fortifications and other vast works of late construction it is considered impregnable. The 
British fleet visited Brest, Aug. 1865. 

BRETAGNE. See Brittamj. BRETHREN. See Bohemian and Plymouth BrctJiren. 

BRETIGNY, Peace of, concluded with France, May 8, 1360, by which England retained 
Gascony and Guienne, and acquired other provinces ; renounced her pretensions to Maine, 
Anjou, Touraine, and Nonnandy ; was to receive 3,000,000 crowns, and to release king John, 
long a prisoner. The treaty not being earned out, the king remained and died in London. 

BRETON. See Ccqje Breton. 

BRETWALDA (wide-mling chief), one of the kings of the Saxon heptarchy, chosen by 
the others as a leader in war against their common enemies. The following are mentioned 
by Bede (500 to 642), Ella, king of Sussex ; Ceawlin of Wessex ; Ethelbert of Kent ; 
Redwald of East Anglia ; Edwin, Oswald, and Oswy of Northumberland. The title (then 
become obsolete) was bestowed upon Egbert, 828. 

BREVIARY (so called as being an abridgment of the books used in the Roman Catholic 
Service), contains the seven canonical hours, viz. : matins or lauds, primes, tierce, sexte, 
nones, vespers, and complines. Its origin is ascribed to pope Gelasius I. about 492. It was 
first called the custos, and afterwards the breviary ; and both the clergy and laity use it 
publicly and at home. It was in iise among the ecclesiastical orders about 1080; and was 
reformed by the councils of Trent and Cologne, and by Pius V., Urban VIII., and other popes. 
The quality of type iu which the breviary was first printed gave the name to the tj'pe 
called brevier (iu which this page is printed). 

BREWERS are traced to Egypt. Brewing was known to our Anglo-Saxon ancestors. 
Tindal. ' ' One William Murle, a rich maltman or bruer, of Dunstable, had two horses all 
trapped with gold, 1414." Stoio. In Oct. 185 1, there were 2305 licensed brewers in England, 
146 in Scotland, and 97 in Ireland ; total 2548 : these are exclusive of retail and inter- 
mediate brewers. There were 40,418 licensed brewers in the United Kingdom in 1858 ; the 
revenue from whom to the state was in that year 81,030?. In 1858 iu England there were 
205 great brewers. See Ah, Porter. 

BRIAR'S CREEK (N. America), near which the Americans, 2000 strong, under genei'al 
Ashe, were totally defeated by the English under general Prevost, March 16, 1779. 

BRIBERY forbidden, Dcut. xvi. 19. Samuel's sons were guilty of it, B.C. 11 12. (i Sam. 
viii. 3.) Thomas de AVeyland, a judge, was banished for bribery in 1288 ; he was chief 
justice of the common pleas. William de Thorpe, chief justice of the king's bench, was 
hanged for bribery iu 135 1. Another judge was fined 20,oooZ. for the like offence, 1616. 
Mr. Walpole, secretary-at-war, was sent to the Tower for bribery, in 17 12. Lord Strangford 
Avas suspended from voting in the Irish house of lords, for soliciting a bribe, January, 1784. 




BRIBERY AT Elections. In 1854 an important act was passed consolidating and 
amending previous acts relating to this offence, from 7 "Will. III. (1695) to 5 & 6 Vict. c. 184.* 

Messrs. Sykes and Rumbold fined and im- 
prisoned for bribery . . . March 14, 1776 

Messrs. Davidson, Parsons, and Hopping, im- 
prisoned for bribery at Ilchester . April 28, 1804 

Mr. Swan, M.P. for Penryn, fined and im- 
prisoned, and sir Manasseh Lopez sentenced 
to a fine of io,oooZ. and to two years' im- 
prisonment for bribery at Grampound, Oct. i8ig 

The members for Liverpool and Dublin un- 
seated in 1831 

The friends of Mr. Knight, candidate for Cam- 
bridge, convicted ofbribery . . Feb. 20, 1835 
Elections for Ludlow and Cambridge made void 1840 
Sudbury disfranchised, 1848 ; St. Alban's also . 1852 
Elections at Derby and other places declared 

void for bribery, in 1853 

Gross bribery practised at Gloucester, Wake- 
field, and Berwick, in 1859 

Mr. Edward Leatham convicted of bribery at 
Wakefield July 19, i860 

BRICKS were used in Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome ; in England by the Romans 
about A.D. 44. Made under the direction of Alfred the Great, about 886. Saxon Chron. 
The size regulated by order of Charles I., 1625. Taxed 1784. The number of bricks 
which paid duty in England in 1820 Avas 949,000,000; in 1830, above 1,100,000,000 ; in 
1840, 1,400,000,000; and in 1850, 1,700,000,000. The duties and drawbacks of excise on 
bricks were repealed in 1850. In 1839 Messrs. Cooke and Cunningham brought out their 
machinery by which, it is said, 18,000, bricks may be made in ten hours. Messrs. Dixon 
and Corbett, near Newcastle, in 1861, were making bricks by steam at the rate of 1500 per 
hour. The machinery is the invention of Clayton & Co., London. 

BRIDEWELL, originally a palace of king John, near Fleet-ditch, London, was rebuilt 
by Henry VIII., 1522, and given to the city for a workhouse by Edward VI., 1553. The 
New Bridewell prison, erected in 1829, was pulled down in 1864 ; that of Tothill-iields was 
rebuilt in 1831. 

BRIDGES were first of wood. The ancient stone bridges in China are of great macrai- 
tude. Abydos is famous for the bridge of boats which Xerxes built across the Hellespont, 
480 B.C. Trajan's magnificent stone bridge over the Danube, 4770 feet in length, was built 
in A.D. 105, Brotherhoods for building bridges existed in S. France about 1180.+ 

Triangular bridge at Croyland Abbey referred 
to in a charter dated ... . 943 

First stone bridge erected at Bow, near Strat- 
ford, by queen Matilda . . about iioo-i8 

Bishop's bridge, Norwich 1295 

London Bridge : one existed about 978 ; one 
built of wood 1014 ; one by Peter of Cole- 
church 1 1 76- 1 209 ; new London Bridge 
finished 1831 

The first large iron bridge erected over the 
Severn, Shropshire 1777 

Sunderland bridge by Wilson, 100 feet high, an 
arch, with a span of 236 feet . . . . 1796 

The fine chain suspension bridge at the Menai 

"Westminster, 1750 ; Blackfriars, 1769 ; Water- 
loo, 1817; Southwark, 1819; Hungerford, 
1845 ; Chelsea, 1858 ; Vauxhall, 1816. 

A railway bridge 2i miles long is projected 
over the Firth of Forth . . . Dec. 

Probably the widest bridge in the world at pre- 
sent is the Victoria bridge over the Thames 
(by which the London, Chatham, and Dover 
railway will enter the Victoria station, Pim- 
lico) ; founded by Lord Harris . Feb. 22, 

For details see separate articles, and also Tubu- 
lar bridge, Victoria bridge, &o. 



BRIDGEWATER, Somersetshire, was incorporated by king John, in 1200. In the war 
between Charles I. and the parliament, the forces of the latter reduced part of the town 
to ashes, 1643. Here stood an ancient castle in which the ill-advised duke of Monmouth 
lodged when he was proclaimed king in 1685. 

BRIDGEWATER CANAL, the first great work of the kind in England, was begun by 
the duke of Bridge water, styled the father of canal navigation in this country, in 1759, and 
opened 1761. Mr. Brindley was the engineer. It commences at Worsley, seven miles from 
Manchester ; and at Barton Bridge is an aqueduct which, for upwards of 200 yards, conveys 
the canal across the river Irwell. The length of the canal is about twenty-nine miles. 

BRIDGEWATER TREATISES. The rev. Francis, earl of Bridgewater, died in April, 
1829, leaving by will 2>oool. to be given to eight persons, appointed by the president of the 

* On April 17, 1858, in the case of Cooper v. Slade, it was ruled that the payment of travelling expenses 
was bribery ; and in the same year an act was passed which permits candidates to provide conveyances 
for voters, but forbids payment of travelling expenses. 

t The Devil's bridge, in the canton of Uri, so called from its frightful situation, was built on two high 
rocks, so that it could scarcely be conceived how it was erected, and many fabulous stories were invented 
to account for it. At Schaffhausen an extraordinary bridge was buUt over the Rhine, which is there 400 
feet wide : there was a pier in the middle of the river, but it is doubtful whether the bridge rested upon 
it : a man of the lightest weight felt the bridge totter under him, yet waggons heavily laden passed over 
without danger. The bridge was destroyed by the French in 1799. 




Royal Society, who should write an essay "on the Power, "Wisdom, and Goodness of God, 
as manifested in the Creation." The essays (by sir Charles Bell, Drs. T. Chalmers, John 
Kidd, William Buckland, William Front, Peter M. Roget, and the revs. William. Whewell 
and William Kirby) were published 1833 — 5. 

BRIEF, a ^^Titten instrument in the Roman Catholic church, of early but imcertain date. 
Briefs arc the letters of the pope despatched to princes and others on public affairs, and are 
usually written short, hence tlie name, and without preface or preamble, and on paper ; in 
which particulars they are distinguished from hulU. The latter are ample and are always 
written on parchment. Briefs are sealed with red wax and the seal of the fisherman, or St. 
Peter in a boat, and always in the presence of the pope. The Queen's letter authorising 
collections in churches for charitable pui'poses are called "briefs." 

BRIENNE (N.E. France). Here the allied armies of Russia and Prassia were defeated 
by the French, Feb. i and 2, 1814. 

BRIGHTON, or Brighthelmstone, in Sussex, formerly inhabited chiefly by fishermen, 
now a place of fashionable resort. The length of the esplanade here from the Steyne is 
about 1250 feet. 

Here Charles II. embarked for France after tlie 
battle of Worcester 1651 

The Pi-ince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) 
founded the Pavilion, 1784; greatly enlarged 
and made to resemble the Kremhn at Mos- 
cow, 1784-1823; it was sold to the town for 
S3,ocoi 1849 

The Block-house swept away . . March 26, 1786 
Part of the cliff fell ; gi-eat damage Nov. 16, 1807 
Chain-pier, 1,134 feet long, 13 wide, completed 1823 
Brighton made a parliamentary borough . 1832 
The railway to London opened . Sept. 21, 1841 
Collision of trains in Clayton tunnel, 23 per- 
sons killed and many wounded . Aug. 25, 1861 

BRILL (or Briel), Holland. A seaport, seized by the expelled Dutch confederates, 
became the first seat of their independence. Brill was given up to the English in 1585 as 
security for advances made by Queen Elizabeth to the states of Holland. It was restored in 

BRISTOL (W. England), built by Brennus, a British prince, 380 B.C., is mentioned in 
A.D. 430 as a fortified city. It was called Caer Oder, a city in the valley of Bath ; and 
sometimes Caer Brito, the British city, and by the Saxons Brightstowe, pleasant place. 
Gildas and Nennius speak of Bristol in the 5 th and 7th centuries. 

Taken by the earl of Gloiicester, in his defence 
of his sister Maud, the empress, against king 

Stephen 1138* 

Eleanor of Brittany (daughter of Geoffrey, son 
of Henry 1.) dies in the castle after 39 years' 

imprisonment 1241 

St. Mary's church built 1292 

Bristol made a distinct county by Edward III. 1373 
Bishopric founded by Heni-y VIII. . . . 1542 

A new charter obtained 1581 

Taken by prince Rupert, July 26, 1643 ; by 

Cromwell Sept. 1645 

Edwd. Colston's hospital, a free school, and 
other charities established [his birthday, 

Nov. 14, kept annually] 1708 

Act passed for new exchange, 1723 ; erected . 1741 

Bread riots 1753 

Bridge built May, 1760 

Attempt to set the shipping on fii-e . Jan. 22, 1777 

Riot on account of a toll ; the troops fire on the 
populace, and many are wounded . Oct. 25, 

Docks built I 

Riot on the entrance of sir Charles Wetherell, 
the recorder, into the city. He was opposed 
to the reform bill, and thus obnoxious to 
the lower classes. The mansion house, the 
bishop's palace, several merchants' stores, 
some of the prisons (the inmates liberated), 
and ne:irly 100 houses had been burned and 
many lives lost . . . Oct. 29-31, 
Trial of rioters, Jan. 2 (four executed and 
twenty-two transported). Suicide of Col. 
Brereton, during his trial by court-martial 

Jan. 9, 
Meetmg of British Association . . . Aug. 
Railway to London completed . June 30, 
Clifton Suspension-bridge opened . Dec. 8, 
Industrial Exhibition about be to opened . Oct. 




BRISTOL, See of, one of the six bishoprics erected by Henry VIII. out of the spoils 
of the monasteries and religious houses which that monarch had dissolved, 1542. The 
cathedral was the church of the abbey of St. Austin, founded here by Robert Fitz-Harding, 
son to a king of Denmark, and a citizen of Bristol, 1 148. It is valued in the king's books 
at 338Z. 8s. ^d. Paul Bushe, provincial of the Bons-hommes was the first bishop, in 1542 — 
deprived for being married, 1554. The see of Bristol was united by an order in council 
with that of Gloucester, in 1836, and they now form one see under the name of Gloucester 
and Bristol. The cathedral (under repair since 1844) was reopened in 1861. 

* Erom the period of Henry II. in the 12th to the middle of the 18th century, Bristol ranked next to 
London, as the most poj)uloiis, commercial, and flourishing place in the kingdom ; but since the latter 
time it has declined, and been exceeded in these respects by Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, 
and Glasgow. 




BRISTOL, continued. 


1803. Hon. G. Pelham, translated to Exeter . 1807 

1807. John Luxmoore, translated to Hereford 1808 

1808. Wm. Lort Mansell, died . June 27, 1820 
1820. John Kaye, translated to Lincoln . . 1827 

1827. Robert Gray died . . . Sept. 28, 18 
1834. Joseph AUen, the last bishop, translated 
to Ely in June, 1836. (In October the 
diocese was united with Gloticester.) 

BRITAIISr (called by the Romans Britannia, * from its Celtic name Prydliain, Caviden). 
The earliest records of the history of this island are the manuscripts and poetry of the Cam- 
brians. The Celts, the ancestors of the Britons and modern Welsh, were the first inhabi- 
tants of Britain. It is referred to as the Cassiterides or tm -islands by Herodotus, 450 b. c. ; 
as Albion or lerne by Aristotle, 350 b.c. ; Polybius, 260 B.C. Britain, including JEngland, 
Scotland, and Wales, was anciently called Albion, the name of Britain being applied to all 
the islands collectively — Albion to only one. Pliny. See Albion. It was invaded by 
Julius Cffisar, 55 B.C. ; subdued by Agricola, a.d. 84; left by the Romans, about 426 j 
invaded by the Saxons, 429 ; the southern part became one kingdom iinder Egbert, 828 ; 
subdued by William I., 1066. See England, Scotland, and Wales. 

Divitiaous, king of the Suessones, in Gaul, 
said to have supremacy over part of Britain 


First invasion of Britain by the Bomans, under 
JtUius Caesar 

He defeats Cassivelatinus, general of the 

Cymbeline (Cunobelin) king of Britain . 

Aulus Plautus defeats the Britons, a.d. 43 ; he 
and Vespasian reduce S. Britain . 

Caraotacus defeated by Ostorius, 50 ; carried 
in chains to Rome 

Bomans defeated by Boadicea ; 70,000 slain, 
and London burnt : she is defeated by Sue- 
tonius ; 80,000 slain 

Agricola conquers Anglesea, and overruns 
Britain in seven campaigns, and reforms 
the government . . . . . 

He defeats the Caledonians under Galgacus ; 
surrenders the islands 

The emperor Adrian visits Britain, 120 ; and 
builds a wall from the Tyne to the Solway . 

Lucius, king of the Britons, said to have sent 
an embassy on religious affairs to pope 
Eleutherius, about 

The Britons (alUes of Albinus) defeated at 
Lyons by Severus 

Southern Britain subdued and divided by the 
Romans into two provinces . . . . 



Severus keeps his court at York, then called . 

Eboraciim, 208 ; finishes his wall, and dies 

at York 211 

Carausius usurps the throne of Britain . . 286 
He is killed by Alectus, another usurper . 294 

Constantius recovers Britain from Alectus . . 296 
St. Alban and 17,000 Christians martyred (Bede) 304 
Constantius, emperor of Rome, dies at York . 30S 
British bishops at the council of Aries . . 314 
Scots and Picts invade Britain, 360 ; routed by 

Theodosius 368 

Romans gradually withdraw from Britain . 4o2-4i8> 
The Saxons and Angles are called in to aid the 

natives against the Picts and Soots . 429 or 449 
Having expelled these, the Anglo-Saxons attack 

the Britons, driving them into Wales . . 
Many Britons settled in Armorica (Brittany) 38 
The Saxon Heptarchy ; Britain divided into 

seven or more kingdoms .... 

Supposed reigns of Vortigern, 446 ; Vortimer, 

464 ; Vortigern again, 471 ; Aurelius Anibro- 

sius, 481 ; and Arthur Pendragon 
The renowned king Arthur said to reign t 506-542 
Arrival of St. Augustin (or Austin), and re- 
establishment of Christianity . . . . 
Cadwallader, last king of the Britons, reigns , 
Landisfarne church destroyed by the Northmen 
The Saxon Heptarchy ends, and Egbert, king 

of Wessex, becomes king of England 





Kings of the Heptarchy. + See Bretwalda. 








Kent. [The skire of Kent.'] 
Hengist. [473, Saxon Chronicle.] 
J5sc, Esca, or Escus, son of Hengist ; in honour 

of whom the kings of Kent were for some time 

called Jiscings. 
Octa, son of Msc. 

Hermenric, or Ermenric, son of Octa. 
St. Ethelbert ; first Christian king (styled Rex 

Eadbald, son of Ethelbert. 
Ercenbert, or Ercorabert, son of Eadbald. 
Ecbert, or Egbert, son of Ercenbert. 
Lother, or Lothair, brother of Ecbert. 
Bdric ; slain in 687. [The kingdom now subject 

to various leaders.] 
Wihtred, or Wihgtred. 
Ethelbert II., 
Edbert, or Ethelbert Pryn ; deposed. 

sons of Wihtred, succeeding 
each other. 

796. Cuthred, or Guthred. 

S05. Baldred; who in 823 lost his life and kingdom 
to Egbert, king of Wessex. 

South Saxons. [Sussex and Surrey.] 
490. Ella, a warlike prince, succeeded by 
514. Cissa, his son, whose reign was long and peace- 
ful, exceeding 70 years. 
[The South Saxons then fell into an almost total 
dependence on the kingdom of Wessex.] 
648. Edilwald, Edilwach, Adelwach, or Ethelwach. 
686. Authun and Berthun, brothers : reigned jointly ; 
vanquished by Ina, king of Wessex, 689 ; king- 
dom conquered in 725. 

West Saxons. [Berl:s, Southampton, Wilts, Somei-sel, 

Dorset, Devon, and part of Cornwall] 
519. Cerdiciis. 

534. Cynric, or Kenrick, son of Cerdic. 
560. Ceawlin, son of Cynric ; banished ; dies in 593. 

* The Romans eventually divided Britain into Britannia Prima (the country south of the Thames and 
Severn) ; Britannia Secunda (Wales) ; Flavia Coisariensis (between the Thames, Severn, and Humber) ; 
Maxima CceMj-iensis (between the Humber and the Tyne): and r«tei<ia (between the Tyne and the Firth 
of Forth). 

t The term, " Octarchy " is sometimes used ; Northumbria being divided into Bernicia and Deira, 
ruled by separate kings. 




BRITAIN, continued. 

591. Ceolric, nephew to Ceawlin. 

597. Ceolwulf. 

611. 1^ Cynegils, and in 

614. ) Cwichelm, his son reigned jointlj'. 

643. Cenwal, Cenwalh, or Cenwald. 

672. Sexburga, his queen, sister to Penda, king of 

Mercia ; of great qualities ; probably deposed. 
674. Escwine ; in conjunction with Cent wine ; on 

the death of Escwine. 
676. Centwine rules alone. 
685. Csedwallo : went to Rome, to expiate his deeds 

of blood, and died there. 
688. Ina or Inas, a brave and wise ruler ; journeyed 

to Rome ; left an excellent code of laws. 
728. Ethelheard, or Ethelard, related to Ina. 
740. Cuthrcd, brother to Ethelheard. 

754. Sigebright, or Sigebert, having murdered bis 

friend Cumbran, governor of Hampshire, was 
compelled to fly. He was slain by one of his 
victim's retainers. 

755. Cynewulf, or Kenwulf, or Cenulpe, a noble 

youth of the line of Cerdic ; murdered by a 

bani.shed subject. 
784. Bertric, or Beorhtric : poisoned by drinking of 

a cup his queen had prepared for another. 
800. Egbert, afterwards sole monarch of England, 

and Bretwalda. 

East Saxoks. [Essex, MuldUscx, and pari of I^iis.] 
526, 527, or 530, Erchenwin, or Erchwine. 

587. Sledda ; his son. 

597. St Sebert, or Saber t ; son of the preceding : 
first Christian king. 

614. Saxred or Sexted, or Serred, jointly with Sige- 
bert and Seward ; all slain. 

623. Sigebert II. surnamed the little : son of Seward. 

655. Sigebert III. surnamed the good ; brother of 
Sebert : put to death. 

661. Swithelm (or Suidhelm), son of Sexbald. 

663. Sigher, or Sigeric, jointly vrith Sebbi, or Sebba, 
who became a monk. 

693. Sigenard, or Sigehard, and Suenfrid. 

700. Offa ; left his queen and kingdom, and became 
a monk at Rome. 

709. Suebricbt, or Selred. 

738. Swithred, or Swithed ; a long reign. 

792. Sigeric ; died in a pilgrimage to Rome. 

799. Sigered 

823. Kingdom seized by Egbert of Wessex. 

NoRTHUMBRiA. [Lancaster, Yorlc, Cumberland, West- 
morland, Durham, and Northumberland.] 
\* Northumbria was at first divided into two sepa- 
rate governments, £c)-«!cia and i)«ira,- the for- 
mer stretching from the river Tweed to the 
Tjme, and the latter from the TjTie to the 
547. Ida ; a valiant Saxon. 
560. Adda, his eldest son ; king of Bemicia. 
„ Ella, king of Deira ; afterwards the sole king of 

Kortbumbria(to 587). 
567. Glappa, Clappa, or Elapea : Bemicia. 

572. Heodvrulf ; Bernicia. 

573. Freodwulf ; Bernicia. 
580. Theodoric ; Bernicia. 

588. Ethelric ; Bernicia. 

593. Ethelfrith, surnamed the Fierce. 

617. Edwin, son of Ella, king of Deira in 590. The 

greatest prince of the heptarchy in that age. 

JJtime. blain in battle with Penda, of Mercia. 

634. The kingdom divided ; Eanfrid rviles in Ber- 

nicia, and Osric in Deira ; both put to death. 

635. Oswald slain in battle. 

642. Osweo, or Oswy ; a reign of great renown. 
■670. Ecfrid, or Egfrid, king of Northumbria. 
685. Alcfrid, or Ealdferth. 
705. Osred, son of Ealdferth. 


Cenric ; sprung from Ida. 

Osric, son of Alcfrid. 

Ceolwulf ; died a monk. 

Eadbert, or Egbert ; retired to a monastery. 

Oswulf, or Osulf ; slain in a sedition. 

Edilwald, or Mollo ; slain by Aired. 

Aired, Ailred, or Alured ; deposed. 

Etheh-ed, son of Mollo ; expelled. 

Elwald, or Celwold ; deposed and slain. 

Osred, son of Aired ; fled. 

Ethelred restored ; afterwards slain. 

Erdulf , or Ardulf ; deposed. 


Erdulf restored. 


Kingdom annexed by Egbert. 

East Angles. [Norfolk, Suffolk; Cambridge, Ely.'] 
571 or 575. Uffa ; a noble German. 
578. Titilus or Tituhis ; son of Uffa. 
599. Redwald, son of Titilus; the greatest prince 

of the East Angles. 
624. Erpwald, Eorpwald, or Eordwald. 
627. Richbert. 

629. Sigebert, half-brother to Erpwald. 
632. Egfrid, or Egric ; cousin to Sigebert. 
635. Anna, or Annas ; a just ruler ; killed. 

654. Ethelric, or Ethelhere ; slain in battle. 

655. Ethelwald ; his brother. 
664. Aldulf, or AWwulf. 

713. Selred, or Ethelred. 

746. Alphwuld. 

749. Beorna and Ethelred, jointly. 

758. Beorna alone. 

761. Ethelred. 

790. Ethelbert, or Ethelbryht ; treacherously put 
to death in Mercia in 792, when Offa, king 
of Mercia, overran the country, which was 
finally subdued by Egbert. 

Mercia. [Glovcesler, Hereford., Chester, Stafford, 
Worcester, Oxford, Salop, Wai-wick, Derby, 
Leicester, Bucks, Northampton, Notts, Lincoln, 
Bedford, Rutland, Huntingdon, and part oj 

586. Crida, or Cridda, a noble chieftain, 

593. [Interregnvim — Ceolric ] 

597. Wibba, a valiant prince, his son. 

615. Ceorl, or Cheorl ; nephew of Wibba'. 

626. Penda ; fierce and cruel ; killed in battle. 

655. Peada, son of Penda ; killed to make way for 

656. Wulfhere (brother) ; he slew his two sons with 

his own hand. 
675. Ethelred ; became a monk. 
704. Cenred, Ceudred, or Kendred ; became a monk 

at Rome. 
709. Ceolred, Celred, or Chelred ; son of Ethelred. 
716. Ethelbald ; slain in a mutiny by one of his own 

chieftains, his successor, after a defeat in 

755. Beornred, or Bernred ; himself slain. 
,, Offa ; he formed the great dyke on the borders 

of Wales known by his name. 
794. Egfrid or Egferth, son of Offa ; died suddenly. 
,, Cenulph, Cenwulph, or Keuulph ; slain. 
819. Kenelm, or Cenelm, a minor ; reigned five 

months ; killed by his sister Quendreda, from 

the hope of reigning. Hume. 
„ Ceolwulf, uncle to Kenelm ; expelled. 
821. Beomulf ; killed by his own subjects. 
823. Ludccan ; a valiant ruler ; slain. 
825. Withlafe, or Wiglaf. 
838. Berthulf, or Bertulf. 
852. Burhred, or Burdred. 
874. Ceolwulph ; deposed by the Danes 877. 
[The kingdom merged into that of England. 





BRITANNY. See Brittany. 

BRITISH AMERICA compi'ises Lower and Upper Canada, Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wick, Newfonndiand and Prince Edward's Island, Labrador, Britisli Columbia and Van 
couver's Island. Population about 3,334,000. Delegates from the first six provinces 
jnet at Quebec on Oct. 10, 1864, and on Oct. 20, agreed to the basis of a Federal union, 
with the Queen as the executive (represented by the governor-general), a legislative council 
of 96 members for life, and a house of commons of 194 members. The project has been 
transmitted to lay before parliament, and the secretary for the colonies, Mr. Cardwell, ' 
expressed his approval of the plan, Dec. 3, 1864. The plan was opposed by New Brunswick, 
March 7, 1865. Messrs. Cartier and Gait came to England, in April, 1865, to advocate the 
project, and were well received. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION for the Advancement of Science, was established by sir 
David Brewster, sir R. I. Murchison, &c. in 1831. Professor John Phillips was secretary till 
1863. It holds annual meetings ; the first of which was held at York on Sept. 27, 1831. 
One of its main objects is "to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate science with 
each other." It appoints commissions and makes pecuniary grants for scientific research ; 
and publishes annually a volume containing Reports of the proceedings. Kew observatory 
was presented to the association by the Queen in 1842. 

1. York Meeting 

2. Oxford . 

3. Cambridge 

4. Edinburgh . 

5. Dublin 

6. Bristol . 

7. Liverpool . 

8. Newcastle 

9. Birmingham 


10. Glasgow . . 1840 

11. Plymouth. . 1841 

12. Manchester . . 1842 

13. Cork . . . 1843 

14. York (2nd time) 1844 

15. Cambridge (2Ud) 1845 

16. Southampton . 1846 

17. Oxford (2nd) . 1847 

18. Swansea . . 1848 

Birmingham(2d) 1849 
Edinburgh (2nd) 1850 
Belfast . 
.Hull ■. 

Livei-pool (2nd) 
Glasgow (2nd) 
Dublin (2nd) 



28. Leeds . . 1858 

29. Aberdeen . . 1859 

30. Oxford (3rd) . 1S60 

31. Manchester (2d) i86r 

32. Cambridge (3rd) 1862 

33. Newcastle (2nd) 1863 

34. Bath . . . 1864 

35. Birmingham (3d) 1865 

36. Nottingham for 1866 

BRITISH BANK. See Banks, Joint Stock. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA (N. America). In June, 1858, news came to California that in 
April gold had been found in abrmdance on the mainland of North America, a little to the 
north and east of Vancouver's Island. A great influx of gold-diggers (in a few weeks above 
50,000) from all parts was the consequence. Mr. Douglas, governor of Vancouver's Island, 
evinced much ability in preserving order. The territory with adjacent islands was made a 
British colony with the above title, and placed under Mr. Douglas. The colony was 
nominated and the government settled by 21 & 22 Vic. c. 99 (Aug. 1858), and a bishop 
nominated in 1859. — Eor a dispute in July, 1859, see United States. The colony is said to 
be flourishing. 

BRITISH GUIANA, &c. See Guiana. BRITISH HONDURAS. See Honduras. 

BRITISH INSTITUTION (for the encouragement of British artists. Pall Mall, founded 
in 1805) opened Jan. 18, 1806, on a plan formed by sir Thomas Bernard. In the gallery 
(erected hj alderman Boydell, to exhibit the paintings executed for his edition of Shaks- 
peare), are exhibited pictures by the old masters and deceased British artists. 

BRITISH LEGION, raised by lord John Hay, col. De Lacy Evans, and others, to 
assist queen Isabella of Spain against the Carlists in 1835, defeated them at Hernani, May 
5, 1836, and at St. Sebastian's, Oct. i. 

BRITISH MUSEUM, originated with the grant by parliament (April 5, 1753) of 20,000?. 
to the daughters of sir Hans Sloane, in payment for his fine library, and vast collection of 
the productions of nature and art, which had cost him 50,000?. The library contained 50,000 
volumes and valuable MSS., and 69,352 articles of virtu enumerated in the catalogue. 
Montagu-house was obtained by government as a place for their reception. The museum 
was opened in 1759, and has since been enormously increased by gifts, bequests, and pur- 
chases ; by the (5ottonian, Harleian, and other libraries ; by the Townley marbles (in 1812) ; 
by the Elgin marbles (1816) ; by the Lycian marbles obtained by sir C. Fellows (1842-6) ; 
by the Assyrian antiquities collected by Mr. Austin Layard between 1847 and 1850 ; by the 
antiquities brought from Halicarnassiis (now Budrum), including remains of the celebrated 
tomb of Mausolus, by Mr. C. T. Newton (Nov. 1858) ; and by antiquities from Carthage (i860), 
Cyrene, Rhodes, and the Farnese palace (1864). George II. presented the royal library in 
1757; and in 1823, George IV. presented the library collected at Buckingham-house by 




George III., consisting of 65,250 volumes, and about 19,000 pamphlets. In 1846 the right hon. 
Thos. GrenviUe bequeathed to the museum his library, consisting of 20,240 volumes. Great 
additions to, and improvements in, the buildings have since been made, independently 
of the annual grant.* The fine iron railing enclosing the frontage, was completed in 
1852. The magnificent reading-room, erected by Mr. Sydney Smirke, according to a plan 
by Mr. Antonio Panizzi, the librarian, at a. cost of about 150,000?., -was opened to the 
public, May 18, 1857. The height of the dome is 106 feet, and the diameter 140 feet. The 
room contains about 80,000 volumes, and accommodates 300 readers. — The daily increasing 
library contained in i860 above 562,000 volumes, exclusive of tracts, MSS., &c. In 1861 
the incorporation of the four libi'ary catalogues into one alphabet began — three copies being 
made. The pi'oposed separation of the antiquai'ian, literary, and scientific collections, was 
disapproved by a commission in i860 ; and a bill to remove the natural history collections 
to South Kensington was rejected by the commons on May 19, 1862. A refreshment room 
for readers was opened Nov. 21, 1864. Mr. Panizzi resigned his office in 1865. 


BRITTANY, on Bretagne (N. "W. France), the ancient Armorica, which see. It 
formed part of the kingdom of the Franks. 

The succession disputed between John of 
Montfort (John IV.) supported by Edward 
of England, and Charles of Blois, made duke 
by Philip VI. of France. John is made pri- 
soner ; his -wife, Jane, besieged at Henne- 
bonne, holds out, and is relieved by tbe 
English, 1343; John of Montfort dies . . 1345 

Charks of Blois defeated and slain at Aiuray, 
Sei:)t. 29 : John V., son of Montfort, duke . 1364 

John VI., duke, 1399; Francis I. . . . 1442 

Peter II., 1450; Arthur III i45T 

Francis II., 1458 ; takes part with the Orlcan- 
ists in France ; defeated at St. Aubin, July 
28, 1488 ; he dies in 1488 ; his heiress, Anne, 
compelled to marry Charles VIII., who 
annexes Brittany to France . . . . 1491 

Brittany held by the Spaniards, :s9i ; re- 
covered by Henry IV. 159+ 

The Bretons take part in the Vendcan insur- 
rection (see La Vendue) in 1791 

Komenoi revolts and becomes the first covmt . 841 
Geoffroy I. , the first duke .... 992 

Alan v., 1008 ; Conan II 1040 

Hoel v., 1066; Alan VI 1084 

Conan III 1112 

Hoel VI. expelled ; Geoffroy of Anjou elected 

duke iiSS 

Conan IV. duke, 11 56; on the death of Geof- 
froy, cedes Brittany to Henry II. of England, 
and betroths his daughter, Constance, to 
Henry's son, Geoffroy (both infants) . .1159 

Geoffroy succeeds, 1171 ; killed at a tournament 1185 
His son, Arthur, murdered by his uncle, John 
of England ; his daughter, Eleanor, impri- 
soned at Bristol (for 39 years) . . . . 1202 
Alice, daughter of Constance, and her second 
husband, GuydeThours, proclaimed duchess, 
1203 ; marries Peter of Dreux, made duke . 1213 

John I., duke, 1237; John II 1286 

John III., 1312 ; dies without issue . . . 1341 

BROAD ARROW, a mark for goods belonging to the royal dockyards or navy is said to 
have been ordered to be used in 1698, in consequence of robberies. 

"BROAD BOTTOM" ADMINISTRATION. The Pelham administration (jiJAicA see) 
was so called because it formed a coalition of parties, Nov. 1 744. 

BROCADE, a silken stuff, variegated with gold or silver, and enriched with flowers and 
figures, originally made by the Chinese ; the manufacture was established at Lyons in 1757. 

BROCOLI was brought to England from Italy in the 17th century. 

BROKERS, both of money and merchandise, were known early in England. See 
Appraisers. They are licensed, and their dealings regulated by law in 1695-6, 1816, and 
1826. The dealings of stock -brokers, were regulated in 17 19, 1733, and 1736, and subse- 
quently. See Paicnbroker and Barnard's Act. 

BROMINE (from the Greek hromos, a stink), a poisonous volatile liquid element dis- 
covered in salt water by M. Balard in 1826. It is found in combination with metals and 
mineral waters, but not as yet in the free state. 

BRONZE was known to the ancients, some of whose bronze statues, vessels, &c. are in 
the British Museum. The bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV., 1699, in the Place 
Yeudome at Paris (demolished Aug. loth, 1792), the most colossal ever made ; it contained 
60,000 lbs. Bronze is composed of copper and tin, with sometimes a little zinc and lead. 
Ure. The present bronze coinage, penny, halfpenny and farthing (composed of 95 parts of 
copper, 4 tin, i zinc), came into circulation Dec. i860. 

» The total expenditure by the government en the British Museum for the year ending March 31, 
]E6o, 78,445?.; 1861, 92,776?. ; 1864, 95,500?. : the number of visitors to the general collection in 1851 
(exhibition year), 2,524,754 ; in 1859, 517,895 ; in 1862 (exhibition year), £95,007 ; in 1863, 440,801. 




BROWNIAN MOTIOK So called from Robert Brown, the celebrated botanist, wlio, 
ill 1827, by the aid of the microscope, observed in drops of dew a motion of minute particles 
which at first was attributed to rudimentary life, but was afterwards decided to be due to 
currents occasioned by inequalities of temperature and evaporation. 

BROWNISTS (afterwards called Barromsts), the first Independents {wMch see), began 
with Robert Brown, a schoolmaster in Southwark, about 1580. In 1592 there were said to 
be 20,000 Brownists. Henry Penry, Henry Barrow, ancl other Brownists, were cruelly 
executed for alleged sedition^ May 29, 1593. 

BRUCE'S TRAVELS. James Bruce, the "Abyssinian Traveller," set out in June, 1768, 
to discover the source of the Nile. Proceeding first to Cairo, he navigated the Nile to Syene, 
thence crossed the desert to the Red Sea, and, arriving at Jedda, passed some months in 
Arabia Felix, and after various detentions reached Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, in Feb. 
1770. On Nov. 14th, 1770, he obtained a sight of the sources of the Blue Nile. He 
returned to England in 1773, and died in 1794. 

BRUGES, Belgium, in the 7th century was capital of Flanders, and in the 13th and I4tli 
centuries had become almost the commercial metropolis of the world. It suffered much 
through an insurrection in 1488, and the consequent repression. It was incorporated with 
France in 1794, with the Netherlands in 1814, and with Belgium in 1830. 

BRUNSWICK CLUBS, established to maintain the house of Hanover and the Protestant 
ascendancy in church and state, began in England at Maidstone, Sept. 18, 1828 ; in Ireland 
at the Rotunda in Dublin, Nov. 4, same year. Other cities formed similar clubs. 

BRUNSWICK, House of. The duchy of Brunswick, in Lower Saxony, was conquered 
by Charlemagne, and governed afterwards by counts and dukes. Albert-Azzo, marquis of 
Italy and lord of Este, died in 1055, and left by his wife Cunegonde (the heiress of Guelph, 
duke of Carinthia in Bavaria), a son, Guelph, who was invited into Germany by Imitza, his 
mother-in-law, and invested with all the possessions of his wife's step-father, Guelph of 
Bavaria. (See Bavaria.) His descendant, Henry the Lion, married Maud, daughter of Henry 
II. of England, and is always looked upon as the founder of the Brunswick family. His 
dominions were very extensive ; but having refused to assist the emperor Frederick Barbarossa 
in a war against pope Alexander III., through the emperor's resentment he was proscribed at 
the diet at Wiirtzburg, in 11 80. The duchy of Bavaria was given to Otho, from whom is 
descended the family of Bavaria ; the duchy of Saxony to Bernard Ascanius, founder of the 
house of Anhalt ; and his other territories to different persons. On this, he retired to 
England ; but at the intercession of our Henry II. Brunswick and Lunenburg were restored 
to him. The house of Brunswick in 1409 divided into several branches. Brunswick was 
included by Napoleon in the kingdom of Westphalia in 1806, but was restored to the duke in 
1815. — Population of the duchy of Brunswick in 1858, 273,400 ; 1862, 282,400. 

Lewis-Rodolph, and succeeded him. 

1735. Charles (son). 

1780. Charles-Wilham-Ferdinand (son) : a gi-eat 
general <served under his uncle Ferdinand 
in the Seven Years' War, 1756-1763) ; married 
princess Augusta of England : was kiUed at 
the battle of Auerstadt, Oct. 14, 1806 ; suc- 
ceeded by his fourth son (his elder sons being 
blind, abdicated). 

1806. William-Frederick, whose reign may be dated 
from the battle of Leipsic in Oct., 1813 ; fell 
at Quatre-Bras, commanding the avantgarde 
under the duke of Wellington, June 16, 1815 ; 
succeeded by his eldest son, 

1815. Charles-Frederick- William ; assumed govern- 
ment Oct. 30, 1823. [Revolution at Bruns- 
wick ; the duke retires to England, Sept. 7, 

1830. William- Augustus-Louis, brother ; born April 
25, 1806; succeeded provisionally, Sept. 7, 
1830 ; and, on the demand of the Germanic 
diet, definitively, April 25, 1831 ; the pre- 
sent duke ; unmarried. (His magnificent 
palace was destroyed by fire, Feb. 24, 1865.) 


1409. Bernard (son of Magnus II., duke of Bruns- 
wick. See above). 
1434. Otho and Frederic (his sons). 
1478. Henry (sou of Otho). 

K 2 


1 1 39. Henry the Lion, succeeded by 

1 195. Henry the Long and William (sons). 

1213. Otho I. (son of William). 

1252. Albert I. (son of preceding). 

1278. Albert II. (son). 

1318. Otho, Magnus I., and Ernest (sons). 

1368. Magnus II. (Torquatus) (son of Magnus I.) 


First Branch. 
1409. Henry I. (son of Magnus II.) 
1416. William I. and Henry II. (sons). 

1482. Frederic and William II. ) „ ^f -ht-iij,^ t 

1495. Henry III. and Eric. ] ^°"^ <** "^^^ra I. 

1514. Henry IV. (son of Henry II.) 

1568. Julius (son of preceding). 

1589. Henry Julius (son). 

1613. Frederic-Ulric (son) died without issue. 

Second Branch. 
1634. Augustus (son of Henry of Luneburg). 
1666. Rodolph-Augustus ; who associated his next 

brothel", Anthony-Ulric, in the government, 

from 1685 ; died, 1704. 
1704. Anthony-Ulric now ruled alone; became a 

Roman Catholic in 1710 ; died in 1714. 
1 7 14. Augustus- William (son). 
1731. Lewis-Rodolph (brother). 
1735. Ferdinand-Albert, duke of Brunswick-Bevern, 

married Antoinette-Amelia, daughter of 




BRUNSWICK, continued. 

1532. Ernest T. (son of Otho). His sons were 

1546. Henry (founder of second branch of Bnmswick- 

Wolfenbuttel) and William, whose seven sons 

cast lots to determine who should marry. 

The lot fell on George, sixth son. Four of 

the brothers reigned, viz. : — 
1592. Ernest II. "V 

1611. Christian. ' ;„„„„ 

1633. Augustus. hno issue. 
1636. Frederic II. J 

1648. Christian-Lewis (son of the George above-men' 

1665. George-William (brother of Christian-Lewis), 
dies in 1705 ; leaving as heiress Sophia- 
Dorothea, his daughter, who married in 
1682 her ' cousin, prince George-Lewis of 
Hanover, afterwards George I. of England 
(son of Ernest of Hanover, youngest son of 
the ahone-maitioned George. 

(See Hanover and England.) 

BRUNSWICK THEATRE, Well-street, East London, was built to replace the Royalty, 
burnt down April 11, 1826. It was opened Feb. 25, 1828. On the 29th the building was 
destroyed by the falling in of the walls, due to too nuich weight being attached to the heavy 
iron roof. Fortunately, the catastrophe happened in the day time (during a rehearsal of Guy 
Mannering), and only twelve persons perished. 

BRUSSELS, once capital of Austrian Brabant, now of Belgium (since 183 1), was 
founded by St. Gary, of Cambray, in the 7th century. It is celebrated for its fine lace, 
camlets, and tapestry. The Holel de Ville has a turret 364 feet in height ; and on its top is 
a copper figure of St. Michael, 1 7 feet high, which turns with the wind. See Belgium. 

Bombarded by marshal Villeroi, 14 churches 

and 4000 hou.'!es destroyed . . Aug. 1695 

Taken by the French, 1746 ; and by Dumouriez, 1792 

The revolution commences . . Aug. 25, 1830 

The costly furniture of 16 houses demohshed. 

in consequence of a display of attachment to 

the house of Orange . . . April 5, 1834 

Maritime conference to obtain uniform me- 
teorological observations held here . . 1853 

International philanthropic congress meet 

Sept. 1856 

International 'association for social science 
meet Sept. 22-5, 1862 

BRUTTIUM (now Calabria Oltra), S. Italy, 
slew Alexander of Epirus at Pandosia, 332 B.C. 


The Bruttians and Lticanians defeated and 
They were conq^uered by Rome, 277 B.C. 

See Companies, Law's Bubble, and South-sea Bubble. 

BUCCANEERS,* piratical adventurers, chiefly French, English, and Dutch, who com- 
menced their depredations on the Spaniards of America soon after the latter had taken 
possession of that continent and the West Indies. Their numbers were much increased by a 
twelve years' truce between tlie Spaniards and Dutch in 1609, when many of the discharged 
sailors joined the Buccaneers, and extended the range of then- ravages. The first levy of 
ship-money in England in 1635 was to defray the expense of chastising these pirates. The 
principal commanders of the first Buccaneers were Montbar, Lolonois, Basco, and Morgan, 
said to have murdered thousands and plundered millions. The expedition of Van Horn, of 
Ostend, was undertaken in 1603 ; that of Gramont in 1685 ; and that of Pointis in 1697. 

BUCENTAUR, the vessel in which the doge of Venice used to proceed to wed the 
Adriatic, from the twelfth to the eighteenth century. 

BUCHANITES (in Scotland) : followers of Mrs. Buchan, who about 1779 promised to 
conduct them to the new Jerusalem, prophesied the end of theworld, &c. She diedin 1791, 
when her followers dispersed. 

BUCHAREST (in Wallachia). Preliminaries of peace were ratified at this place between 
Russia and Turkey, it being stipulated that the Pruth should be the frontier of the two 
empires ; signed May 28, 1812. The subsequent war between these powers altered many of 
the provisions of this treaty. Bucharest was occupied by the Russians, Turks, and Austrians 
successively in the Crimean war. The last quitted it in 1856. 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE, the London residence of the sovereign. Old Buckingham- 
house was built on the " Mulberry-gardens," by John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham, in 
1703. In 1761 it was bought by George III., who in 1775 settled it on his queen, Charlotte. 
She made it her town residence ; and here all her children, except the eldest, were bom. 
Here were married the duke of York and princess Frederica of Prussia, in 1791 ; the duke 
of Gloucester and princess Mary, 1816 ; the prince of Hesse-Homburg and princess Elizabeth, 
181 8 ; and the duke of Cambridge and princess of the same year. The house was puUed 
down in 1825, and the present palace commenced on its site. After an expenditure of 

* Rayiial asserts that the na me is derived from a Caribbee word houcan, signifying the place where 
the native savages dried their fo od by smoke ; a custom necessarily adopted by the pirates from their 
mode of life. 




nearly a million sterling it was completed, and occupied by queen Victoria, July 13, 1837. 
Further improvements were made in 1853. The marble arch, taken down from the exterior 
of this palace was re-erected at Cumberland-gate, Hyde-park, March 29, 185 1. 

BUCKLERS, used in single combat, are said to have been invented byPrcetus and 
Acrisius of Argos, about 1370 B.C. When Lucius Papirius defeated the Samnites, he took 
from them bucklers of gold and silver, 309 B.C. The light cuirass of the horse-soldiers called 
cuii'assiers is something akin to the ancient buckler. 

BUCKLES were first worn instead of shoe-strings in the reign of Cliiirles IL, and soon 
became fashionable and expensive from the richness of their material ; about 1791 they had 
fallen out of use. Buckles continue to be used in court dress and by persons of rank in most 
countries of Europe. 

BUDA, on the Danube, once called the Key of Christendom, is, in conjunction with Pesth, 
the capital of Hungary. It was taken by Charlemagne in 799 ; and sacked by Solyman II. 
after the battle of Mohatz, when the Hungarian king, Louis, was killed, and 200,000 of his 
subjects carried away captives, 1526. Buda was sacked a second time, when the inhabitants 
were put to the sword, and Hungary was annexed to the Ottoman empire, I54i- Retaken 
by the Imperialists, under the duke of Lorraine, and the Mahometans delivered up to the 
fury of the soldiers, 1686, It suffered much in 1848-9. See Hiongary. 

BUDE LIGHT (so named from Bude in Cornwall, the residence of Mr. Goldsworthy 
Giirney, its inventor), consists of two or more concentric argand gas-burners, one rising above 
another, which produce a most brilliant flame, like the petals of a rose. The illuminating 
powers were increased by subjecting to the action of the flame manganese, &c., in order to 
produce oxygen and hydrogen gas. The patent was issued in 1841, 

BUDDHISM, the religion (formerly of India, and now of a large part of Asia beyond the 
Ganges and Japan) from which Brahmiuism is said to be derived. Buddha (also Bud, Bot, 
and Poot), or the Wise, flotmshed about 1000 or 800 B.C. The Buddhists believe that the 
soul is an emanation from God, and that if it continue virtuous, it will return to him on the 
death of the body ; but if not so, that it will undergo various degrees and changes of abode. 
Buddhism was expelled from India about A.D. 956. 

BUDGET (from the French hougette, a small bag), a term applied to the English chan- 
cellor of exchequer's statement of the finances of the country. The budgets of Sir R. Peel 
in 1842 (including the income-tax) and 1846 (free trade), and of Mr. Gladstone in i860 (in 
connection with the treaty with France), are the most important in recent times. 

• BUENOS AYRES, a republic of S. America. The country was explored by Sebastian 
Cabot in 1526, and the capital founded by Don Pedro de Mendoza in 1535.^ In 1585^10 
city was rebuilt and recolonised, after several abandonments. Population in 1859 about 

A British fleet and army, under sir Home Pop- 
liam and general Beresford, take the city 
with slight resistance, Jiine 27 ; it is re- 
taken Aug. 12 i8o5 

Monte Video taken by storm by sir Samuel 
Auchmuty, Feb. 3 ; evacuated July 7 . . 1807 

General Whitelock and 8000 British enter 
Buenos Ayres ; severely repulsed . July s, 1807 

Independence of the province declared, July ig, 1816 

Recognised as forming part of the Argentine 
coiifederation Feb. 1822 

[A prey to civil war through the violent in- 
trigues of Rosas, Oribe, Urquiza, and others, 
for many years.] 

Oribe defeated by general Urquiza, to whom 
Buenos Ayres capitulates . . Feb. 3, 1852 

Rosas flees, arrives at Plymouth . April 25, ,, 

BUFFOOKS were originally mountebanks in the Roman theatres, 
discouraged by Domitian, and abolished by Trajan, 98. See Jesters. 

BUILDING. In early times men dwelt in caves ; wood and clay were the first building 
materials. BuUdingwith stone was early among the Tyrians ; in England it may be referred 
to Benedict the monk, about 670. In Ireland a castle was biiilt of stone at Tuam by the 
king of Connaught, in 1161 ; and it was "so new and uncommon as to be called the 

Urquiza deposed, Sept. 10 ; invests the city ; 
after some successes he retires . . Dec. 1852 

Buenos Ayres secedes from the Argentine con- 
federation, and is recognised as an inde- 
pendent state ; the first governor. Dr. D. 
Pastor Obligado, elected . . Oct. 12, 1853 

Dr. Valentin Alsina elected governor . May, 1857 

War breaks out ; Urquiza, general of the forces 
of the Argentine confederation, has an inde- 
cisive conflict with the Buenos Ayres general 
Mitre Oct. 23, 1859 

A treaty signed, by which Buenos Ayres is re- 
united with the Argentine confederation 

Nov. II, 1859 

Fresh contests : Mitre defeats Urquiza in an 
almost bloodless contest at Pavon ; Urquiza 
retu-es Sept. 17, 1861 

Their shows were 

BUI 134 BUL 

Wonderful Castle.'" Building witli brick was introduced by the Romans into their provinces. 
Alfred encouraged it in England in 886. It was adopted by the earl of Arundel, about 1598, 
London being then almost wholly built of wood. See Architecture. 

BUILDING ACTS were passed by Elizabeth in 1562, 1580, and 1592 ; and *)y Charles II. 
in 1667. Recent acts are very numerous ; and building is now regulated by stringent pro- 
visions enforced by law. The Building Act for the Metropolis is 7 & 8 Vict. c. 84 (1844), 
amended in 1855 and i860. 

BUILDING SOCIETIES, formed to enable a person to purchase a house by paying 
money periodically to a society for a certain number of years, instead of paying rent to a 
landlord, began about 1836, when an act was passed for their regulation, 

BULGARIA, anciently Mcesia, now part of European Turkey. The Bulgarians were a 
Slavonian tribe, who harassed the Eastern empire and Italy from 499 to 678, when they 
established a kingdom. They defeated Justinian II., 687; but were subdued, after several 
conflicts, by the emperor Basil, in loiS, who in 1014, having taken 15,000 Bulgarian 
prisoners, caused their eyes to be put out, leaving one eye only to every hundredth man, to 
enable him to conduct his countrymen home. The kingdom was re-established in 1096 ; but 
after many changes, it was conquered and annexed to the Ottoman empire, about 1391. In 
Jan. 1 86 1, it was stated that the Bulgarians had seceded from the Greek to the Roman 

BULL, OR Edict of the Pope. The bulla is properly the seal, either of gold, silver, 
lead, or wax. On one side are the heads of Peter and Paul ; and on the other the name 
of the pope, and year of his pontificate. A bull against heresy was issued by Gregory IX. 
in 1231. Pius V. published a bull against Elizabeth, April 25, 1570 ; in 1571 buUs were 
forbidden to be promulgated in England. The bull Unigenilus against the Jansenites was 
issued by Clement XI. in 1713. The Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV., so called 
from its golden seal, was made the fundamental law of the German empire, at the diet of 
Nuremberg, 1356. See Brazen Bull. 

BULL-BAITING, or Bull Fighting, a sport somewhat equivalent to the fights of the 
gladiators among the Romans, still exists in Spain, where the ladies are among the spectators. 
It is recorded as being an amusement at Stamford so early as the reign of John, 1209. Bull- 
running was a sport at Tutbury in 1374. In the Sjjorts of England, we read of the "Easter 
fierce hunts, wheu foaming boars fought for their heads, and lusty bulls and huge bears were 
baited with dogs ;" and near the Clink, London, was the Paris, or Bear Garden, so celebrated 
in the time of Elizabeth for the exhibition of bear-baiting, then a fashionable amusenient. 
A bill to abolish bull-baiting was thrown out in the commons, chiefly through the influence 
of the late Mr. Windham, who made a singular speech in favour of the custom, May 24, 
1802. It was made illegal in 1835. See Cruelly to Animals. Bull-fights were introduced 
into Spain about 1260 : abolished there, "except for pious and 2}atriotic purposes," in 1784. 
In June, 1833, ninety-nine bulls were killed at bull-fights at Madrid. There was a bull- 
fight at Lisbon, at Campo de Santa Anna, attended by 10,000 spectators, on Sunday, 
June 14, 1840. 

BULLETS of stone were in use, 15 14. Iron ones are mentioned in the Fcedera, 1550. 
Leaden bullets were made before the close of the sixteenth centuiy. The cannon-ball in 
some eastern countries was long of stone. Ashe. The conoidal cup rifle-ball was invented 
by capt. Miui^, about 1833 ; a modification of this (conoidal but without cup), by ill-. 
Pritchett (1853), is used with the Enfield rifle. Other bullets have been since devised. 

BULLION, uncoined gold and silver. The " Bullion Report" of a parliamentary com- 
mittee in 1810, principally guided by Mr. Horner and Mr. (afterwards Sir R.) Peel, established 
the conclusion, that paper money is always liable to be over-issued and consequently depre- 
ciated, unless it be at all times immediately convertible into gold. This principle has been 
adopted in British monetary arrangements. 

BULL RUN BATTLES. See Manassas. 

BULWER-CLAYTON TREATY, ratified July 4, 1850, by which sir Henry Lylton 
Bulwcr on behalf of the British, and Mr. Clayton on behalf of the American government, 
declared that neither would obtain exclusive control over the proposed ship canal through 
Central America, or erect any foi'tification on any part of the country. Disputes afterwards 
arose with respect to this treaty and the connection of Great Britain with the Mosquito 
tenitoiy {which see), which were settled in 1857. 




BUNKER'S HILL (near Boston, U.S.), the site of a severe contest on June 17, 1775, 
between the British (nearly 3000) and the revolted Americans (about 2000) ; the latter were 
ultimately compelled to retreat. It was one of the eai'liest actions in the war, and the 
Americans refer to it with national pride, on account of their heroic resistance. Ralph 
Farnham, who was present at the battle, died on Dec. 28, i860, aged 1044 years. He was 
introduced to the prince of "Wales when in America. 

BUONAPARTE. See France. 

BURFORD CLUB, the appellation given (according to Mr. Layer, the banister, a con- 
spirator, see Layer) by the Pretender and his agents to a club of Tory lords and others, of 
which lord Orrery was chairman, and lord Strafford, sir Henry Goring, lord Cowper, Mr. 
Hutcheson, the bishop of Rochester, sir Constantine Phipps, general Webb, lord Biugley, 
lord Craven, Mr. Dawkins, lord Scarsdale, lord Bathurst, Mr. Shippen, and lord Gower, 
were members. This club was said to meet at the members' houses, to form designs against 
the government. This story was set aside by the solemn declarations of lord Cowper and lord 
Strafford, that they did not know of its existence. The list of this pretended club was 
published in the Weekly Journal, printed in Whitefriars ; but when Read, the printer of the 
paper, was ordered to appear at the bar of the house, he absconded. March, 1722. Salmon. 

BURGESSES, from the French Bourgeois, a distinction coeval in England with its corpo- 
rations. They were called to parliament in England, 1265 ; in Scotland in 1326 ; and in 
Ireland about, 1365. Burgesses to be resident in the places they represented in parliament, 
I Hen. y. (1413). See Borough. 

BURGHER SECEDERS, a small number of dissenters from the chm-ch of Scotland, 
from a difference regarding the lawfulness of taking the burgess oath, 1 739. 

BURGLARY was a capital offence till 1829. Formerly, he who convicted a burglar was 
exempted from parish offices, 1699 ; Statute of Rewards, 5 Anne, 1706 ; and 6 Geo. 1. 1720. 
Receivers of stolen plate and other goods to be transported, 10 Geo. III. 'i^^o. Persons 
liavkig upon them picklock-keys, &c., to be deemed rogues and vagabonds, 13 Geo. III. 
1772-3. The laws with respect to burglary were amended by Mr. (afterwards sir Robert) 
Peel's acts between 1823 and 1829. 

BURGOS (Spain), the burial place of the Cid, 1099. Lord "Wellington entered Burgos 
on Sept. 19, after the battle of Salamanca (fought July 22, 1812). The castle was besieged 
by the British and allied army, but the siege was abandoned Oct. 21, same year. The forti- 
fications were blown up by the French, June 12, 1813. 

BURGUNDY, a large province in France, derives its name from the Burgundians, a 
Gothic tribe who overran Gaul in 275, but were driven out by the emperor Probus : they 
returned in 287, and were defeated by Maximin. In 413 they established a Kingdom, 
comprising the present Burgundy, large parts of Switzerland, with Alsace, Savoy, Provence, 
&c. Gondicar, their leader, was the first king. — The second kingdom, consisting of a part of 
the first, began with Gontran, son of Clotaire I. of France, in 561. The kingdom of Aries, 
Provence, and Transjurane Burgundy, were formed out of the old kingdom. — In 877 Charles 
the Bald made his brother-in-law Richard the first Duke of Burgundy. In 938, Hugh the 
Great, count of Paris, founder of the house of Capet, obtained the duchy. His descendant, 
Henry, on becoming king of France, conferred it on his brother Robert, in whose family it 
remained till the death of Philippe de Rouvre, without issue, in 1361. In 1363, king John 
of France, made his fourth son, Philip, duke, who greatly enlarged his dominons by marrying 
the heiress of Louis, count of Flanders, Artois, &c. (See Austria and Germany.) 

1363. Philip the Bold. 

1404. John the Fearless (son), joined English in- 
vading France ; supposed to have been privy 
to the assassination of the duke of Orleans 
in 1407 ; was himself assassinated at Mon- 
tereau, in the presence of the dauphin, Sept., 

1419. Philip the Good (son), the most powerful duke 

in the world ; married to Margaret of York, 

sister to Edward IV. 
1467. Charles the Bold : killed in an engagement 

with the Swiss, before Nancy, Jan. 4, 1477. 
1477. Mary (daughter); married Aug., 1477, to 

Maximilian of Austria ; died March 27, 1482. 
1479. Louis XI. annexed Burgundyto France. The 

other dominions fell to Austria. 

BURIALS. Abraham biuied Sarah at Machpelah, i860 B.C., Gen. xxiii. Places of 
burial were consecrated under pope Calixtus I. in A.B. 210. Eusebius. The Greeks had 
then- burial-places at a distance from their towns ; the Romans near the highways ; hence 
the necessity for inscriptions. The first Christian burial-place, it is said, was instituted in 
596 ; burial in cities, 742 ; in consecrated places, 750 ; in churchyards, 758. Many of the 
early Christians are buried in the catacombs at Rome. See Catacombs. Vaults were 




erected in chancels first at Canterbury, 1075. Woollen shrouds were used in England, 1666. 
Linen scarfs were introduced at funerals in Ireland, 1729; and woollen shrouds used, 1733. 
Burials were taxed, 1695 — again, 1783. The acts relating to metropolitan burials were 
passed 1853, 1854, 1855, and 1857. See Cemeteries. Parochial registers of burials, births, 
and marriages, were instituted in England by Cromwell, lord Essex, about 1538. Stow. 
A tax was enacted on burials in England — for the burial of a duke 50?., and for that of a 
common person 45. — under Will. III. 1695, and Geo. III. 1783. See Bills of Mortality. 

BURKING, a new species of murder, committed in Britaiu, thus named from Burke, the 
first known criminal by whom it was perpetrated. His victims were killed by pressure or 
other modes of suffocation, and the bodies, which exhibited no marks of violence, were sold 
to the surgeons for dissection. He was executed at Edinburgh, Jan. 28, 1829. A monster 
named Bishop was apprehended in Nov. 1831, and executed in London, Dec. 5, with 
Williams, one of his accomplices, for the murder of a poor friendless Italian boy named 
Carlo Ferrari. They confessed to this and other similar murders. 

BURLINGTON HEIGHTS. Here a fierce contest took place between the British and 
the United States American forces, June 6, 1813. The British carried the heights. 

BURMESE, OR BIRMAN, EMPIRE, founded in the middle of the i8th century by 
Alompra, the first sovereign of the present dynasty. Our first dispute with this formidable 
power in 1795, was amicablj'- adjusted by general Erskine. Hostilities were commenced by 
the British in 1824, and they took Rangoon on May 11. The fort and pagoda of Syriam 
were taken in 1825. After a short armistice, hostilities were renewed, Dec. i, same year, 
and pursued until the successive victories of the British led to the cession of Arracan, and to 
the signature of peace, Feb. 24, 1826. For the events of this Avar, and of the war in 1851, 
see h^dia. Pegu was annexed to our Indian em j)ire, Dec. 20, 1852. The war ended June 
20, 1853. 

BURNING ALIVE was inflicted among the Romans, Jews, and other nations, on the 
betrayers of coimsels, incendiaries, and for incest. The Britons punished heinous crimes by 
burning alive in wicker-baskets. See StoneJienge. — This punishment was countenanced by 
bulls of the pope ; and witches suflfered in this manner. See Witches. Many persons have 
been burned alive on account of religious principles. The first sufferer was sir William 
Sa-\vtre, parish priest of St. Osytli, London, 3 Hen. IV., Feb. 9, 1401. In the reign of 
Mary, numbers were burned ; among others, Ridley, bishop of London, Latimer, bishop of 
Rochester, and Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, at Oxford in 1555 and 1556.* 
Bartholomew Leggatt and Edward Wightman Avere burned for heresy in 1612, by warrant 
of James I. 

BURNING THE DEAD was practised among the Greeks and Romans, and the poet 
Homer gives descriptions of it. It was veiy genei-al about 1225 B.C., and was revived by 
Sylla about 78 B.C. It is still practised in parts of the East Indies. See Suttees, Barrows. 

BURNING-GLASS and Concave Mirrors. Their power Avas knoAvn to Archimedes, 
and it is even asserted that by their aid he burnt a fleet in the harbour of Sjracuse, 2 14 B. c. ; 
their poAvers were increased by Settalla ; Tschirnhausen, 1680 ; Buffon, 1747 ; and Parker 
and others more recently. The following experiments were made about 1800, with Mr. 
Parker's lens or bui'ning mirror, which cost jool., and is said to have been the largest ever 
made. It was sold to capt. Mackenzie, Avho took it to China, and left it at Pekin. 

Substances fused. Weight. Time. 

Pvire gold 20 grains 4 seconds. 

Silver 20 ,, 3 ,, 

Copper 33 ,',' 20 ',' 

Platina 10 ,, 3 ,, 

Cast iron (a cube) . . . 10 ,'' 3 ," 

Steel ID ,, 12 ,',' 

A topaz ..... 3 45 

An emerald . . . . 2 ,'' 25 " 

BURWELL FIRE. A number of persons assembled to see a puppet-shoAv in a barn at 
Burwell near Newmarket, Sept. 8, 1727. A candle having set fire to a heap of straAV, 
seventy-six individuals perished, and others died of their wounds. 

* It is computed, that during the throe years of Mary's reign, there were 277 persons brought to the 
stake ; besides those who were punished by imprisonment, fines, and confiscations. Among those who 
suffered by fire were 5 bishops, 21 clergymen, 8 lay gentlemen, 84 tradesmen, 100 husbandmen, servants, 
and labourers, 55 women, and 4 children. The pi-incipal agents of the queen were the bishops Gardiner 
and Bonner. The latter is said to have derived a savage pleasure from witnessing the torture of the 

Siihitances fused. Weiffht. Time. 

A crystal pebble . . • • 7 grains 6 seconds. 

Flint ID ,, 30 ,, 

Cornelian 10 ,, 75 ,, 

Pumice stone . . . . 10 ,, 24 „ 
Green wood takes fire instantaneously ; water boils 
immediately ; bones are calcined ; and things not 
capable of melting at once become red-hot, like 

BUR 137 BUT 

BURY ST. EDMUND'S, Suffolk, uamed from St. Edmund, king of East Anglia, who 
was murdered by the Danes in 870, and buried here, and to whom its magnificent abbey was 
founded. It shares with Runnymede the honour of producing Magna Charta in 12 15 ; it 
having been prepared here by the barons in 1214. Henry VI. summoned a parliament in 
1447, when Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned, and died here, it is supposed by 
poison. It was almost consumed by fire in 1608 ; and was desolated by plague in 1636. 

BURYING ALIVE. A mode of death adopted in Bceotia, where Creon oi'dered Antigone, 
the sister of Polynices, to be buried alive, 1225 b.c. The Roman vestals were subjected to 
it for any levity that excited suspicion of their chastity. The vestals buiied alive on a charge 
of incontinence, were Minutia, 337B.C. ; Sextilla, 274B.C. ; Cornelia, A. D. 92. Lord Bacon 
gives instances of the resurrection of persons who had been buried alive ; the famous Duns 
Scotus is of the number. The two assassins of Capo d'Istria, president of Greece, were 
sentenced to be immured in brick walls built around them up to their chins, and to be 
supplied with food in this species of torture until they died, Oct. 183 1. 

BUSACO, or Buzaco (Portugal). Here the British, under lord "Wellington, repulsed 
the French army, commanded by Massena, Sept. 27, 1810. The latter losing one general 
and 1000 men killed, two generals and about 3000 men wounded, and several hundred 
prisoners ; the loss of the allies did not exceed 1300 ; the British retreated to the lines of 
Torres Vedras, which were too strong for Massena to force, and the two armies remained in 
sight of each other to the end of the 3''ear. 

BUSHEL. This measure was ordered to contain eight gallons of wheat, 12 Henry VIII. 
1520 ; the legal Winchester bushel was regulated 9 Will. III. 1697 ; the imperial corn 
bushel of 22i8'i92 cubic inches is to the Winchester of 2I50'42, as 32 to 31. Regulated by 
act S Geo. IV. June, 1824, which act came into operation Jan. i, 1826. 

BUSHIRE (on the Persian Gulf), attacked by sea by sir H. Leeke and by land by 
general Stalker, was taken Dec. 10, 1856. The place proved stronger than was expected, 
and was bravely defended. Brigadier Stopford and col. Malet were killed in a previous 
attack on the fort at Reshire, Dec. 9. The loss of the British was four of&cers killed, and 
one wounded ; five men killed and thirty-five wounded. 

BUSSORAH. See Bassorah. 

BUSTS. This mode of preserving the remembrance of the human features is the same 
with the hcrmce of the Greeks. Lysistratus, the statuary, was the inventor of moulds, from 
which he cast wax figures, 328 B.C. Pliny. Busts from the face i\\ plaster of Paris were 
first taken by Andrea Verrochi, about A.D. 1466. Smaller busts and statuettes are now 
accm-ately produced from larger ones by machinery. 

BUTCHERS. Among the Romans there were three classes : the Suarii provided hogs, 
the Boarii oxen, which the Lanii killed. The butchers' company in London is ancient, 
although not incorporated till 1604, 

BUTE ADMINISTRATION. John earl of Bute, tutor of prince George (afterwards 
George III.), obtained great influence over him. His administration formed in May, 1762, 
resigned April, 1763. It was severely attacked by Juniiis and John Wilkes. 

John, earl of Bute, first lord of the treasury. j Lord Ligonier, ordnance. 

Sir Francis Dashwood, chancellor of the exchequer. Henry Fox, afterwards lord Holland, paymaster of 

T-iOrA. QTc&a.'vi\le, president of the covMcil. the forces. 

Duke of Bedford, privy seal. Viscount Barrington, treasurer of the navy. 

Earl of Halifax, admiralty. Lord Handys, first lord of trade. 
Earl of Egremont and George GrenvUle, secretaries Duke of Marlborough, earl Talbot, lord Huntingdon , 

of state. I lord North, &c. 

BUTTER. It was late before the Greeks had any notion of butter, and by the early 
Romans it was used onlj'- as a medicine — never as food. The Christians of Egypt burnt 
butter in their lamps instead of oil, in the 3rd century. Butter forming an important article 
of commerce as well as food in these countries, various statutes have passed respecting its 
package, weight, and sale ; the principal of which are the 36th & 38th Geo. III. and 10 Geo. 
IV. 1829. In Africa, vegetable butter is made from the fruit of the shea tree, and is of 
richer taste, at Kebba, than any butter made from cow's milk. Mungo Park. The import 
duty of 5s. per cwt. on foreign butter (producing in 1859, 104,587?. on 421,354 cwts.) was 
repealed in i860. 

BUT 138 CAB 

BUTTONS, au early manufacture in England ; tliose covered with cloth were prohibited 
by a statute, thereby to encourage the maniifacture of metal buttons, 8 Geo. I. 1721. They 
are now made of glass, porcelain, &c. 

BUXAR, a town in Bengal, near to which, on Oct. 23, 1764, sir Hector Monro (with 
857 Europeans and 6215 sepoys) gained a great victory over the troops of the nabob of Oude, 
&c., 50,000 in number ; 6000 of these were killed, and 130 pieces of cannon were taken. 
The loss of the English was trifling. 

BY-LAWS, OK Bye-Laws (from Danish, bye), a town, private ordinances made by sub- 
ordinate communities, such as corporations. These laws must not militate against the law 
of the land. By 5 & 6 Will. IV. 1834, those made by corporate bodies become valid, if not 
disallowed by the king's council within forty days after their enactment. 

BYNG, Hon. Admiral John, was chai-ged with neglect of duty in an engagement with 
the enemy off Minorca, May 20, 1756, condemned for an en-or of judgment, and shot on 
board the Monarch at Spithead, March 14, 1757. 

BYRON'S VOYAGE. Commodore Byron left England on his voyage round the globe 
June 21, 1764, and returned May 9, 1766. He discovered the populous island in the Pacific 
Ocean which bears his name, Aug. 16, 1765. Though brave and intrepid, such was his 
general ill-fortune at sea, that he was called by the sailors of the fleet " Foulweather Jack." 

BYZANTIUM, now Constantinople, founded by a colony of Megarians, under Byzas, 
667 B.C. ; but various dates and jiersons are given. It was taken successively by the Medes, 
Athenians, and Spartans. In 340 B.C., in alliance with the Athenians, the Byzantines 
defeated the fleet of Philip of Macedon. During the wars with Macedon, Syria, &c., it 
became an ally of the Romans, by whom it was taken, A.D. 73. Rebelling, it was taken 
after two years' siege and laid in ruins by Severus in 196. Byzantium was re-founded by 
Constantine in 324, and dedicated in May 22, 330, all the heathen temples being destroyed ; 
from him it received the name of Constantinople. See ConsiaiUino2}le. Byzantine Art 
flourished from the time of Constantine to about 1204. The Byzantine or Eastern empire 
really commenced in a.d. 395, when Theodosius divided the Roman empire. See East. 


CABAL (from Italian and Spanish, cabala, secret knowledge). In English history, the 
term was applied to the cabinet of Charles II. in 1670 ; the word Cabal being formed from the 
initials of their names : sir Thomas, afterwards lord Clifford (C) ; the lord Ashley (A), 
(afterwards earl of Shaftesbury) ; George Villiers, duke of Buckingham (B) ; Henry, lord 
Arlington (A) ; and John, duke of Lauderdale (L). 

CABBAGE. Varieties were brought to these realms from Holland about 15 10. To sir 
Arthur Ashley of Dorset the first planting in England is ascribed. It was introduced into 
Scotland by the soldiers of Cromwell's army. See Gardening. 

CABBALA, a Hebrew word, signifying recension or tradition, applied to a mystical mode 
of intei-preting the Scriptures as well as natural things, said to have been given to Adam by 
angels, and transmitted from father to son by his descendants. It is said to have been lost 
at the Babylonian captivity (587 B.C.), but to have been revealed again to Ezra. The 
Cabbalists were opposed by the philosophers and by Talmudists, which see. 

CABINET COUNCIL. There were councils in England as early as the reign of Ina, 
king of the West Saxons, 690 ; Ofl"a, king of the Mercians, 758 ; and in other reigns of the 
Heptarchy. State councils are referred to Alfred the Great. Spelman. See Adminis- 
trations, p. 8. 

CABLES. A machine was invented in 1792, for making the largest, by which human 
labour was reduced nine-tenths. Chain caMes were introduced into the British navy 
about 18 1 2. 

CABRIOLETS {vulgo Cabs), one-horsed vehicles, were introduced into the" streets of 
London in 1823, when the number plying was twelve. In 183 1 they had increased to 165, 
and then the licences were thrown open. The number in 1862 running in the meti'opolis 
exceeded 6000 (of Avhich about 1800 only jjlied on Simday). Previous to throwing open the 
trade, the number of hackney carriages was limited to 1200, when there were few omnibuses, 
which see. 





Cabmen's clubs began at Paddington in . Feb. 

A London General Cab Company pubUsbed its 
prospectus, professing a reformed system, 


Cab Tragedy. — S. H. Hunt, a servant of Butler 
and MacCulluob's, seedsmen, Covent-garden, 
London, poisoned his wife and children in a 
cab, on Nov. 7, 1863 ; and himself on Nov. 9, 
at his own house, just before his apprehen- 

The cabmen in Pai-is strike against a company ; 
above 3000 vehicles stopped, June 16 ; fierce 
attack on men who give in ; strike subsides, 

June 23, 1865 

CABRIOLETS, continued. 

Cab Strike. — On June 28, 1853, an act (called 
Mr. FitzRoy's act) was passed for "the bet- 
ter regulation of metropolitan stage and 
hackney carriages, and f<>r prohibiting the 
use of advertising vehicles," by which the 
cab fares were reduced to 6d. a mile. It came 
into operation July 11, and on the 27th a 
general strike of the London cabmen took 
place. Much inconvenience was felt, and 
every kind of vehicle was employed to sup- 
ply the 'deficiency. Some alterations (pre- 
viously agreed on) having been made in the 
act, the cabs re-appeared on the stands on 

CABUL, OR Cabool, a city of Afghanistan, taken 977 hj Subuctajeen, grandfather of 
Mahomed, founder of the Gaznevide dynasty. It was taken by Nadir Shah in 1738. It was 
the capital of the Durani enipu'e at the end of the last century. In 1809 the sovereign Shah 
Soojah was expelled, and eventually Cabul came into the hands of Dost Mahomed, a clever and 
ambitious chieftain. In 1839 the Bi'itish restored Shah Soojah ; but in 1842 a dreadful out- 
break took place. The chief Biitish civil officer, sir Wm. M'Naghten, was massacred, and 
the British commenced a most disasti'ous retreat. Of 3849 soldiers, and about 12,000 camp 
followers, only one European, Dr. Dryden, and four or five natives escaped. In the same 
year (Sept. 16) general afterwards sir George Pollock retook the town, and rescued lady Sale 
and many of the prisoners. After destroying many public buildings, he left Cabul to its 
fate, Oct. 12, 1842. 

CADDEE, OR League of God's House, the celebrated league of independence in Swit- 
zerland, formed by the Orisons to resist domestic tyranny, 1400 to 1419. A second league 
of the Grisons was called the Grise or Gray League, about 1424. A thii'd league, called the 
League of Ten Jurisdictions, was formed in 1436. 

CADE'S INSURRECTIOlSr. Jack Cade, an Irishman, a fugitive on account of his 
crimes, assumed the name of Mortimer, and headed about 20,000 Kentish men, who armed 
" to punish evil ministers, and procure a redress of grievances." He defeated and slew sir 
Humphrey Stafford, at Sevenoaks, Jime 27, 1450 ; entered London in triumph, and beheaded 
the lord treasurer, lord Saye, and several other pei'sons of consequence, July 3. The insur- 
gents at length losing ground, a general pardon was proclaimed ; and Cade, deserted by his 
followers, fled. A reward was offered for his apprehension : he was discovered, and refusing 
to surrender, was slain by Alexander Iden, sheriff of Kent, July 11. 

CADIZ (W. Spain), anciently Gadiz, the Eoman Gades ; said to have been buUt by the 

One hundred vessels of the Spanish aiToada 

destroyed in the port by sir Francis Drake . 1587 
Cadiz was taken by the EngHsh, under the earl 

of Essex, aud plundered . . Sept. 13, 1596 
Vainly attacked by sir George Rooke . . 1702 
Bombarded by the British in . . . . 1797 
Blockaded by lord St. Vincent for two years 1797-9 
Again bombarded by the British . . Oct. 1800 
A French squadron of five ships of the line and 

a frigate surrender to the Spaniards and 

British June 14, 1808 

Besieged by the French, but the siege was 

raised after the battle of Salamanca . July, 1812 
Massacre of a thousand inhabitants by the 

soldiery March 10, 1820 

Taken by the French in 1823, and held till . 1828 
Declared a free port 1829 

CADMIUM, a metal, discovered by Stromeyer in 181 8. 

CAEK (N. Prance), a place of importance before 912, when it became the capital of the 
possessions of the Normans, under whom it flourished. It was taken by the English in 1346 
and 1417 ; but was finally recovered by the French in 1450. 

CAERlSrARyOISr (S. Wales). In the castle (founded in 1283 or 1284) Edward II. was 
born, April 25, 1284; and the town was chartered by Edward I. in the same j'-ear. The 
town suffered by the civil war of Charles, but was finally retained for the parliament. 

CjESAREAIST SECTION, which, it is said, first gave the name of Csesar to the Eoman 
family, is performed by cutting the child out of the womb, when it cannot otherwise be 
delivered. The case of AKce O'Neal, an Irishwoman, who survived the section, which was 
performed by a female, is authenticated by Dr. Gabriel King, of Armagh, and surgeon Duncan 
Stewart, of Duugannon. In Jan. 1847, the operation was performed in St. Bartholomew's 
hospital, London, on a young woman of diminutive stature, under the influence of ether : 




but she died the next day. On Dec. 9, i860, a similar operation was successfully performed 
l.iy Dr. James Edmunds at Bethnal Green. On the continent the operation is said to have 
been more frequent and more successful. Cooper's Surgical Dictionary (ed. 1861) contains 
a table, which, out of 2009 cases, gives a naortality of 55*4 per cent, of the mothers and 
29'45 per cent, of the children. 

CiESARS. See Rome : Emperors. The Era of the Caesars or Spanish Era, is reckoned 
from the ist of Jan. 38 B.C., being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus. 
It was much used in Africa, Spain, and the south of France ; but by a synod held in 1180 
its use was abolished in all the churches dependent on Barcelona. Pedro IV. of Arragon 
abolished the use of it in his dominions in 1350. John of Castile did the same in 1383. It 
was used in Portugal till 1415, if not till 1422. The months and days of this era are 
identical with the Julian calendar ; and to turn the time into that of our era, subtract thirty- 
eight from the year ; but if before the Christian era, subtract thirty-nine. 

CiESIUM (Latin, bluish), a rare alkaline metal, found in some mineral watei'S by Bunsen 
in 1861, by means of the "Spectrum analysis," tvhich see. 

CAFFEARIA, and Caffee AVar. See Kaffraria. 

CAGLIARI. See Naples, note. 

CA IRA ! the burden of a popular song, during the French revolution, 1791 : 

"Ah! ?a ira, ?a ira, <;a ira ! Les Aristocrates a la lanteme !" (" It will proceed ! &c. Hang the aristocrats.") 

CAI-FONG (China), was besieged by 100,000 rebels, in 1642. The commander of the 
relieving forces, in order to drown the enemy, broke down its embankments. All the 
liesiegers perished ; but 300,000 of the citizens also. 

CAIRO, OR Grand Cairo, the modern capital of Egypt, remarkable for the minarets of 
its mosques, and the sepulchres of its caliphs, in what is called the " city of the dead." 

It was built by the Saracens .... 969 
Burnt to prevent its occupation by the Cru- 
saders 1220 

Taken by the Turks from the Egyptian sultans 1517 
Ruined by an earthquake and a great fire, 

when 4o,cx)o persons perished . . June, 1754 
Taken by the French under Napoleon Bona- 
parte ; they enter the city . . July 23, 1798 
Taken by the British and Turks, when 6000 
French capitulated . . . June 27, i8oi 

CALABRIA (the ancient Messapia, S.E. Italy), was conquered by the Romans, 266 B.C. 
It fortned part of the kingdom of the Ostrogoths under Theodoric, a.d. 493 ; was re-con- 
quered (for the Eastei-n empire) by Belisarius, 536 ; subdued by the Lombards and joined 
to the duchy of Benevento, 572. After various changes, it was conquered by Robert 
Guiscard, the Norman, 1058, who obtained the title of duke of Calabria, and eventually 
that of king of Naples. See Napiles. 

CALAIS (N. W. France), taken by Edward III. after a year's siege, Aug. 4, 1347, and 
held by England 210 years. It was retaken by the duke of Guise, in the reign of Mary, 
Jan. 7, 1558, and its loss so deejily touched the queen's heart, as to cause some to say it 
occasioned her death, which occuri-ed soon afterwards, Nov. 1 7, same year. ' ' When I am 
dead," said the queen, "Calais will be found written on my heart. " It was held by the 
Spaniards, 1594-6 ; and was bombarded by the English, 1694. Here Louis XVIII. landed 
after his long exile from France, April 1814. 

CALATRAVA. See Knighthood. 

CALCIUM, tlie metallic base of lime, was discovered at the Royal Institution, London, 
by Humphrey Davy in 1808. 

CALCULATING MACHINES. With the utmost care, errors in computation and in 
printing will always occur in logarithms and tables of figures. To avoid them, machines to 
calculate and print have been devised. Pascal, when nineteen years of age, invented one 
about 1650. The construction of Mr. C. Babbage's machine was commenced at the expense 
of government, in 1821, and continued tiU 1833, when the work was suspended after an 
expenditure of above 15,000/. The portion completed is in the library of King's College, 
London. In 1857, Messrs. E. and G. Scheutz, two Swedish engineers, published iu London 
specimen tables, calculated and printed by machinery constructed between 1837 and 1843, 
after a study of the account of Mr. Babbage's machine. Messrs. Scheutz brought their 
machine to England in 1854. It was bought for lOooL by Mr. J. F. Rathbone, an American 
merchant, to be presented to Dudley observatory in his own town, Albany. In 1857, Messrs. 




Sclieiitz were engaged to make one for the British government, which is now completed. 
Mr. Wiberg's machine, exhibited at Paris, Feb. 1863, was much commended. 

CALCUTTA, capital of Bengal and British India, 
here was made in 1689. 

The first settlement of the English 

It was purchased as a zemindary, and Fort Wil- 
liam built, in 

Made the head of a separate presidency . 

The fort attacked and taken by an army of 
70,000 horse and foot, and 400 elephants (146 
of the British crammed into the " Black-hole 
prison," a dungeon, about 18 feet square, 
from whence 23 only came forth the next 
morning alive) .... June 18, 

Calcutta retaken by Clive, and the Soubah put 
to death Jan. 2, 



Supreme court of judicature established . . 1773' 

College founde'd 1801 

Bishopric of Calcutta instituted by act . July, 1813 

An industrial exhibition held in . . Jan. 1855 

Great cyclone, followed by a " bore " or spring 

tide in theHooghly ; water rises 30 feet high ; 

immense damage done to shipping and 

houses ; 43 lives lost in Calcutta (see Cvclone) 

Oct. 5, 1864 
Population in 1850, 413,582. 

See Bengal and India. 

CALEDONIA (now Scotland). The name is su^Dposed by some to be derived from Gael, 
or Gael-vien, or Gaclel-doi7ie, corrn])ted by the Eomans. Tacitus, who died 99, distinguishes 
this portion of Britain by the appellation of Caledonia. Venerable Bede says that it 
retained this name until 258, when it was invaded by a tribe from Ireland, and called Scotia. 
The ancient inhabitants appear to have been the Caledonians and Picts, tribes of the Celts, 
who passed oA^er from the opposite coast of Gaul. About the beginning of the fourth 
century of the Christian era they were invaded (as stated by some authorities) by the 
Scuyths or Scythins (since called Scots), who, having driven the Picts into the north, settled 
in the Lowlands, and gave their name to the whole country. Hence the remarkable 
distinction of language, habits, customs, and persons between the Highlanders and the 
southern inhabitants. See Scotland. 

Caledonian monarchy, said to have been 
founded by Fergus I. , about . .B.C. 

The Picts from England settle in the south 
Agricola carries the Roman arms into Cale- 
donia, in the reign of Galdus (Corbred II.) 


He defeats Galgacus, and builds a wall between 

the Frith and Clyde 

Wall of Antoninus built 

Ulpius Marcellus repels their incursions . 
Christianity introduced in the reign of Donald I. 



The Caledonians invade South Britain, 207 ; 
repelled by the emperor Severus, who ad- 
vances to the Moray Frith .... 209 

Caledonia invaded by the Souths, or Scotti, 
from Ireland, about . . . . . 306 

Caledonian monarchy revived by Fergus II. . 404 

After many wars, Kenneth II., king of the 
Scotti, subdues the Caledonians and Picts, 
and unites the country under one monarchy, 
then named Scotland . . . 838 to 843 

CALEDONIAN" CANAL, from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. The act for its 
construction received the royal assent July 27, 1803 ; and the works were commenced same 
year. The nautical intercourse between the western ports of Great Britain and those also of 
Ireland to the North Sea and Baltic, is shortened in some instances 800, and in others 1000 
miles. A sum exceeding a million sterling was granted by parliament from time to time ; 
and the safe navigation for ships of nearly every tonnage was opened Nov. i, 1822. It has 
not paid. Annual income from tonnage, May i, 1859, 5080?. ; expenditure, 6951?. 

CALENDAE. The Roman Calendar, which has in gi'eat part been adopted by almost all 
nations, was introduced by Eomulus, who divided the year into ten months, comprising 304 
days, 738 B.C. This year was of fifty days' less duration than the lunar year, and of sixty- 
one less than the solar year, and its commencement did not of course correspond with any 
fixed season. Numa Pompilius, 713 B.C., corrected this calendar, by adding two months; 
and Julius Csesar, 45 B.C., desirous to make it more correct, fixed the solar year at 365 days 
and 6 hours, every fourth year being bissextile or leap year. See Leap Year. This almost 
perfect arrangement was denominated the Julian style, and prevailed generally throughout 
the Christian world till the time of pope Gregory XIII. The calendar of Julius Csesar was 
defective in this particular, that the solar year consisted of 365 days, 5 hours, and 49 
minutes; and not of 365 days 6 hours. This difference, then, amounted to 10 entire da3's, 
the vernal equinox faUing on the nth instead of the 21st of March. To obviate this error, 
Gregory ordained, in 1582, that that year should consist of 356 days only (Oct. 5 became 
Oct. 15) ; and to prevent fiii-ther irregularity, it was determined that a year beginning a 
centurj' should not be bissextile, with the exception of that beginning each fourth century ; 
thus, 1700 and 1800 have not been bissextile, nor will 1900 be so : but the year 2000 will be 
a leap year. In this manner three days are retrenched in 400 years, because the lapse of 
eleven minutes makes three days in aljout that period. The year of the calendar is thus 
made as nearly as possible to correspond with the true solar year, and future errors of 
chronology are avoided. See New Style and French Eevolufionary Calendar. 




CALENDAR, continued. 


Year of the world (Jewish) .... 5625 

Julian period 6578 

Hegira, 1282 (began May 27, 1865 ; ends, May 
15, 1866). 

Foundation of Eome (Varro) .... 2616 
United States' Independence . . . 89-90 

Year of Queen Victoria 29-30 

Year of Napoleon III 14 

CALENDER, a machine used in glazing various kinds of cloth, was introduced into 
England by the Huguenots, who were driven by persecution from France, Holland, and the 
Netherlands to these countries, about 1685. Anderson. 

CALENDS were the first day of the Roman months. The Nones of March, May, July, 
and October, fell on the 7th ; and their Ides on the 15th. The other months had the No7ies 
on the 5th and the Ides on the 13th. As the Greeks had no Calends, ad Graxas CcUendas, 
"on the Greek Calends," meant never. 

CALICO, the well-known cotton cloth, is named from Calicut, a city of India, which 
was visited by the Portuguese in 1498. Calico was first brought to England by the East 
India Company in 163 1. Calico-printing and the Dutch loom engine were first used in 
1676, when a Frenchman established a factory at Richmond, near London. Anderson. 
Calicoes were prohibited to be printed or worn in 1700 ; and again in 1721, a penalty of 5?. 
was laid on the wearer, and 20I. on the seller of calico. In 1831, by the exertions of Mr. 
Poulett Thompson, afterwards lord Sydenham, and others, the consolidated duty of 34^. on 
the square of printed calico was taken off. Since 1834, the manufacture has been greatly 
increased by the applicE^tions of science. Cylinders for printing are now engraved by 
galvanism, and new dyes have been introduced by the discoveries of Liebig, HofiTmann, 
Perkin, &c. See Cotton and Dyeing. 

CALIFORNIA (from the Spanish, Caliente Fornalla, hot furnace, in allusion to the 
climate) was discovered by Cortez in 1537 ; others say by Cabrillo in 1542 ; and visited by 
sir Francis Drake, who named it New Albion, in 1579. California was admitted into the 
United States in 1850. It is advancing rapidly in wealth and importance, but society is still 
in a very disorganised state. The population in 1856 was 506,067 ; in i860, 700,000. 

The Spanish establish missionary and military Ceded to the United States . . . .1846 

stations . . • 1698 Gold discovered in great abundance by Capt. 

California becomes subject to Mexico . . . 1823 Sutter and Mr. Marshall . . . Sept. 1847 

After a bloodless revolution, it becomes virtu- Made a sovereign state 1850 

ally independent 1836 Numerous murders in San Francisco — Lynch 

Occupied by the army of the United States . 1846 law prevails 1853-60 

CALIPER COMPASS, whereby founders and gunners measure the bore or diameter of 
cannon, small arms, &c. : shot is said to have been invented by an artificer of Nuremberg 
in 1540. 

CALIPH (Arabic), Vicar, or Apostle, the title assumed by the sophi of Persia, as suc- 
cessor of Ali, and, since 1517, by the sultan of Turkey, as successor of Mahomet. The 
caliphat began with Abubeker, the father of the prophet's second wife. 

Caliphs of Arabia. 
632. Abubeker. 
634. Omar I. 
644. Othman. 

I 655- Ali. 

661. Hassan. 

The Ommiades ruled 661 — 750. 
I The Abbasides ruled 750 — 1258. 

In 775 they were styled caliphs of 

Haroun-al-Raschid ruled 786 — 809. 

See Ommiades and Abbasides. 

CALIPPIC PERIOD, invented bj' Calippus, to correct the Metonic cycle, consists of 
four cycles, or of seventy-six years, at the expiration of which he imagined the new and full 
moons returned to the same day of the solar year ; which is incorrect. This period began 
about the end of June, in the third year of the 112th Olympiad, in the j'ear of Rome 424, 
and 330 B.C. 

CALIXTINS, a sect derived from the Hussites, aboiit 145 1, demanded the cup (Greek, 
Kalix) in the Lord's supper. Also the followers of George Calixtus, a Lutheran, who died in 
1656. He wrote against the celibacy of the priesthood, and proposed a re-union of Catholics 
and Protestants based on the Apostles' creed. 

CALI YUGA, the Hindoo era of the Deluge, dates from 3101 B.C. (according to some,- 
3102), and begins with the entrance of the sun into the Hindoo sign Aswin, now on April 
II, N.S. In 1600 the year began on April 7, N.S., from which it has now advanced four 
days, and from the precession of the equinoxes is still advancing at the rate of a day in sixty 
years. The number produced by subtracting 3102 from any given year of the Cali Yuga era 
will be the Christian year in which the given year begins. 

CAL 143 CAM 

CALLAO (Peru). Here, after an earthquake, the sea retired from the shore, and returned 
in mountainous waves, which destroj^ed the city in 1687, and on Oct. 28, 1746. 

CALLIGRAPHY (beautiful writing). Callicrates is said to have written an elegant 
distich on a sesamum seed, 472 B.C. In the i6th century Peter Bales wrote the Lord's 
Prayer, Creed, and Decalogue, two short Latin prayers, his own name, motto, day of the 
mouth, year of our Lord, and of the reign of Queen Elizabeth (to whom he presented them 
at Hampton-court), all within the circle of a silver penny, enchased in a ring and border of 
gold, and covered mth crystal, so accurately done, as to be plainly legible. Holinshed. 

CALMAR, Union of. The treaty, whereby Denmark, Sweden, and ]fTorway, were united 
under one sovereign ; Margaret of "Waldemar, " the Semiramis of the North," being the first, 
June, 1397. The deputies of the three kingdoms assembled at Calmar for the election of a 
king ; and Margaret, having defeated Albert of Sweden (whose tyranny had caused a revolt 
of his subjects) in 1393, was made choice of to rule over Denmark, as weU as Sweden and 
Norway, of which she was then queen. This union was dissolved by Gustavus Yasa in 1523. 

CALMUCKS. See Tartary. 

CALOMEL ("beautiful black*"), a compound of mercury, sulphuric acid, and chloride of 
sodium, first mentioned by CroUius early in the 17th century. The first directions given for 
its preparation were by Beguin in 1608. 

CALORESCENCE. In Jan. 1865 Professor Tyndall rendered the ultra-red rays of the 
spectrum of the electric light visible by causing them to impinge on a plate of platinum 
raised to a white heat. He termed the j)lienomenon Calorescence. See Fluorescence. 

CALORIC. See Heat. 

CALOTYPE PROCESS (from the Greek Tcalos, beautiful), by which negative photogra^^hs 
are produced on paper, is the invention of Mr. Henry Fox Talbot, about 1840. 

CALOYERS (meaning good old men). The monks of the Greek church, of the order 
of St. Basil. Their most celebrated monastery in Asia is at Mount Sinai, endowed by 
Justinian (died 565) ; the Eixropean one is at Mount Athos. 

CALYARY, Mount, the place where the Redeemer sufiered death, April 5, a.d. 30 ; 
{Hales, 31 ; Clinton, 29, others, 30). See Luke xxiii. 33. Adrian, at the time of his per- 
secution of the Christians, erected a temple of Jupiter on Mount Calvary, and a temple of 
Adonis on the manger at Bethlehem, 142. The empress Helena built a church here about 
326. See Holy Places. 

CALVES' HEAD CLUB, noblemen and gentlemen, who exposed raw calves' heads at 
the windows of a tavern, Jan. 30, 1735, t^^ anniversary of the execution of Charles I. An 
incensed mob was dispersed by soldiers, and the club was suppressed. 

CALYI (Corsica). The British forces besieged the fortress of Calvi, June 12, 1794, 
After fifty-nine days it surrendered on Aug. 10. It surrendered to the French in 1796. 

CALYINISTS, named after John Calvin (or Chauvin), who was born at ISToyon, in 
Picardy, July 10, 1509. Adopting the reformed doctrines, he fled to Angouleme, where' he 
composed his Insiitutio Christiance Religionis in 1533; j)ublished in 1536. He retired to 
Basle, and settled in Geneva, where he died, May 27, 1564. He was instrumental in burn- 
ing Servetus for denying the Trinity in 1553. A formal separation between the Calvinists 
and Lutherans first took place after the conference of Poissy in 1561, where the former 
expressly rejected the tenth and other articles of the confession of Augsburg, and took the 
name of Calvinists. In France (see Hugimiots) they took up arms against their jiersecutors. 
Henry lY., originally a Calvinist, on becoming king, secured their liberty by the Edict of 
Nantes va. 1598 {which see). Calvinistic doctrines appear in the Articles of the Church of 
England and in the Confession of the Church of Scotland, and are held by many Protestant 

CAMBIUM REGIS. See Royal Exchange. 

CAMBRAY (ISr. France), an independent archbishopric in 1007, and lordship in 1076, 
gives name to cambric. It was taken by the Spaniards by surprise in 1595 ; and has been 
taken and retaken several times. Fenelon was archbishop in 1695. 

It was invested by the Austrians, Aug. 8, when 
the repxiblican general, Declay, replied to the 
imperial summons to surrender, that "he 
knew not how to do that, but his soldiers 
knew how to fight." It was, however, taken 

by Clairfait, the Austrian general, on 

Sept. 10, 1793 
The French were defeated at Csesar's camp, in 
the neighbourhood, by the allied army under 
the duke of York .... April 24, 1794 




Charles V. of Germany fcalled Pair de» 
Dames, because negotiated by Louisa of 
Savoy, mother of the French king, and Mar- 
garet of Austria, aunt of the emperor) . . 1529 
Treaty between the emperor Charles VI. and 
Philip V. of Spain 1724-S 

CAMBRAY, continued. 

Cambi-ay seized by the British, under sir 
Charles Colville .... June 24, 1815 

League of Cambray against the republic of 
Venice, comprising pope Julian II., the em- 
peror Maximilian, and Louis XII. of France, 
and Ferdinand of Spain, entered into Dec. 10, 1508 

Treaty between Francis I. of France and 

CAMBRIA, ancient name of Wales {wliich see). 

CAMBRICS were first worn in England, and accounted a great luxury, 1580. Siow. 
Their importation was restricted in 1745 ; and prohibited in 1758 ; re-admitted in 1786, 

CAMBRIDGE, the Roman Camhoricum and the Saxon Granta, frequently mentioned by 
the earliest British historians, was burnt by the Danes in 870 and loio. Roger de Mont- 
gomery destroyed it with fire and sword to be revenged of king "William Rufus. 

The university, said to have been commenced 
by Sigebert, king of the East Angles, about 
A.D. 630; lay neglected during the Danish 
invasions, from which it suffered much ; was 
restored by Edward the Elder in 915 ;" and 
began to revive about mo 

Henry I. bestows many privileges . . . ,, 

Henry III. granted a charter to the university, 

1230 or 1231 

Incorporated by EUzabeth in .... 1571 

In Wat Tyler's and Jack Straw's rebellion, the 
rebels entered the town, seize the university 
records and bum them in the market-place . 1381 

University press was set up ... . 1534 

Letters patent gi-anted by Henry VIII. . . „ 

The university refuses the degree of M.A. to 
father Francis, a Benedictine monk, recom- 
mended by the king ; and the presidency of 
Magdalen college to Farmer, a Roman Catho- 
lic, notwithstanding the king's mandate . 1687 

Cambridge Philosophical Society estabUshed 
in 1819, and chartered in .... 1832 

Railway to London opened . . . June, 1845 

Commissioners were appointed for the govern- 
ment and extension of this university and 
Eton college, by 19 & 20 Vict. c. 88 . . 1856 

New statutes confirmed by the Queen . . . 1858 

British Association met here, 1833, 1845, 1862. 

Fitzwilliam museum, endowed 1816 ; founded 
1837; completed 1847 


Peterhouse CoUege, by Hugo de Balsham, 

bishop of Ely, founded 1257 

Pembroke College, founded by the countess of 

Pembroke 1347 

Gonville and Caius, by Edmund Gonville . . 1348 
Enlarged by Dr. John Caius in . . . .1558 

Corpus Christi, or Bentt 1352 

King's College, by Henry VI 1441 

Christ's College, founded 1442; endowed by 

Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of 

Henry VII 1505 

Queen's CoUege, by Margaret of Anjou . . 1448 

Jesus College, by John Alcock, bishop of Ely . 1496 
St. John's Oollege, endowed by Margaret, 

countess of Richmond 1511 

Magdalen College, by Thomas, baron Audley . 1519 
Trinity College, by Henry VIII. . . . 1546 
Emmanuel College, by sir Walter Mildmay . 1584 
Sidnej'-Sussex College, founded by Frances 

Sidney, countess of Sussex . . . . 1598 
Downing College, by sir George Downing, by 

will, in 1717 ; its charter .... i8co 


Clare Hall, or College, first by Dr. Richard 
Baden, in 1326 ; destroyed by fire and re- 
established by EUzabeth de Burg, sister to 
Gilbert, earl of Clare .... about 1342 
Trinity Hall, by Wm. Bateman, bp. of Norwich 1350 
St. Catherine's CoUege or Hall, founded . . 1473 
[Cambridge University Calendar]. 


Charles, duke of Somerset, elected . . .1688 

Thomas, duke of Newcastle 1748 

Augustus Henry, duke of Grafton . . . 1768 
H.R.H. William Frederick, duke of Gloucester 1811 

John, marquess Camden 1834 

Hugh, duke of Northumberland . . . 1840 
The Pi-ince Consort [died Dec. 14, i86i.] Feb. 28, 1847 
Duke of Devonshire .... Dec. 31, i86i 


Divinity 1502 

Laws, Hebrew and Greek 1540 

Arabic 1632 

Mathematics 1663 

Music 1684 

Chemistry 1702 

Astronomy i704> i749 

Anatomy 1707 

Modem History, Botany 1724 

Natural and Experimental Philosophy . . 1783 

Mineralogy 1808 

PoUtical Economy 1863 

CAMBUSKENNETH (Central Scotland). Here Wallace defeated the English in 1297. 

CAMDEN (N. America). A battle was fought here Aug. 16, 1780, between general 
Gates and lord Cornwallis, the former commanding the revolted Americans, who were 
defeated. At a second battle, between general Greene and lord Rawdon, the Americans 
were again defeated, Aj)ril 25, 1781. Camden was evacuated and burnt by the British, May 
13, 1781. 

CAMERA Ltjcida, invented by Dr. Hooke about 1674 ; another by Dr. WoUaston in 
1807. Camera Obscura, or dark chamber, constructed, it is said, by Roger Bacon in 
1297 ; and improved by Baptista Porta, about 1500 ; and remodelled by sir Isaac Newton. 
By the invention of M. Daguerre, in 1839, the pictures of the camera are fixed. See 




CAMEROISriANS, a name freqiiently given to the Reformed Presbyterian ChnrciL 
of Scotland, the descendants of the covenanters of the 17th century, the established 
church, 163S-50.* Charles II. signed the League and Covenant in 1650, in hopes of 
recovering his kingdoms, but renounced it in 1661, and revived episcopacy. A revolt 
ensued in 1666, when many covenanters were slain in battle (in the Pentland hills, &c.), 
and many refusing to take the oaths required, and declining to accept the king's indulgence, 
died on the scaffold, after undergoing cruel tortures. The name Cameronian is derived from 
Richard Cameron, one of their ministers, who was killed in a skirmish, in 1680. In 1689 
they raised a body of soldiers to support William III., who enrolled them under the 
command of lord Angus, as the 26th regiment, since so famous. In 1712 they renewed the 
public covenants, and are described in one of their tracts as "the suffering anti-popish, and 
anti-prelatical, anti-erastian, true presbyterian church of Scotland." They have now between 
thirty and forty congregations in Scotland.- — The 79th regiment {Cameron Highlanders), 
raised in 1793 by Allan Cameron, has no connection with the Cameronians. 

CAMISARDS (from chemise, a shirt, which they frequently wore over their dress in night 
attacks), a name given to the more warlike French Protestants in the neighbourhood of tlie 
Cevennes (mountain chains in S. France), who defended themselves and attacked their 
enemies after the revocation of the edict of Wantes, in 1685. They were suppressed in 1704. 
Their leader, Cavalier, is said to have been made governor of Jersey by William III. 

CAMLET, formerly made of silk and camel's hair, but now of wool, hair, and silk. 
Oriental camlet first came here from Portuguese India, in 1660. Anderson. 

CAMP. The Hebrew encampment was first laid out by divine direction, 1490 B.C. 
{Numbers a.) The Romans and Gauls had intrenched camps in open plains; and vestiges 
of such exist to this day in England and Scotland. A camp was formed at Hyde Park in 
1745 and 1 8 14. See Chohham and Aldershott. 

CAMPANIA (S. Italy), was occupied by Hannibal and declared in his favour 216 B.C., 
but regained by the Romans, 213. Its capital was Capua {which see). 

CAMPBELL'S ACT, introduced by lord Campbell, in order to compel railway companies 
to gi'ant compensation for accidents, was passed in 1846 ; amended in 1864. In accordance 
Anth it the family of a gentleman killed through the breaking of a rail, obtained a verdict 
for 13,000?. from the Great Northern Railway Company. On appeal the sum was reduced. 

CAMPEACHY-BAY (Yucatan, Central America), discovered about 1520, and settled in 
1540; was taken by the English in 1659 ; by the buccaneers, in 1678 ; and by the free- 
booters of St. Domingo, in 1685. These last burnt the town and blew up the citadel. The 
English logwood -cutters made their settlement here about 1662. 

CAMPERDOWN : south of the Texel, Holland, near which admiral Duncan defeated 
the Dutch fleet, commanded by admiral De Winter ; the latter losing fifteen ships, either 
taken or destroyed, Oct. 11, 1797. The British admiral obtained a peerage. He died sud- 
denly on his way to Edinburgh, Aug. 4, 1804. 

CAMPO FORMIO (N. Italy). Here a treaty was concluded between France and 
AiTstria ; the latter yielding the Low Countries and the Ionian Islands to France, and Milan, 
Mantua, and Modena to the Cisalpine republic, Oct. 17, 1797. By a' secret article the 
emperor gained the Venetian dominions. 

CAMPO SANTO (Holy Field), a burial-place at Pisa, surrounded by an arcade erected 
by archbishop Ubaldo, about 1300, which is celebrated for the frescoes painted on the walls 
by Giotto, Memmi, and others. 

CANAAN (Palestine), is considered to have been settled by the Canaanites, 1965 B.C. 
(Clinton, 2088). The land was divided among the Israelites by Joshua, 1445 (Hales, 1602). 

CANADA (N. America), was discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot, in June, 1497 ; 
in 1535 Jacques Cartier (a Breton mariner), ascended the St. Lawrence as far as where 
Montreal now stands. See Montreal and Quebec. 

Quebec founded 1608 

Canada taken by the English. 1628 ; restored . 1632 
W ar begins in 1756 ; Canada conquered by the 
English 1759 (see Quebec), confirmed to them 

by the peace 

Legislative council established ; the French 
laws oonfiriiied, and religious lilierty given to 
Boman Catholics 1774 

* They were frequently called hill-men or mountain-men, and gndety people (from the places and modes of 
worship to which they were frequently reduced), and McMillanites, from John McMillan, their first 
minister, after their secession from the church of Scotland on accoimt of its subserviei;cy to the English, 
government, and its decliniiig from its original rigid principles. 







CANADA, co7itinued. 

The Americans under Montgomery invade 
Canada, and surprise Montreal, Nov. 1775 ; 
expelled by Carleton • . . March 1776 
Canada divided into Ujiper and Lower . . 1791 
The " clergy reserves " established by parlia- 
ment—one seventh of the waste lands of the 
colon}' appropriated for the maintenance of 

the Protestant clergy ,, 

During the debates on this bill the quarrel 
between Mr. Burke and Mr. Fox arose. Mr. 
Fox seemed anxious for a reconciliation, but 
Mr. Burke rejected it with disdain . . „ 

Canada made a bishopric 1793 

The Americans invade Canada at different 
points, with 30,000 men, but are forced to 
retire after several sangumary battles . . 1812 
Beginnmg of opposition to the clergy reserves 

First railway in Canada opened . . July, 
The Papineau rebellion commences at Montreal 

by a body called Fits de la Liberie . 
The rebels defeated at St. Eustace . Dec. 14, 
Repulsed at Toronto, by sir F. Head . Jan. 5. 183S 
Earl of Durham appointed pov. -gen. . Jan. 16, „ 
Lount and Mathews (rebels) hanged April 12, „ 
Lord Durham resigns his government . Oct 9, „ 
Rebellion appears in Beauhaniais Nov. 3 ; the 
insurgents at Napierville, under Nelson, are 
routed with great loss Nov. 6 ; the rebellion 

suppressed Nov. 17, „ 

Acts relating to government of Lower Canada, 

passed in Feb. 183S, and . . . Aug. 1S39 
Upper and Lower Canada reunited . July 23, 1S40 
Lord Sydenham appointed governor . Feb. 10, 1841 
The Canada clergy reserves, after miioh disc\is- 
sion, abolished by the British parliament 

May 9, 1853 
Lord Elgin gov. -general (1846-54) concluded an 

important treaty with United States June 7, 1854 
The grand trunk railroad of Cauada, 850 miles 

long, from Quebec to Toronto, opened Nov. 12, -1856 
On refeieucc having been made to the queen, 
Ottawa, formerly Bytown, appointed the 
capital ; this decision was unpopular ; a 
federal union of the N. American colonies 
has been since proposed . . August, 1858 
Canada raises a regiment of soldiers (made one 

of the line, and called the looth) . . . ,, 
The prince of Wales presents the colours at 

Shorncliff Jan. 10, 1859 

The prince of Wales, the duke of Newcastle, &c., 
arrived at St. John's, Newfoundland, July 24 ; 

visit Halifax July 30; Quebec Aug. 18; 
Montreal Aujr. 25; Ottawa Sept. i ; leave 
Canada Sept. 20 ; after visiting the United 
States, embark at Portland Oct. 20 ; and 
arrive at Plymouth . . . Nov. 15, i860 

Lord Monck assumes office as gov. -gen. ,Nov. 28, 1861 

In consequence of the " Trent" affair (see 
Uinted States, 1861), 3000 British troops were 
sent to Canada ; and warlike preparations 
were made Dec. „ 

Brit. N. American Assoc, founded in London Jan. 1862 

Cartier's ministrj' defeated on MiUtia hill ; Mr. 
J. Sandfield Macdonald becomes premier 

May 20-23, » 

Th e assembly vote only 5000 militia and 5000 re- 
sei-ve towards the defence of the country ; 
this caiises discontent in England . Jvily, ,, 

Political changes ; Air. J. Macdonald again pre- 
mier . . . ■ . . . May 20, 1863 

New Militia bill passed . . . Sept. „ 

Military measures in progress . . Sept. 1864 

Meeting of about 20,000 volunteers ; delegates 
from N. American colonies at Quebec, to de- 
liberate on the formation of a confederation, 
Oct. 10 ; agree on the bases . . Oct. 20, „ 

Between 20 arid 30 armed confederates quit 
Canada and enter the little town of St. Al- 
ban's, Vermont ; rob the banks, steal horses 
and stores, fire, and kill one man, and wound 
others, and return to Canada, Oct. 19 ; 13 are 
arrested, Oct. 21 ; but are discharged, on 
account of some legal difficulty by Judge 
Coursol Dec. 14, „ 

Great excitement in the United States, general 
Dix proclaims reprisals ; volunteers called 
out in Canada to defend the frontiers ; presi- 
dent Lincoln rescinds Dix's proclamation 

Dec. „ 

Lord Monck opens the last Canadian parlia- 
ment Jan. 19, 1S65 

The confederation scheme rejected by New 
Brunswick March 7, ,, 

The British parliament grant 50,000/. for de- 
fence of Canada .... March 23, ,, 

The St. Alban's raiders discharged by justice 
Smith March 30, ,, 

Mr. Seward gives up claim for their extradi- 
tion April „ 

Messrs. Gait and Cartier visit England to advo- 
cate confederation .... April, ,, 

Population in 1857: Lower Canada, 1,220,514; 
Upper Canada, 1,350,923. 

CANALS (artificial watercourses). A oanal in China, commenced in the loth centurj'-, 
is said to pass over 2000 miles, and to 41 cities. 

The canal of Languedoc, which joins the Medi- 
terranean with the Atlantic Ocean, was com- 
pleted in 1681 

That of Orleans from the Loire to the Seine, 
commenced in 1675 

That between the Baltic and North Sea, at 
Kiel, opened 17S5 

That of Bourbon, between the Seine and Oise, 
commenced 1790 

That from the Cattcgat to the Baltic . 1794-1800 

The great American Erie canal, 363 miles in 
length, was commenced in .... 1817 

That of Amsterdam to the sea . . . 1819-25 
(See Ganges Canal, the most stupendous mo- 
dem one.) 


The first was by Henry 1., when the Trent was joined 

to the Witham, 1134. 

Francis Mathew in 1656, and Andrew Yarranton in 
1677, in vain strongly urged improvement in in- 
ternal navigation. 

In England there are 2800 miles of canals, and 2500 
miles of rivers, taking the length of those only 
that are navigable — total, 5300 miles. (Mr. Porter, 
in 1851. .says 4000 miles.) 

In Ireland there are 300 miles of canals ; 150 of navi- 
gable rivers ; and 60 miles of the Shannon, navi- 
gable below Limerick ; in all, 510 miles. Williams. 

The prosperity of canals, for a time largely checked 
by the formation of railways, is now gi'eatly re- 

New river canal, commenced 1608 1 Kennet navigable to Reading 1715 

Brought to London . . 1614 Lagan navigation commenced 1755 
Thames made navigable to Caermarthenshire cinal . 1756 

Oxford .... 1624 1 Droitwich to the Severn . ,, 

Duke of Bridgewater's navi- 
gation (first great canal), 
commenced (see Bridye- 
uaier) i7S9 




CANALS, continued. 

Northampton navigation 

Dublin to tlie Shannon (the 
Grand) . . . 176s' 

Stafford and Worcester, com- 
menced .... 

Grand Trunk commenced by 
Briudley . . . . 

Torth to Clj'de, commenced . 

Birmingham to Bilston 

Oxford to Coventry, com- 
menced .... 

Lea made navigable from 
Hertford to Ware, 1739 ; to 

Leeds to Liverpool . 

Jlonkland (Scotland), com- 
menced .... 

Ellesmere and Chester . 

Basingstoke canal begun 

Liverpool to Wigan . 

Stroud to the Severn . 

Staffordshire canal, begun 

Stourbridge canal, completed 







Runcorn to Manchester . 1776 
Trent and Mersey, opened . 1777 
Chesterfield to the Trent . „ 
Belfast to Longh Neagh . 1783 
Severn to the Thames, com- 
pleted 1789 

Forth and Clyde, completed . 1790 

Bradford completed . . „ 

Grand Junction canal . . ,, 

Birmingham and Coventry . ,, 

Jlonastereven to Athy . . 1791 

Worcester and Birniinghara . „ 
Manchester, Bolton, and 

Bury .... 

Warwick and Birmingham . 1793 

Barnsley, out . . . 1794 

Rochdale, Act passed 
Huddersfield, Act passed 
Derby, completed 

Hereford and Gloucester . 1796 
Paddington canal begun 

Kennet and Avon, opened . 1799 

Peak-forest canaJ, completed 1800 

Thames to Fenny Stratford . iSoo 
Buckingham canal . . 1801 
Grand Surrey, Act passed . ,, 
Brecknock canal . . . 1802 
Caledonian canal begun . . 1803 
Ellesmere aqueduct . . 1805 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, ox^ened . 1805 
Aberdeen, couapleted . .1807 
Glasgow and Ardrossan, 

opened .... 1811 
Leed.s and Liverpool, opened 1816 
V/ye and Avon . . . . , , 
Edinburgh andGlasgowUnion 1818 
Sheffield, completed . . . 1819 
Regent's canal . . . 1820 
Caledonian canal, completed 

Oct. 30, 1822 
Birmingham and Liverpool, 

begun 1826 

Gloucester andBerkeley, ship- 
canal, completed . . . 1827 
Norwich and Lowestoft navi- 
gation opened . . . 1831 

CANAEY ISLANDS (N. "W. Africa), known to the ancients as tlie Fortunate Isles. 
Tlie first meridian was referred to tlie Canary Isles by Hipparclrus, about 140 B.C. They 
were re-discovered by a Norman named Bethencourt, about 1400 ; his descendants sold them 
to the Spaniards, Avho became masters, 1483. The canary-bird, a native of these isles, 
brought to England about 1500. Teneriffe is the largest island. 

CANCER HOSPITAL, West Brompton, near London, was founded by Miss Burdett 
Coutts, May 30, 1859. A temporary hospital began in 185 1. 

CANDIA, the ancient Crete, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, celebrated for its 100 
cities, its centre Mount Ida ; and the laws of its king Minos, and its labyrinth to secure the 
Minotaitr (about 1300 B.C.). It was conquered by the Romans 68 B.C. It was seized b}'' the 
Saracens A.D. 823, when they changed its name ; taken by the Greeks in 960 ; sold to the 
Venetians, 1204, and held by them until the Turks obtained it, after a twenty-four years' 
siege, during v/hich more than 200,000 men perished, 1669. It was ceded to the Egyptian 
pacha in 1830, but was restored to Turkey in 1840. An insurrection, wMch broke out here in 
May, 1858, when a reduction of taxation was demanded, soon subsided on the adoption of 
conciliatory measures. A persecution of the Christians took place, July 31, 1859. 

CANDLEMAS DAY, Feb. 2, is kept in the church in memory of the purification of the 
"Virgin, who presented the infant Jesus in the Temple. From the number of candles lit (it 
is said in memory of Simeon's song, Luhe ii. 32, "a Light to lighten the Gentiles," &c.), 
this festival was called Candlemas, as well as the Purification. Its origin is ascribed by Bede 
to pope Gelasius in the 5th century. The practice of lighting the churches was forbidden by 
order of council, 2 Edw. VI. 1548 ; but it is still continued in the church of Rome. 

CANDLES.* The Roman candles were composed of string surrounded by wax, or dipped 
in pitch. Splinters of wood fatted were used for light among the lower classes in England, 
about 1300. At this time wax candles were little used, and esteemed a luxury ; dipped 
candles were usually burnt. The Wax-Chandlers' company was incorporated 1484. Mould 
candles are said to be the invention of the sieur Le Brez, of Paris. Spermaceti candles are 
of modern manufacture. The Cliinese make candles from Avax obtained from the berries of 
a tree, which wax is fragrant, and yields a bright light, f The duty upon candles made in 
England, imposed in 1709, amounted to about 500,000/. annually, when it was repealed in 
1 83 1. Very great improvements in the manufacture of candles are due to the researches on 
oils and fats, carried on by "the father of the fatty acids," Chevreul, since 181 1, and 
published in 1823. At Price's manufactory at Lambeth, the principles involved in many 
patents are carried into execirtion ; including those of Gwynne (1840), Jones and Price (1842), 

* The custom of selling at public auctions hy inch of candle is said to have been borrowed from the 
church of Rome, where there is an excommunication by inch of candle, and the sinner is allowed to 
come to repentance before final excommunication, while yet the candle burns. 

t The candlebury myrtle (Myrica cerifera), at Nankin, in China, flourishes with beautiful blossoms and 
fruit. The latter, when ripe, is gathered and thrown into boiling water ; the white unctuous substance 
which covers the kernels is thereby detached, and swims at the top ; it is skimmed off and purified by a 
second boiUng, when it becomes transparent, of a consistence between tallow and was, and is converted 
into candVs. It is said that specimens of this tree were brought to England from America in 1699. Its 
cultivation in Amei-ica in a commercial point of view has been recomnaended. 

L 2 




and Wilson in 1844, for caudles which require no snuffing (termed composite). Palm aud 
cocoa-nut oils are now extensively used. In i860, at the Belmont works 9CK) persons were 
employed, and in winter 100 tons (7000Z. worth) of candles are manufactured weekly. 
Candles are manufactured at Belmont from the mineral oil or tar brought from Rangoon in 
the Burmese empire and from Trinidad. 

CANDLESTICKS (or lamp-stands) with seven branches were regarded as emblematical 
of the priest's office, and were engraven on their seals, cups, and tombs. Bezaleel made 
"a candlestick of pure gold" for the tabernacle, B.C. 1491 {Exod. xxvii. 17). Candlesticks 
were used in Britain in the days of king Edgar, 959, ( " silver candelabra and gilt candelabra 
well and honourably made ;") but in 1388 they were not common. 

CANDY (Ceylon), was taken by a British detachment, Feb. 20, 1803, who capitulated 
June 23 following, anxious to evacuate the place on account of its unhealthiness : on the 
third day many were treacherously massacred at Columbo. The war was renewed in October, 
1814 ; the king was made prisoner by general Brownrigg, Feb. 19, 1815; and the sovereignty 
vested in Great Britain, March 2, 1815. 

CANN^ (Apulia). Here on Aug. 2, 216 B.C., Hannibal with 50,000 Africans, Gauls, 
and Spaniards, defeated Paulus yEmilius and Terentius Varro, with 88,000 Romans, of whom 
40,000 were slain. The victor sent to Carthage three bushels of rings, taken from the 
Roman knights. The place is now denominated by some "the iield of blood." 

CANNIBALISM. See AnthropopMcji. 

CANNING ADMINISTRATION.* The illness of lord Liverpool, led to the formation 
of this Administration, April 24 — 30, 1827. See Godcrich. 

George Canning, /rst lord of the treasury and chan- 
cellor of the e I chequer. 

Lord Harrowby, 'president of the council. 

Duke of Portland, lord 'lyrivy senl. 

Lord Dudley, viscount Goderich, and Mr. Stiirges 
Bourne, secretaries of state. 

W. W. Wynn, j resident of the India hoard. 

Wm. Huskjsson, hoard of trade. 

Lord Palmerston, secretary ot tear. 

Lord Bexley, chancellor of the duchy of Lancagter. 

Duke of Clarence, lord liigU admiral. 

Lord Lyndhurst, lord chancellor, dkc. 

Marquess of Lansdowne, without office ; afterwards 
home secretary. 

On Mr. Canning's death (Aug. 8) the cabinet was re- 

CANNON. See Jh-lillery. Gibbon described a cannon employed by Mahomet II. at the 
siege of Adrianople, in 1453 5 t^6 bore was 12 palms wide, and the stone balls weighed each 
600 lb. 


At Ehrenbreitstein castle, one of the strongest 
forts in Germany, opposite Coblentz on the 
Rhine, is a prodigious cannon, eighteen feet 
and a half long, a foot and a half in diameter 
in the bore, and three feet four inches in the 
breech. The ball made for it weighs 180 lb., 
and its charge of powder 94 lb. The in- 
scription on it shows that it was made by 
one Simon 

In Dover castle is a brass gun called queen 
Elizabeth's pocket pistol, which was pre- 
sented to her by the states of Holland ; this 
piece is 24 feet long, and is beautifully orna- 
mented, havii g on it the arms of the states, 
and a motto in Dutch, importing thus — 
" Charge me well, and sponge me clean — I'll 
throw a ball to Calais green." 

Some fine specimens are to be seen in the 

A leathern cannon was fired three times in the 
King's park, Edinburgh — Phillips . Oct. 23, 1788 

Tlie Turkish piece now in St. James's park, 
was taken by the French at Alexandria ; but 
was retaken, and jilaced in the park March, 1803 

Messrs. Horsfall's mun^ter wrought-iron gun 
was completed in May, 1856, at Liverpool. 
Its length is 15 leet 10 inches, and its weight 

21 tons 17 cwt. I qr. 14 lb. Its cost was 
3,500?. With a charge of 23 Ih. it struck a 
target 2000 yards' distance. It has been 
since jjrtsented to government. 

Of late years very great improvements have 
been made in the construction of cannon, by 
Messrs. W'hitworth, Mallet, Aimstrong, and 
others. Mr. Wm. G. Armstrong knighted 

Feb. 18, 1859 

He had been working for four years on gun- 
making, and had succeeded in producing " a 
breech -loading rifled wrought-iron gun of 
great durability and of extieme lightness, 
c<imbining a great extent of range and ex- 
traordinary accuracy." The range of a 32-lb. 
gun, charged with 5 lb. of powder, was a 
litile more than 5 miles. The accuracy of 
the Armstrong g\in is said at equal distances 
to be fifty-seven times more than that of our 
common artillery, which it greatly exceeded 
also in destructive effects. 'The government 
engaged the service.") of sir W. Armstrong 
for ten years (commencing with 1855) for 
2o,ooo(., as consulting engineer of rifled ord- 
nance Feb. 22, „ 

A parliamentary committee on ordnance was 
appointed Feb 20, and reported on JiUy 23, i860 

* George Canning was born April 11, 1770 ; became foreig-n secretary in the Pitt administration, 1807 ; 
fought a duel with Castlereagh Mud resigned in 1809 ; president of the council in 1820 ; dis-approved of the 
queen's trial and resigned in 1821 ; Jippointed governor-general of India in 1822, but became soon after 
foreign secretary, and remained such till 1827, when he became premier. He died Aug. 8, same year. 




CANNON, continued. 

Sir W. Armstrong resigned the appointmt. Feb.s, i 

The Armstrong gun was said to be very effec- 
tive in the attack on the Chinese forts at 
Taku Aug. 21, I 

Mr. Whitworth's guns and rifles have also been 
greatly commended. 

An American cannon, weighing 35 tons, stated 
to be the largest in the world, cast in . . , 

Great endeavoiu-s made to improve the con- 
struction of cannon, to counterbalance the 
strength given to ships of war by iron plates, 
' and trials at Shoeb\iryness, Essex . . . i! 

Targets of the thickness of the iron sides of 
the Warrior, three s-inch plates of wrought 
iron bolted together, were pierced three times • 
by 1561b. shot from an Armstrong gun 
smooth bore, 300-lb., muzzle-loaded with 
charges of 40 lb. of powder, twice, and once 
of 50 lt> April 8, , 

The Horsfall gun mentioned above, with a 
charge of 75 lb. of powder and a shot of 270 
lb. totally smashed a Warrior target 

Sept. 16, ,; 

Mr. Whitworth's shells were sent through si- 

inch iron plates and the wood-work behind 
it ...... . Nov. 12, 

Armstrong's gim "Big Will" was tried and 
pronounced to be a perfect specimen of work- 
manship. It weighed 22 tons ; its length, 
15 feet; range with shot weighing 510 lb., 
748 to 4187 yards . . . Nov. ig, 

Clark's target destroyed . . July 7, 

Reed's target was tried successfully . Deo. 8, 

The competitive trial between the AiTnstrong 
and Whitworth guns Ijegau. . April i. 

The Iron-plate commission experiments closed 
on Aug. 4, 

Ca,pt. Palliser, by experiment, has shown that 
iron shot cast in cold iron moulds instead of 
holj sand, is much harder and equals steel ; 
he also suggested the lining cast iron guns 
with wrought iron exits, which is stated to 
be successful. 

The competitive trials of Armstrong's and 
Whitworth's cannon upon the Alfred target- 
ship at Portsmouth closed . . Nov. 15, 

"Hercules target," 4ft. 2 in. thick, iij inches 
of iron, resists 300 pounders . . June, 

CANONISATION, of pious men and martyrs as saints, was instituted by pope Leo III., 
800. Tall&nt. Every day in the calendar is now a saint's day. The first canonisation was 
of St. Udalricus, in 993. Henaidt. On June 8, 1862, the pope canonised 27 Japanese, who 
had been put to death on Feb. 5, 1597, near Nagasaki. 

CANONS, Apostolical, ascribed by Bellarmin and Baronius to the Apostles ; by others 
to St. Clement, are certainly a forgery of much later date (since 325). The Greek church 
allows 85, the Latin 50 of them. The first Ecclesiastical Canon was promulgated 380. 
Usher. Canon laiv was introduced into Europe by Gratian, the canon law author, about 
1 140, and into England in 11 54. Stoio. See Decretals. The present Canons and Consti- 
tutions of the Church of England, collected from former ordinances, were established in 1603 
by the clergy in convocation, and ratified by king James I. An intermediate class of reli- 
gious, between priests and monks, in the 8th centuiy, were termed canons, as living by a rule. 

CANOSSA, a castle in Modena, celebrated on account of the degrading penance submitted 
to by the emperor Henry IV. of Germany, in deference to his greatest enemy, pope Gregory 
VII. (Hildebrand), then living at the castle, the residence of the great countess Matilda. 
Henry was exposed for several days to the inclemency of winter, Jan. 1077, till it pleased 
the pope to admit him. Matilda greatly increased the temporal power of the papacy by 
bequeathing to it her large estates, to the injury of her second husband, Guelph, duke of 

CANTERBURY (Kent), the Diorovernum of the Romans, and capital of Ethelbert, king 
of Kent, who reigned 560 — 6x6. He was converted to Christianity by Augustin, 596, upon 
whom he bestowed many favours, giving him land for an abbey and cathedral, which was 
dedicated to Christ, 602.* St. Martin's church was the first Saxon Christian church in 
Britain. The riot at Boughton, near Canterbury, produced by a fanatic called Tom or Thorn, 
who as.suraed the name of sir William Courtenay, occurred May 31, 1838. See Thomites. 
The railway to London was completed in 1846. — The Akchbishop is primate and metropo- 
litan of all England, and the first peer in the realm, having precedency of all officers of state, 
and of all dukes not of the blood royal. Canterbury had formerly jurisdiction over Ireland, 
and the archbishop was styled a patriarch. This see has yielded to the church of Rome 18 
saints and 9 cardinals ; and to the civil state of England, 12 lord chancellors and 4 lord 
treasurers. The see was made superior to York, 1073. See York. The revenue is valued 
in the king's books at 2816?. 7s. 9^ Beatson. Present income, 15,000^. 

* The cathedral was sacked by the Danes, ion, and burnt down 1067 ; rebuilt by Lanfrano and Anselm, 
and the choir completed by the pi-ior Conrad in 11 30, and in which Becket was murdered, 11 70, was burnt 
U74. It was rebuilt by William of Sens (1174-78) and by "English William," 117S-84. A new nave was 
built and other parts, 1378-1410. The great central tower was erected by prior Goldstone about 1495. The 
gorgeous shrine of Bscket was stripped at the reformation, and his bones biirnt. Here were interred 
Edward the Black Prince, Henry IV., cardinal Pole, and other distinguished persons. During the civil 
war, Cromwell's dragoons used the cathedral as a stable. 




CANTERBURY, continued. 


602-605. St Augustine, or Aus- 
tin, died May 26. 

605-619. St. Lawrence. 

619-624. St. Mellitus. 

624-630. Justus. 

631-653- St. Honorius. 

655-664. Deusdedit (Adeodatus). 

668-690. Theodore of Tai-su.s. 

693-731- Berlituald. 

73I-734- Taetwine. 

735"74i- Notlielm. 

741-758. Cuthbert. 

759-762. Breogwine. 

763-790. Jaenbehrt, or Lambert. 

790-803. jEtliellieard. 

803-829. Wulfred. 

829. Fleogild. 

830-870. Ceolnoth. 

870-889. jEthelred. 

891-923. Plegemund. 

923 (?) ^thelm. 

928-941. Wulfelm. 

941-958. Odo. 

959-988. St. Dunstan, d. May 19. 

988-989. ^Ethelgar. 

990-995. Sigeric. 

995-1006 Jilfric. 

1006-101 1. St. ^Elphage, murdered 
by the Danes, April 19. 

1013-1020. Lyfing, or jElfstan. 

1020- 1038. iKthehioth. 

103S-1050. St. Bad.sige. 

1050-1052. Robert of Jumidges. 

1052-1070. Stigand : deprived. 

1070-1089. St. Lanfranc, d. May 24. 

1093-1109. Anselm. 

[See vacant 5 years.] 

1 114-1 122. Radulphus de Turbine. 

1123-1136. William de Curbellio. 

1139-1161. Theobald. 



1162-1170. Thomas Becket : mur- 
dered Deo 29. 
[See vacant. J 

1174-1184. Richard. 

1184-1190. Baldwin. 

1 191. Reginald Fifcz-Joceline, 

died Dec. 26. 
[See vacant. ] 

1193-1205. Hubert Walter. [Regi- 
nald the sub-prior, and 
John Grey, bishop of 
Norwich, were succes- 
sively choSen, but set 

1206-1228.] Stephen Langton, died 
July 6. 

1229-1231. Richard Weathershed. 

1233-1240. Edmund de Abingdon. 

1240-1270. Boniface of Savoy. 

1272-1278. Robert Kilwarby (re- 

1279-1292. John Peckham. 

1293-1313. Robert Winchelsey. 

1313-1327. Walter Reynolds. 

1327-1333. Simon de Mepham. 

1333-1348. John Stratford. 

1348-1349. John de Ufford. 

1349. Thomas Bradwardin. 

1349-1366. Simon Islip. 

1366-1368. Simon Langham (re- 

1368-1374. Wm. Whittlesey. 

1375-1381. Simon Sudbury, be- 
headed by the rebels, 
June 14. 

1381-1396. William Courtenay. 

1397-1398. Thos. Fitzalan or Arun- 
del (attainted). 

1398. Roger Walden (ex- 





















1862. Chas 

Tho. Arundel (restd). 
Henry Chicheley. 
John Stafford. 
John Kemp. 
Thomas Bouchicr. 
John Morton. 
Henry Deane or Denny. 
Wm. Warham. 
Thos. Cranmer (Ijurnt, 
March 21). 

ReginaldPole,d.Nov. 17. 
Matt. Parker,d. May 17. 
Edm.Grindal, d. July 6. 
Rd. Bancroft, d. Nov. 2. 
Geo. Abbot, d. Aug. 4. 
Wm. Laud (beheaded, 
Jan. 10). 

[See vacant 16 years.] 
Wm. Juxon, d. June 4. 
Gilb. Sheldon, d. Nov. 9. 
Wni. Sancroft (deprived 
Feb. 1), d. Nov. 24,1693. 
John Tillotson, d. No v. 22 
Thos.Tenison, d. Dec. 14. 
Wm. Wake, d. Jan. 24. 
John Potter, d. Oct. 10. 
Thos. Herring,d. Mar. 13. 
Matt.Hutton, d Mar. 19. 
Thos. Seeker, d. Aug. 3. 
Fred. ComwalUs, died 
Mar. 19. 

John Moore, d. Jan. 18. 
Chas. Manners Sutton, 
died July 21. 
Wm.Howley, d. Feb. 11. 
John Bird Sumner, died 
Sept. 6. 

Thos. Longley, present 

CANTERBURY TALES, by Geoffrey Chancer, were written about 1364 ; and first 
printed about 1475 or 1476 (by Caxton). 

CANTHARIDES, venomous green beetles (called Spanish flies), are used to raise blisters. 
This use is ascribed to Aretteus of Cappadocia, about 50 B.C. 

CANTON, the only city in China with which Europeans were allowed to trade, till the 
treaty of Aug. 29, 1842. Nearly every nation has a factory at Canton, but that of England 
surpasses all others in elegance and extent. Merchants arrived here in 15 17. A fire destroy- 
ing 15,000 houses, 1822. An inundation swept away 10,000 houses and 1000 persons, 
Oct. 1833. Canton was taken by the British in 1857 ; restored, 1861. See China 1835, 
1839, 1856, i86i. Popiilation estimated at 1,000,000. 

CANULEIAN LAW, permitting the patricians and plebeians to intermarry, was passed 
at Rome 445 b.c. 

CAOUTCHOUC, OR India Rubber, an elastic resinous substance that exudes by 
incisions from several trees that grow in Cayenne, Quito, and the Brazils, the Ilcevia caout- 
chouc and Siphojiia elastica (vulgarly called syringe trees). It was first brought to Europe 
from South America, about 1730. 

In 1770, Dr. Priestley said that he had seen "a 
sTibstance excellently adapted to the purpose 
of wiping from paper the marks of a black 
lead pencil." It was sold at the rate of 3s. 
the cubic half-inch. 

India rubber cloth was made by Samuel Peal 
and jiateiited 

Vulcanised rubber formed by combining India 
rubber with sulphur, which process removes 
the susceptibility of the rubber to change 
under atmospheric temperatures, was pa- 
tented in America, by Mr. C. Goodyear . . 

Invented also by Mr. T. Hancock (of the firm 

of Mackintosh and Co.), and patented . . 1843 
Mr. Goodyear invented the hard rubber 
(termed Ebonite) as a s\ibstitute for horn 
and tortoise-shell, for combs, paper-knives, 

veneer, walking-sticks, &o 1849 

A mode of retaining India rubber in its natu- 
ral fluid state (by applying to it liquid am- 
monia) was patented in England, on behalf 
of tho inventor, Mr. Henry Lee Norris, of 

New York 1853 

Caoutchouc imported in 1850, 7617 cwts. ; in 
1856, 28,765 cwts. ; in 1S64, 71,027 cwts. 




CAP. The general use of caps and hats is referred to 1449. See Caps and Hals. 

CAPE BRETO^Sr, a large island, W. coast of IST. America, said to have been discovered 
by the English in 1584; taken by the French in 1632, but was afterwards restored ; and 
again taken in 174$, and re-taken in 1748. It was finally captured by the English in 1758, 
when the garrison of 5600 men were made prisoners, and eleven French ships were captured 
or destroyed. Ceded to England in 1763. 

CAPE,COAST CASTLE (S. W. Africa). Settled by the Portuguese in" 1610 ; but it 
soon fell to the Dutch. It was demolished by admiral Holmes in 1661. All the British 
factories and shipping along the coast were destroyed by the Dutch admiral, De Ruyter, in 
1665. It was confirmed to the English by the treaty of Breda, in 1667. See Asliantees. 

CAPE DE VERDE ISLANDS (N. Atlantic Ocean), were known to the ancients as Gor- 
gades ; but not to the moderns till discovered by Antonio de Noli, a Genoese navigator in the 
service of Portugal, 1446, 1450, or 1460. The Portuguese possess them still. 


CAPE LA HOGUE. See La Hague. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, a promontory on the S.W. poiut of Africa, called "Cabo 
Tormentoso " (the stormy cape), the "Lion of the Sea, " and the " Head of Africa," dis- 
covered by Bartholomew de Diaz in i486. Its present name was given by John II. of 
Portugal, who augured favourably of future discoveries from Diaz having reached the 
extremity of Africa. Population in 1856, 267,096. 

The cape was doubled, and the passage to 

India discovered by Vasco de Gama, Nov. 20, 1497 
Cape Town, the capital, planted by the Dutch 1651 
Colony taken by the English, under admiral 
Elphinstone and general Clarke . Sept. 1795 

Eestored at the jieaoe in 1802 

Taken by sir D. Bairdand su- H. Popham, Jan. 8, i8o5 

Finally ceded to England in 1814 

British emigrants arrive in . . Mai'ch, 1820 
ITie Kaffres make irruptions on the British set- 
tlements ; and ravage Grahamstown. (See 

Kaffraria) Oct. 1834 

Bishopric of Cape Town founded . . . 1847 
The inhabitants successfully resist the attempt 
to make the cape a penal colony . May 19, 1S49 

The constitution granted to the colony promul- 
gated and joyfully received on . July i, 1853 

General Praetorius, the chief of the Trans- Vaal 
republic, died in . , . . Aug. ,, 

The British having given up its jurisdiction 
over the Orange river territory, a free state 
was formed (See Ora'/jf/eT-iiie)') . March 29, 1854 

The first parliament meets at Cape-Town July i, ,, 

The Kaffres were much excited by a prophet 
named Umhla-kaza. By the exertions of sir 
George Grey, the governor, tranquillity was 
maintained Aug. 1856 

The cape visited by prince Alfred in . July, i85o 

The first railway from Cape Town, about 58 
miles long, opened . . about Dec. „ 

CAPE ST. VINCENT (S. W. Portugal). Sir George Rooke, with twenty-three ships of 
■war, and the Turkey fleet, was attacked by Tourville, with 160 ships off Cape St. Vincent, 
when twelve English and Dutch men of war, and eighty merchantmen, were captured or 
destroyed by the French, June 16, 1693. — Sir John Jetvis, with the Mediterranean fleet of 
fifteen sail, defeated the Spanish fleet of twenty-seven ships of the line ofl' this cape, taking 
four ships and destroying others, Feb. 14, 1797. For this victory sir John was raised to the 
peerage, as earl St. Vincent. Nelson was engaged in this battle. 

CAPET (or Capevigians), the -third race of the kings of France, named from Hugo Capet, 
coimt of Paris and Orleans, who seized the throne on the death of Louis V., called the Indo- 
lent, 987. Henaidt. The first line of the house of Capet expired with Charles IV., in 1328, 
when Philip VI. of Valois ascended the throne. See France. 

CAPILLARITY (the rising of liquids in small tubes, and the ascent of the sap in plants) 
is said to have been first observed by Niccolo Aggiunti of Pisa, 1600 — 35. The theory has 
been examined by Newton, La Place, and others. Dr. T. Young's theory was put forth in 
1805, and Mr. Wertheim's researches in 1857. 


CAPITATION TAX. See Poll-tax. 

CAPITOL, so called from a human head {caput) being found when digging the founda- 
tions of the principal fortress of Rome, on Mons Tarpeius, on which a temple was built to 
Jupiter, thence called Jupiter Capitolinus. The foundation was laid by Tarquinius Prisons, 
616 B.C. The building was continued by Servius TuUius, and completed by Tarquinius 
Superbus, but was not dedicated till 507 B.C. by the consul Horatius. It was burnt during 
the civil wars, 83 B.C., rebuilt by Sylla, and dedicated again by Lutatius Catulus, 69 B.C. 
The Roman consuls made large donations to this temple, and the emperor Augustus bestowed 
on it 2000 pounds weight of gold, of which metal the roof was composed : its thresholds were 
of brass, and its interior was decorated with shields of solid silver. It was destroyed by 




lightning i88 B.C. ; by fire, a.d. 70, and rebuilt by Domitian. The Capiloline games, insti- 
tuted 387 B.C., were revived by Domitian, A.D. 86. The Camiiidoglio contains jialaces of the 
senators, erected ou the site of the Capitol by Jlichael Augelo soon after 1546. 

CAPITTJLAEIES, the laws of the Fraukish kings, commencing with Charlemagne (801 ). 
Collections have been published by Baluze (1677) and others. 

CAPPADOCIA, Asia Minor. Its early history is involved in obscurity. 

Roman senate declares the country free, and 

appoints Ariobarzanes I. king . . B.C. 93 
He is several times e.x^pelled by Mithridates, 

&c. , but restored by tlie Romans ; dies . 64 
Ariobarzanes II. supports Ponipey, and is slain 

b}' Crassus ........ 42 

Phamaces said to have founded the kingdom . 744 
Cappadocia conquered by Pcrdiccas, regent of 
Macedon ; the king, Ariarathes I., aged 82, 

crucified 322 

Recovers its independence . . . . 315 

Conquered by Mithridates of Pontvis . 291 

Held by Seleucus Nicator 280 

Ai-iarathes V. , Philopator, reigns, 162; dethroned 
by Holophernes, 130, but restored by the 
Romans, 158 ; killed with Crassus in the war 

against Aristonicus 130 

Uis queen, Laodice, poisons five of her sons ; 
the sixth (Ariarathes VI.) is saved; she is 

p\it to death „ 

Ariarathes VI. murdered by Mithridates Eu- 
pator ; who sets up various pretenders. The 

Ariai-athes VII. deposed by Antony . . 36 

Archelaus is favoured by Augustus, 20 B.C. ; 
but accused by Tiberius, he comes to Rome 
and die.s there, oppressed with age and infir- 
mities . . . . . . . A.u. 17 

Cappadocia becomes a Roman province . . 15 

Invaded by the Huns 515 

And by the Saracens 717 

Recovered by the emperor Basil I. . . . 876 

Conquered by Soliman 1074 

Annexed to Turkish Empire .... 1360 

CAPPEL (Switzerland). Here the reformer Zwinglius was slain in a conflict between 
the catholics and the men of Zurich, Oct. 11, 1531. 

CAPRI (Caprca?), an island near Naples, the sumptuous residence of Augustus, and par- 
ticularly of Tiberius, memorable for the debaiicheries he committed during the seven last 
j'ears of his life, 27. Capri was taken by sir Sidney Smith, April 22, 1806. 

CAPS AND Hats.* About 1750 Sweden was much distracted by two factions thus 
named, the former in the interest of the Rus.sians, and the latter in that of the French. 
They were broken up and the names prohibited by Gustavus III. in 1771, who desired to 
exclude foreign influence. His assassination by Ankarstrom, March 16, 1792, set aside all 
his plans for the improvement of Sweden. 

CAPUA (Naples), capital of Campania, took the part of Hannibal when his army 
wintered here after the battle of Canute, 216 B.C., and it is said became enervated through 
luxury. In 211, when the Romans retook the city, they scourged and beheaded all the 
surviving senators ; the others had poisoned themselves after a banquet previous to the 
surrender of the city. Orily two poj'sons escaped degradation, a woman who had praj'ed for 
the success of the Romans, aud another who succoured some prisoners. During the middle 
ages Capua was in turn subjugated by the Greeks, Saracens, and Normans, and Germans, 
It was restored to Naples in a,d, 1424, and was taken Nov. 2, i860, by Garibaldi, 

CAPUCHIN FRIARS, Franciscans, so named from wearing a CapiKhon, or cowl hang- 
ing down upon their backs. The Capuchins were founded by Matthew Baschi, about 1525. 

CAR, The invention is ascribed to Erichthonius of Athens, about i486 B.C. Covered 
cars (currus arcuati) were used by the Romans, The Icctica (a soft cushioned car), next 
invented, gave place to the caiycntum, a two-wheeled car, with an arched covering, hung 
with costly cloth. Still later were the carriiccc, in which tlie officers of state rode. Tri- 
umphal cars, introduced by Tarquiu the Elder, were formed like a throne. 

CARACAS (S. America), part of Venezuela, discovered by Columbus 1498. It was 
reduced by arms, and assigned as property to the AVelsers, German merchants, by Charles 
V. ; but from their tyrannj', they were dispossessed in 1550, and a crown governor appointed. 
The province declared its independence of Spain, May 9, 1810. The city Leon de Caracas, 
on March 26, 1812, was visited by a violent earthquake, and nearly 12,000 persons perished. 
See Venezuela. 

CARBERRY HILL (S. Scotland). Here on Jime 15, 1567, lord Hume and the con- 

* None allowed to sell any bat for abiA-c 20'/. nor cap for above 2.?. 8c/. 5 Henry VII. 1489. It was 
enacted in 1571 that every person above seven years of age should wear on Sundays aud holidays, a cap of 
wool, knit, made, thickened, and dressed in England by some of the trade of cappers, under the forfeiture 
of three farthings for every day's neglect, 1571. E.\ccpted : maids, ladies, and gentlewomen, and every 
lord, knight, and gentleman, of twenty marks of land, and their heirs, and such as had borne office of 
worship, in any city, town, or place, and the wardens of London companies. 

CAR 153 CAR 

federate bai'ons dis]3ersed tlie royal army under Botliwell, and took Mary queen of Scots 
prisoner. Bothwell fled. 

CARBOLIC ACID (or phenic acid), obtained by the distillation of pit-coal, is a powerful 
antiseptic. It is largely manufactured for medical purposes, and lias been advantageously 
used at Carlisle and Exeter in the deodorisation of sewage (1860-1). 

CAEBOISr was shown to be a distinct element by Lavoisier in 1788. He proved the 
diamond to be its purest form, and converted it into carbonic acid gas by combustion. 

CARBONARI (colliers, or charcoal-burners), a powerful secret society in Italy, which 
derived its origin, according to some, from the Waldenses, and which became prominent 
early in the jjresent century. It aimed at the expulsion of foreigners from Italy, and the 
establishment of civil and religious liberty. In March, 1820, it is said that 650,000 joined 
the society, and an insurrection soon after broke out in Naples, general Pepe taking the com- 
mand. The king Ferdinand made political concessions, but the allied sovereigns at Laybach 
assisted Ferdinand to suppress the liberal party. The Carbonari were henceforth denounced 
as traitors. Tire society since 1818 spread in France, and doubtless hastened the fall of the 
Bourbons in 1830 and 1848. It has been frequently but incorrectly confounded with free- 

CARBONIC ACID GAS, a comjjound of carbon and oxygen, which occurs in the air, 
and is a product of combustion, respiration, and fermentation. The Grotto del Cane yields 
200,000 lbs. per annum. No animal can breathe this gas. The briskness of champagne, 
beer, &c., is due to its presence. It was liquefied by atmospheric jiressure by Faraday in 
1823. On exposing the liquid to the air for a short time it becomes solid, in the form of 

CARDIFF .CASTLE (S. Wales). Here Robert, duke of Normandy, eldest son of William 
L, was imprisoned from 1106 till his death, 1135. 

CARDINALS, ecclesiastical princes in the church of Rome, the council of the yjope, and 
the conclave or sacred college, at first were the principal priests or incumbents of the 
parishes in Rome, and were called carcUnales in 853. They began to assume the exclusive 
power of electing the popes in 1181. They first wore the red hat to remind them that 
they ought to shed their blood for religion, if required, and were declared princes of the 
chm-ch by Innocent IV., 1243 or 1245. In 1586 Sixtus V. fixed their number at 70; but 
there are generally vacancies. In i860 tliere were 69 cardinals, in 1861, 63, in 1864, 59. 
Paul II. gave the scarlet habit, 1464 ; and Urban VIII. the title of Eminence in 1623 or 
1630. Ducange. 

CARDROSS CASE. See Trials, 1861.' 

CARDS (referred to the Chinese, Hindoos, and Romans), are said to have been invented 
in France in 1391, to amuse Charles IV. during the intervals of a melancholy disorder. 
Piqiret and all the early names are French. — Cards first taxed in England 17 10. 428,000 
packs were stamped in 1775, and 986,000 in 1800. In 1825, the duty being then 2s. 6d. 
per pack, less than 150,000 packs were stamped ; but in 1827 the stamp duty was reduced 
to IS., and 310,854 packs jDaid duty in 1830. Duty was paid on 239,200 packs in the year 
ending 5th Jan. 1840 ; and on near 300,000, year ending 5th Jan. 1850. By an act passed 
in 1862 the duty on cards was reduced to 3^. per pack, and the sellers were required to take 
out a licence. 

CARIA, Asia Minor, was conquered by Cyrus, 546 B.C. ; by Dercyllidas, a Laced^e- 
monian, 397; his successor Hecatomnus became king, 385 B.C.; for his son Mausolus the 
Mausoleum was erected [which see). Caria was absorbed into the Turkish empire. 

CARICATURES. Bufalmaco, an Italian painter, about 1330, drew caricatures and put 
labels to the mouths of his figures with sentences. The modern caricatures of Gilray, Row- 
" landson, H. B. (John Doyle J° = BB), Richard Doyle, John Leech, and John Tenniel are 
justly celebrated. The well-known " Punch " was fii'st published in 1841. The most eminent 
writers of fiction of the day and others (Douglas Jerrold, Thackeray, A'Becket, Professor E. 
Forbes, &c. ) have contributed to this amusing periodical. 

CARINTHIA, a Bavarian duchy, was annexed to Austria, 1363. 

CAR 154 CAR 

CARISBROOKE CASTLE (Isle of Wiglit), said to have been a British and Roman 
fortress, -vvas taken 530, by Cerdic, founder of the kingdom of the AVest Saxons. Its 
Norman character has been ascribed to AVilliam Fitz-Osborne, earl of Hereford in "William 
I.'s time. Here Charles I. was imprisoned in 1647. Here died his daughter Elizabeth, 
aged fifteen, too probably of a broken heart, Sept. 8, 1650. 

CARLAVEROCK CASTLE (S. Scotland), taken by Edward I. July, 1300, the subject of 
a contemporary poem published, Avith illustrations, by sir Harris Nicolas in 1828. 

CARLISLE (Cumberland), a frontier town of Eugland, wherein for many ages a strong 
garrison was ke]jt. Just below this town the famous Picts' wall began, which crossed the 
whole island to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and here also ended the great Roman highway. The 
great church, called St. Mary's, is a venerable old pile ; a great part of it was built by St. 
David, king of Scotland, who held Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Northumberland, in 
vassalage from the crown of England. The castle, restored in 1092 by William II., was the 
prison of Mary queen of Scots in 1568. — Taken by the parliamentary forces in 1645, and by 
the young Pretender, Nov. 15, 1745 : retaken by the duke of Cumberland, Dec. 30, same 
year. The see was erected by Henry I. in 1132, and made suffragan to York. The catlie- 
di-al had been founded a short time previously, by AValter, deputj' in these parts for AVilliam 
Rufus. It was almost ruined by Cri)mwell, and has never recovered its former great beauty, 
although repaired after tlie Restoration. It has been lately renovated at a cost of 15,000/. 
and was reopened in 1S56. The see has given to the ciA-il state one lord chancellor and two 
loixl treasurers ; it is valued in the king's books at 530Z. 4s. lid. per annum. Present 
income 4500/. 


1791. Edward Venables Vernon, trans, to York, 1807. 
1808. Samuel Goodenoxigh, died Aug. 12, 1827. 
1827. Hugh Percy, died Feb. 1856. 

1856. Hon. H. Montagu Villiers, trans, to Durham 

Ma3', i860. 
i860. Hon. Samuel Waldegrave (present bishop). 


CARLO VINGIANS, the second dynasty of the French kings. See France. 

CARLOAV (S. E. Ireland). The castle, erected by king John, surrendered after a 
desperate siege to Rory Oge O'Moore, in 1577 ; again to the parliamentary forces, in 1650. 
Here the royal troops routed the insurgents, May, 1798. 

CARLSBAD (or Charles's Bath), in Bohemia, the celebrated springs, discovered by the 
emperor Charles IV. in 1358. — On Aug. i, 1819, a congress was held here, when the great 
powers decreed measures to repress the liberal press, &c. 

CARMAGNOLE, a Piedmontese song and dance, popular in France during the reign of 
teiTor, 1793-4. The chorus was " Dansons la Carmagnole : vive le son du canon ! " 

CARMATHIANS, a Mahometan sect. Carmath, a Shiite, about 890, assumed the title 
of "the guide, the director," &c., including tJiat of the representative of Mahomet, 
St. John the Baptist, and the angel Gabriel. His followers subdued Bahrein in 900, and 
overran the east. Dissensions arose amougst themselve.s, and their power soon passed away. 

CARMELITES, or AVhite Friars, of Mount Carmel, one of the four orders of mendi- 
cants with austere rule.?, founded by Berthold about 11 56, and settled in France in 1252. 
Henaull. These rules were moderated about 1540. They claimed descent from Elijah. 
They had numerous monasteries in England, and a precinct in London without the Temple, 
west of Blackfriars, is called AVhitefriars to this day, after a community of their order, 
founded there in 1245. 

CARNATIC, a district of Southern Hindostan, extending along the whole coast of Coro- 
mandel. Hyder Ali entered the Carnatic with 80,000 trooiis, in 1780, and was defeated by 
the British imder sir Eyre Coote, July i, and Aug. 27, 1781 ; and decisively overthrowai, 
June 2, 1782. The Carnatic was overrun by Tippoo in 1790. The British have possessed 
entire authority over the Carnatic since 1801. See India. 

CARNATION, so called from the original species being of a flesh colour (carnis, of 
flesh). Several varieties were first planted in England by the Flemings, about 1567. Stotv.' 

CARNEIAN GAMES, observed in many Grecian cities, particularly at Sparta (instituted 
about 675 B.C. in honour of Apollo, surnamed Carneus), lasted nine days. 

CARNIVAL {Carni vale, Italian, i.e. Flesh, fareivell .'), a festival time in Italy, parti- 
cularly at Venice, about Shrove-tide, or beginning of Lent. 




CAROLINA (N. America). Said to have been discovered hy Sebastian Cabot in 1498, 
orbyDe Leon in 1512. A 1.iody of English, about 850 persons, landed and settled here 
about 1660 ;_and Carolina was granted to lord Berkeley and others a few years afterwards. 
The cultivation of rice was introduced by governor Smith in 1695, and subsequently cotton. 
The province was divided into North and South in 1719. See America. The Carolinas 
were slave states. ' Great excitement prevailed in them in Nov. i860, on account of Mr. 
Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency of the United States, he being strongly 
opposed to slavery. South Carolina began the secession from the United States, Dec. 20, 
1S60: North Carolina followed, May 21, 1861. See United States, 1861-5. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS were discovered by the Spaniards in the reign of Charles II. 1686. 

CARP, a fresh-water or pond fish, was, it is said, first brought to these countries about 
1525. Walton. It is mentioned by Lady Juliana Berners in 1496. 

CARPETS are of ancient use in the East. The manufacture of woollen carpets was 
introduced into France from Persia, in the reign of Henry IV., between 1589 and 1610. 
Some artizans who had quitted France in disgust established the English carpet manufac- 
ture, about 1750. A cork-carpet company was formed in 1862. 

CARRACK, or Karrack (Italian, Caracca), a large ship in the middle ages. The Santa 
Anna, the property of the knights of St. John, of about 1700 tons, sheathed with lead, was 
built at Nice about 1530. It was literally a floating fortress, and aided Charles V. in taking 
Tunis in 1535. It contained a crew of 300 men and 50 pieces of artillery. 

CARRIAGES. Erichthonius of Athens is said to have produced the first chariot about 
i486 B.C. Rude carriages were known in France in the reign of Henry II. a.d. 1547 ; in 
England in 1555 ; Henry IV. of France had one without straps or springs. They Avere made 
in England in the reign of Elizabeth, and then called whirlicotes. The duke of Bucking- 
ham, in 1 6 19, drove six horsae ; and the duke of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove eight. 
Carriages Avere let for hire in Paris, in 1650, at the Hotel Fiacre ; hence the name, fiacre. 
See Car, Cabriolets, and Coaches. 

CARRICKFERGUS (Antrim, Ireland). Its castle is supposed to have been built by 
Hugli de Lacy, in 1.178. The town surrendered to the duke of Schomberg, Aug. 28, 1689. 
The castle surrendered to the French admiral Thurot, 1760. See Thurot. 

CARRON IRON-WORKS, on the banks of the Carron, in Stirlingshire, established in 
1760. The works in 1852 employed about 1600 men. Here since 1776 have been made the 
pieces of ordnance called carronades. 

CARROTS and other edible roots were imported from HoUand and Flanders, about 1540. 

CARTESIAN DOCTRINES, promulgated by Rene Des Cartes, the French philosopher, 
in 1637. His metaphysical principle is, "I think, therefore I am ;" his physical principle, 
"Nothing exists but substance." He accounts for all physical phenomena on his theory of 
vortices, motions excited b}^ God, the source of all motion. He was born 1596, and died at 
Stockholm, the guest of cj^ueen Christina, in 1650. 

CARTES DE VISITE. The small photograph portraits thus termed are said to have 
been first taken at Nice, by M. Ferrier in 1857. The duke of Parma had his portrait placed 
upon his visiting cards, and his example was soon followed in Paris and London, 

CARTHAGE (N. coast of Africa, near Tunis), founded by Dido or Elissa, sister of 
Pygmalion, king of Tyre, B.C. 878 (869, Blair; 826, Niebuhr). She fled from that tyrant, 
who had killed her husband, and took refuge in Africa. Carthage became a great com- 
mercial and warlike ]-epubIic, and disputed the empire of the world with Rome, which 
occasioned the Punic wars. The Carthaginians bore the character of a faithless people, 
hence the term Punic faith. Cato the censor (about 146 B.C.) ended his speeches in the 
senate with Carthago delenda! "Carthage must be destroyed ! " 

First allianoe of Carthaginiaus and Eomans . 509 
The Carthacrinians in Sicily defeated at Himera 

by Gelo ; the elder HamUcar perishes . . 480 
They enlarge their territories .... 410 
They send 300,000 men into Sicily . . . . 407 

Take Agi'igentum 406 

The siege of Syracuse 396 

The Carthaginians land in Italy . . . .379 
Their defeat by Timoleon 339 

Defeated by Agathoolep, they immolate their B.C. 
children on the altar to Saturn . . . 310 
The first Punic war begins (lasts 23 years) . . 264 
The Carthaginians defeated by the Roman con- 
sul Duilius in a naval engagement . . . 260 

Xantippus defeats Regulus 255 

Hasdrubal defeated by Metellus at Panormus 251 

Regulus put to death 250 

Romans defeated before Lilybasum . . . 250 
The gi-eat Hannibal born 247 

CAR 166 CAS 

CARTHAGE, couihmcd. 

End of fir.~t Punic war; Sicily lost by Carthage 241 
War between the Carthaginians and African 
mercenaries ....... 241 

Hamilcar Barcas is .sent into Spain : he takes 
with him his son, the famous Hannibal, at 
the age of nine years, having first made him 
swesr an eternal enmity to the Romans . . 237 
Hasdrubal founds New Carthage (Carthagena) . 229 
Hasdmbal is assassinated . .... 220 

Hannibal subject.s Spain, as far as the Iberus . 219 
The second Piinic war begins (la^ts 17 years) . 218 
Hannibal crosses the Alj^s, and enters Italy with 
100,000 men ....... 218 

He defeats the Roman consuls at the Ticinus and 

B.C. ! Jletaurus B.C. 207 

The Carthiginians expelled Spain . . . 206 

I'-'cipio arrives in Africa, and lays siege to Utica . 204 
Hannibal recalled from Italy .... 203 
Hannibal totallj' defeated at Zama {which see) . 202 

End of the second Punic war 201 

TUe third Punic war : Scipio invades Africa . 149 
Carthage feiken and burned, by order of the 

senate 146 

Colony settled at Carthage by C. Gracchus . 122 
Its rebuilding planned by Julius Csesar . . 46 

And executed by his successors. 
It becomes an important Christian bishop- 
ric A.D. 215 

And Cyprian holds a council here . . . 252 

Trebia, 21S ; at the lake Thi-asymenus, 217, | Taken by Genseric the Vandal . . . . 439 

and at Cannse {which see) . . . Aug. 2, 216 
Publius Scipio carries war into Spain and takes 

New Carthage 210 

Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, arrives with 

an army, and is defeated and slain at the 

^...^ — . ^j ^ V — . «^..*«. . . . . ^j>^ I 

Retaken by Behsarms 533 ^ 

Taken and destroyed by Hassan the Saraceuic J 

governor of Egypt . . " . . . . 698 ] 

Carthaginian antiquities brought to the British | 

Museum 1861 

CARTHAGENA, or New Cauthage (S. E. Spain), built by Ha,sdrubal, the Carthaginian \ 
general 229 B.C. ; was taken by Scipio, 210. The modeni Carthagena was taken by a British 
force under sir John Leake in 1706, but was retaken bj' the duke of Berwick, 1707. — 
Carthagena, in Columbia, South America, was taken by sir Francis Drake in 1585 ; was 
pillaged by the French of 1,200,000/. in 1697 ; and was bombarded by admiral Vernon 
in 1 740- 1. 

CARTHUSIANS, a religious order (springing from the Benedictines) founded by Bruno . 
of Cologne, who retired with six companions from the converse of the world about loSo, to 
Chartreuse {which see), in the mountains of Dauphine. Thei|^austere rules were formed by 
Basil VII., general of the order. They appeared in England about 1180, and a Carthusian 
monastery, founded by sir William Manny, 137 1, was the site of the present Charter-house, 
London. See Charter-house. The Carthusian powder, of father Simon, at Chartreuse, was 
Jirst compounded about 171 5. 

CARTOONS. Those of Raphael (twenty-five in number) were designed (for tapestries) 
in the chambers of the A''atican under Julius 11. and Leo X. aliont 1510 to 1516. The seven 
preserved were purchased in Flanders by Rubens for Charles I. of England, for Hampton 
court palace in 1629. They represent — i, the Miraculous draught of Fishes ; 2, the Charge 
to Peter ; 3, Peter and John healing the Lame at the Gate of the Temple ; 4, the Death of 
Ananias ; 5, Elymas the Sorcerer struck with blindness ; 6, the Sacrifice to Paul and 
Barnabas, at Lystra ; 7, Paul preaching at Athens. — The cartoons were removed to 
South Kensington, April 28, 1865. — The tapestries executed at Arras from these designs are 
at Rome. They were twice carried away by invaders, in 1526 and 1798, and were restored 
in 1815. — The Cartoons for the British Houses of Parliament were exhibited in 1843. 

CARVING. &ee Sculptures. CASH-PAYMENTS. See Bank of England. 

CASHEL (Tipperary, Ireland). Cormack Cuillinan, king and bishop of Cashel, was the 
reinited founder or restorer of the cathedral, 901. In 1152, bishop Donat O'Danergan was 
invested with the pall. See Pallium. Cashel was valued in the king's books, 29 Henry 
A'^IIL, at 661. 13s. ^d. Irish money. By the Church Temporalities act, 1833, it ceased to be 
archiepiscopal, and was joined to Waterford and Lismore. 

CASHMERE, in the Himalayas ; was subdued by the Mahometans in the i6th century ; 'i 
by the Affghans in 1754 ; by the Sikiis in 1819 ; and was ceded to the British in 1846 ; who ' 
gave it to the Maharajah Gholab Singh, with a nominal sovereignty. The true Cashmere 
shawls were first brought to England in 1666 : but are well imitated at Bradford and 
Huddersfield. Shawls of Thibetian wool, for the omrahs, cost 150 rupees each, about 1650. 

CASSATION, Court of, the highest court of appeal in France, was established in 1790 ■ 
by the national assembly. 

CASSITERIDES. See Scilhj Isles. 

CASTEL FIDARDO, near Aucona, Central Italy. Near here general Lamoriciere and 
the papal army of 11,000 men were totally defeated by the Sardinian general, Cialdini, Sept. 
18, i860. Lamoriciere with a few horsemen fled to Ancona, then besieged. On Sept. 29, 
he and the garrison surrendered, but were shortly after set at liberty. 

■ CAS 157 CAT 

CASTES, a distinct section of society in India. In the laws of Menu (see Menu), the 
Hindus are divided into the Biahmans, or sacerdotal class ; the Kshatrya or Chuttree, 
military class ; the Vaisj^a, or commercial class ; and the Sudras, or sooders, servile class. 

CASTIGLIONE (N". Italy). Here the French under Augereau defeated the Austrians, 
commanded by Wurmser, with great loss, Ang. 3 — 5, 1796. 

CASTILE (Central Spain). A poAverful Gothic government was established here about 
800. — Ferdinand, count of Castile, became king, 1035. Ferdinand of Arragon married 
Isabella of Castile in 1474, and formed one monarchy, 1479. See Sjxdn. 

CASTILLEJOS (IST. Africa). Here on Jan. i, i860, was fought the decisive action 
in the war between Spain and Morocco. General Prim, after a vigorous resistance, repulsed 
the Moors imder Muley Abbas, and advanced towards Tetuan. 

CASTILLGlSr, in Guienne. Here the army of Henry VI. of England was defeated by 
that of Charles VII. of France. An end was put to the English dominion in France, Calais 
alone remaining, July 23, ^453. Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, v.'as killed. 

CASTLEBAE (Ireland). French troops, under Humbert, landed at Killala, and assisted 
by Irish insurgents here, compelled the king's troops to retreat, Aug. 28, 1798. 

CASTLEPOLLAED (Ireland). Fatal affray at a fair here between some peasantry and a 
body of police, when thirteen persons lost their lives, and more than twice that number were 
wounded. May 23, 1831. The chief constable, Blake, and his men, escaped punishment. 

CASTLES. The castle of the Anglo-Saxon was a tower keep, either round or square, 
and ascended by a flight of steps in front. William I. erected 48 strong castles. Several 
hundreds, built by permission of Stephen, between 1135 and 1154, were demolished by 
Henry II., 1154. Many were dismantled in the civil wars. 

CATACOMBS. The early depositories of the dead. The first Christians at Eome met 
for worship in the catacombs ; and here are said to have been the tombs of the apostles 
Peter and Paul. Belzoni in 1815 and 1818 explored many Egyptian catacombs, built 3000 
years ago. He brought to England the sarcophagus of Psammetichus, formed of oriental 
alabaster, exquisitely sculptured. In the Parisian catacombs (formerly stone quarries), 
human remains from the cemetery of the Innocents were deposited in 1785 ; and many of 
the victims of the revolution in 1792-4, are interred in them. 

CATALONIA (W. Spain), was settled by the Goths and Alaui, about 409 ; conquered bj'' 
the Saracens, 712 ; recovered by Pepin and Charlemagne. It formed part of the Spanish 
marches and the territory of the count of Barcelona {ivhich see). The natives were able 
seamen : being frequently unruly, their peculiar privileges were abolished in 17 14. 

CATALYTIC FOECE. The discovery in 18 19 by Thenard of the decomposition of 
peroxide of hydrogen by platinum, and by Dobereiner in 1825 of its property to ignite a 
mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, formed the groundwork of the doctrine of Catalytic Force, 
also termed "action of contact or presence," put forth by Berzelius and Mitscherlich. 
Their view has not been adopted by Liebig and other chemists. 

CATAMAEANS (or carcases), fire-machines for destroying ships ; tried in vain by sir 
Sidney Smith, Oct. 2, 1804, on the Boulogne flotilla destined by Bonaparte to invade England. 

CATANIA, a town near Etna, Sicily, was founded by a colony from Chalcis, about 753 
B.C. Ceres had a temple here, open to none but women. Catania was almost totally over- 
thrown by an eruption of Etna in 1669, and in 1693 was nearly swallowed up by an earth- 
quake : in a moment more than 18,000 of its inhabitants were buried in the ruins. An earth- 
quake did great damage, Feb. 22, 1817. In Aug. 1862, the town was held by Garibaldi and 
his volunteers, in opposition to the Italian government. He was captured on Aug. 29. 

CATAPHEYGIANS, heretics in the 2nd centuiy, who followed the errors of Mon- 
tanus. They are said to have baptized their dead, forbidden marriage, and mingled the 
bread and wine in the Lord's supper, with the blood of young children. 

CATAPULT.^, military engines of the cross-bow kind, for throwing huge stones as well 
as darts and arrows ; invented by Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, 399 B. c. Josephus. 

CATEAU CAMBEESIS (N. France], where, on April 2, 3, 1559, peace was conchided 
between Henry II. of France, Philip II. of Spain, and Elizabeth of England. France ceded 
to Philip Savoy, Corsica, and nearly 200 forts in Italy and the Low Countries. 

CATECHISMS. The catechism of the church of England in the second book of Edward 


VI., 1552, contained merely the baptismal vow, the creed, the ten commandments, and the 
Lord's prayer, with an explanation : but James I. ordered the bishops to enlarge it by adding 
an explication of the sacraments, 1612. It was increased snbsequently by the doctrinal 
points of the established relijjjion. Tlie catechism of the council of Trent was published in 
1566 ; that of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster in 1648. 

CATHAEI (from the Greek katharos, pure), a name given to the Novatians (about 251), 
Montanists, and other early Christian sects. 

CATHERINE. Tlie order of knights of St. Catherine was instituted in Palestine, 1063. 
The order of nuns called Catherines was founded in 1373. An order of ladies of the highest 
rank in Russia was foimded by Catherine, empress of Peter the Great, 1714. They were to 
be distinguished, as the name implied (from katliaros, pure), for piirity of life and manners. 

CATHOLIC MAJESTY. This title was first given by pope Gregory III. to Alphonsus I. 
of Spain, 739. Liccnciado. The title was also given to Ferdinand V. and his queen in 1474 
by Innocent VIII. on account of their zeal for the Roman Catholic religion, and their 
establishment of the Impiisition in Sjiain. 

CAT ISLE. See Salvador. CATHOLICS. See Ro7na7i Catholics. 

CATILINE'S CONSPIRACY. L. Sergius Catiline, a Roman of noble family, having 
squandered away his fortune by debauclieries and extravagance, and having been refused the 
consulship (B.C. 65), meditated the ruin of his country, and conspired with many of the 
dissolute aristocracy to extirpate the senate, plunder the treasury, and set Rome on fire. 
This conspiracy was timely discovered and fru.strated. A second plot (in 63), was detected 
by the cousid Cicero, whom he had resolv^ed to murder. Catiline's daring appearance in the 
senate-house, after his guilt was known, drew forth Cicero's celebrated invective, "Quousquc 
tandem, Catilina !" on Nov. 8. On seeing five of his accomplices arrested, Catiline retired 
to Gaul where his partisans were assembling an army. Cicero punished the conspirators at 
home, and Petreius routed Catiline's ill-disciplined forces ; the cousjiirator being killed in 
the engagement, December, 62 B.C. 

CATO, Suicide of, termed the "era destructive of the liberties of Rome." This Roman 
philosopher, considering freedom as that which alone "sustains the name and dignity of man," 
and unable to survive the independence of his country, stabbed himself at Utica, 46 B.C. 

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, a gang of desperate politicians, formed by Arthur 
Thistlewood, which assembled in Cato-street, Edgware-road, j^roposed the assassination of 
the ministers of the crown, at a cabinet dinner, and the overthrow of the government. Tliey 
were betrayed by one of their numlier, and arrested Feb. 23, 1820, and the principals, 
Thistlewood, Brunt, Davidson, Ings, and Tidd, were executed with the horrors adjudged to 
the punishment of traitors, on Jlay i, following. 

CATTLE. The impoi'tation of horned cattle from Ireland and Scotland into England 
was prohibited by a law, 1663 ; but the export of cattle from Ireland became verj' extensive. 
In 1842 the importation of cattle into England from foreign countries was subjected to a 
moderate duty, and in 1846 they were made duty free. — In 1850, were imported of all sorts 
of cattle, 217,247 ; in 1854, 397,430 ; in 1859, 347,341 ; in 1864, 727,977. In 1849, 53,480 
horned cattle were imported; in 1S63, 150,898; in 1864, 496,243 from all coimtries. In 
April, 1857, great disease arose among cattle abroad, but by great care it was almost excluded 
from this country. The cattle-plague now raging in England (Sept., 1865) ajipeared in 
June. The nature and origin of the disease caused much dispute. It is generally considered 
to be a typhoid fever, and of foreign origin. Active preventive and remedial measures have 
been adopted, under the authority of the privy council. The importation of cattle from 
England into Ireland was prohibited Aug. 25, 1865. See MctivpoUtati Cattle-market and 

CAUCASUS, a lofty mountain, a continuation of the ndge of Mount Taurus, between the 
Euxinc and Caspian seas. Prometheus was said to have been tied on the top of Caucasus by 
Jupiter and continually devoured by vultures, (according to ancient authors, 1548 B.C.). The 
passes near the mountain were called Caucasice Porta, and it is supposed that through them 
the Sarinatians or Huns invaded the provinces of Rome, A.n. 447. See Circassia. 

CAUDINE FORKS, according to Livj', the Furcnlce Caudince (in Samnium, S. Italy), 
were two narrow defiles or gorges, imited by a range of mountains on each side. The 
Romans went through the first pass, but found the second blocked up ; on returning they 
found the first similarly obstructed. Being thns hemmed in by the Samnites, under the 
command of C. Pontius, they surrendered at discretion, 321 B.C. (after a fruitless contest, 
according to Cicero). The Roman senate broke the treaty. 

• CAU 159 CEL 

CAULIFLOWEE, said to have been first planted in England about 1603 ; it came from 

CAUSTIC IN Painting, a method of burning colours into wood or ivory, invented by 
Gausias of Sicyon. He painted his mistress Glycere sitting on the ground making garlands 
with flowers ; the picture was hence named Stcphanoplocon. It was bought by LucuUus for 
two talents, 335 B.C. Pliny. 

CAUTIONARY TOWNS (Holland), (the Briel, Flushing, Rammekins, and Walcheren), 
were given to queen Elizabeth in 1585 as security for their repaying her for assistance in 
their struggle with S]Dain. They were restored to the Dutch rex^ublic by James I. in 1616. 

CAVALIER. The appellation given to the supporters of the king during the civil war 
from a number of gentlemen forming themselves into a bodA^-guard for the king in 1641. 
They were opposed to the Roundlieads, or friends of the parliament. Hume. 

CAVALRY. The Romans were celebrated for the discipline and efficiency of their 
cavalry. Attached to each Roman legion was a body of 300 horse, in ten turmsB ; the com- 
mander always a veteran. The Persians had 10,000 horse at Marathon, 490 B.C. ; and 10,000 
Persian horse were slain at the battle of Issus, 333 b.o, Plutarch. In the wars with 
Napoleon I. the British cavalry reached to 31,000 men. Our cavalry force, in 1840, was, 
in household troops, 1209; dragoons, hussars and lancers, 9524; total, 10,733. ^^ 1856 
the total was stated to be 21,651 ; in 186 1, 23,210. See Horse Gttards, &c. 

CAVENDISH EXPERIMENT. In 1798 the hon. Henry Cavendish described his 
experiment for determining the mean density of the earth, by comparing the force of terres- 
trial attraction with that of the attraction of leaden spheres of known magnitude and 
density, by means of the torsion balance. Brancla. 

CAWNPORE, a town in India, on the Doab, a pjeninsula between the Ganges and 
Jumna. During the' mutiny in 1857 it was garrisoned by native troops under sir Huo-h 
Wheeler. These broke out into revolt. An adopted son of the old Peishwa Bajee Rao, 
Nana Sahib, who had long lived on friendly terms with the British, came, apparently to their 
assistance, but joined the rebels. He took the place after three weeks' siege, June 26 • and 
in spite of a treaty massacred gi'eat numbers of the British, without respect to age or sex in 
the most cruel manner. General Havelock defeated Nana Sahib, July 16, at Euttehpore, 
and retook Cawnpore, July 17. A column was erected here, in memory of the sufferers, by 
their relatives of the 32nd regiment. In Dec. i860. Nana was said to be living at Thibet • 
and in Dec. 1861 was incorrectly said to have been captured at Kurrachee. See Iwlia, 1857. 

CAYENNE, French Guiana (S. America), settled by the French 1604-35. I* afterwards 
came successively into the hands of the English (1654), French, and Dutch. The last were 
expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne was taken by the British, Jan. 12, 1809, but was 
]'estored to the French in 1814. Here is produced the capsicum haccahim, or cayenne peijper. 
Many French political prisoners have been sent here since 1848, 

CECILIAN SOCIETY. See under Music. 

CEDAR TREE. The red cedar {Jtonijierus Virginicma) came from North America 
before 1664 ; the Bermudas cedar from Bermudas before 1683 ; the cedar of Lebanon (Pinus 
Cfdrus) from the Levant before 1683. In 1850 a grove of venerable cedars, about 40 feet 
higli, remained on Lebanon. The cedar of Goa (Ctipressus Lusitctnica) was brought to 
Europe by the Portuguese about 1683. See Cypress. 

CELERY is said to have been introduced into England by the French marshal, Tallard 
during his captivity in England, after his defeat at Blenheim by Marlborough in 1 704. 


CELIBACY (from ccelcbs, unmarried), was preached by St. Anthony in Egypt about 
305. His early converts lived in caves, &c., till monasteries were founded. The doctrine 
was rejected in the council of Nice, 325. Celibacy was enjoined to bishops only in 692. 
The Romish clergy generally were compelled to a vow of celibacy by pope Gregory VII. in 
1073-85. The decree was opposed in England, 958-978. Its observance was finally estab- 
lished by the council of Placentia, held in 1095. The privilege of marriage was restored to 
the English clergy in 1547. The marriage of the clergy was jjroposed, but negatived at the 
council of Trent "(1563). 

CEL 160 CER 

CELL THEORY (propounded by Schwann in 1839) supposes tliat the ultimate particles 
of all animal and vegetable tissues are small cells. Some of the lowest forms of animal and 
vegetable life are said to be composed of merely a single cell, as the germinal vesicle in 
the egg and the red-snow plant. 

CELTIBERI. See Numantine War. CELTS, a group of the Aryan family. See Gavls. 

CEMETERIES. The burying-places of the Greeks and Romans were at a distance from 
their towns ; and the Jews had their sepulchres in gardens and in fields. (John xix. 41 ; 
Matlhcw xxvii. 60. ) Public cemeteries planted after the manner of the great cemetery at 
Paris, named Pere La Chaise* have been opened in all parts of the kingdom. See Catacombs. 

Kensal-gveen cemetery, 53 acres ; consecrated \ Nunhead cemetery, about 50 acres ; conse- 

Nov. 2, 1832 crated July 29, 1840 

Soutli Metropolitan and Norwood cemetery ; 40 I City of London and Tower Hamlets cemetery, 

acres ; consecrated . . . Doc. 6, 1837 [ 30 acres ; consecrated 1841 

Higbgate and Kentish-towucemetery,22 acres; London Necropolis and National Mausoleum, 

opened and consecrated . . May 20, 1839 ' at Woking, SuiTcy, 2000 acres ; tbe company 

Abney Park cemetery, Stoke Newington, 30 | incorporated in July 1832 ; opened . Jan. 1855 

acres ; opened by tbe lord mayor . May 20, 1840 1 City of London cemetery, llford ; opened 

Westminster, or West London cemetery, Ken- I June 24, 1856 

sington-road ; consecrated . . June 15, 1840 

CENIS, Mount. See under Alfs. 

CENSORS, Roman magistrates, whose duty was to survej', rate, and correct the manners 
of the people. The two censors were appointed 443 B.C. Plebeian censors were 
appointed 131 B.C. The office, abohshed by the emperors, was revived by Decius, 251 A. I). 
See Press. 

CENSUS. The Israelites were numbered by Moses, 1490 B.C. ; and by David, 1017 B.C. ; 
and Demetrius Thalereus is said to have taken a census of Attica, 317 B.C. In the Roman 
polity, a general estimate of every man's estate and personal effects, delivered to the govern- 
ment upon oath every five years ; established by Servius TuUiu-s, 566 B.C. In England the 
census, formerly not periodical, is now taken at decennial periods, of which the latest were 
in 1801, 1811, 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851 and 1861 {A]»ril 7). Eor the latest census taken in 
other countries, see Table, p. viii., after the preface. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. See America. A large American steamer of this name was 
wrecked during a gale in the gulf of Mexico, Sept. 12, 1857. Of about 550 persons only 
152 were taved : several of these after drifting on rafts above 600 miles. Tlie loss of about 
24 million dollars in specie aggravated the commercial panic at New York shortly after. 
The captain and crew behaved heroically. 

CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT, established in 1834. Commissions are issued to the 
fifteen judges of England (of whom three attend in rotation at the Old Bailey) for the 
periodical delivery of the gaol of Newgate, and the trial of ofl'ences of greater degree, 
committed in Middlesex and parts of Essex, Kent, and Surrey ; the new district is considered 
as one county. 

CENTURION, the captain, head, or commander of a .subdivision of a Roman legion 
which consisted of 100 men, and was called a ccnturia. By the Roman census each hundred 
of the people was called a centuria, 556 B.C. 

CENTURY. The Greeks computed time by the Olympiads, beginning 776 B.C., and the 
Roman church, by Indictions, the first of which began Sept. 24, a.d. 312. The method of 
computing time by centuries commenced from the incarnation of Christ, and was adopted in 
chronological history first in France. Bupin. 

CEPHALONIA, one of the Ionian islands, was taken from the iEtolians by the Romans, 
189 B.C., and given to the Athenians by Hadrian, a.d. 135. See Ionian Isles. 

CEPHESUS, a river in Attica, near which Walter de Brienne, duke of Athens, was 
defeated and slain by the Catalans, 131 1. 

CERBERE, French brig, mounted nine large guns, had a crew of eighty-seven men, and 
was lying at Port Louis. The harbour was entered in a ten-cared cutter manned with only 
eighteen men, commanded by lieut. Paddou, who cut out and made good their prize, July 
29, i8co. 

» Pfere La Cbaise was the favourite and confessor' of Louis XIV. wl-.o made him superior of a great 
establishment of the Jesuits on this spot, then named Mtnt Louis. The houfe nnd grounds were bought 
for a national cemetay, which was laid out by M. Bronguiart, and first used on May 21, 1804. 

CER 161 CHA 

CEREMONIES, Master of the, can office instituted for the more hononrable reception 
of ambassadors and persons of quality at court, i James I. 1603. The order maintained 
by the master of the ceremonies at Bath, "Beau Nash," the "King of Bath," led to the 
adoption of the office in ordinary assemblies : he died in his 88th year, 1761. Ashe. 

CERES, a planet, 160 miles in diameter, was discorered by M, Piazzi, at Palermo, Jan. i, 
1801 ; he named it after the goddess highly esteemed by the ancient Sicilians. 

. CERES UO LA (N. Italy). Here Francis de Bourbon, count d'Enghien, defeated the 
imperialists under the marquis de Guasto, April 14, 1544. 

CERIGNOLA (S. Italy). Here the great captain Gonsalvo de Cordova and the Spaniards 
defeated the due de Nemours and the French, April 28, 1503. 

CERINTHIANS, followers of Cerinthus, a Jew, who lived about 80, are said to have 
combined Judaism with pagan philosophy. 

CERIUM, a very rare metal, discovered by Klaproth and others in 1803. 

CEUTA (the ancient Septa), a town on N. coast of Africa, stands on the site of the ancient 
Abyla, the southern pillar of Hercules. It was taken from the Vandals by Belisarius for 
Jiistinian 534; by the Goths 618; by the Moors (about 709), from whom it was taken by 
the Portuguese 1415. With Portugal, it was annexed in 1580 to Spain, which, power still 
retains it. 

CEYLON (the ancient Taprobane); an island in the Indian Ocean, called by the natives 
the seat of paradise. It was discovered by the Portuguese Almeyda, 1505 ; but it was known 
to the Romans in the time of Claudius, 41. The Dutch landed in Ceylon in 1602 ; they 
captured the capital, Colombo, in 1603. Frequent conflicts ensued between the Candians 
and the Europeans, and peaceful commercial relations were established only in 1664. Inter- 
course with the British began in 1713. A large portion of the country was taken by them 
in 1782, but was restored in 1783. The Dutch settlements were seized by the British; 
Trincomalee, Aug. 26, 1795, and Jeffnapatam, in Sept. same year. Ceylon was ceded to 
Great Britain by the peace of Amiens in 1802. The British troops were treacherously 
massacred or imjmsoned by the Adigar of Candy, at Colombo, June 26, 1803. The com- 
plete sovereignty of the island was assumed by England in 181 5. The governor, lord Tor- 
rington, was absolved from a charge of undue severity in suppressing a rebellion, May 1851. 
The prosperity of Ceylon greatly increased under the administration of sir H. "Ward, 
1855-60. Sir J. E. Tennent's work, " Ceylon," appeared in 1859. 

CHJIRONEA (Bceotia). Here Greece lost its liberty to Philip ; 32,000 Macedonians 
defeating 30,000 Thebans, Athenians, &c., Aug. 6 or 7,3388.0. Here Archelaus, lieutenant 
of Mithridates, was defeated by Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadocians were slain, 86 B.C. See 

CHAIN-BRIDGES. The largest and oldest chain-bridge in the world is said to be that 
at Kingtung, in China, where it forms a perfect road from the top of one mountain to the 
top of another. Mr. Telford constructed the first chain-bridge on a grand scale in England, 
over the strait between Anglesey and the coast of "Wales, 1818-25. See Menai Straits. 

CHAIN-CABLES, Pumps, and Shot. Iron chain-cables were in use by the Yeneti, a 
people intimately connected with the Belgoe of Britain in the time of Csesar, 55 B.C. These 
cables came into modern use, and generally in the royal navy of England, in 1812. An Act 
for the proving and sale of chain-cables and anchors was passed in 1864. — Chain-shot, to 
destroy the rigging of an enemy's ship, were invented by^the Dutch admiral, De "Witt, in 
1666. — Chain-Pumps were first iised on board the Flora, British frigate, in 1787. 

CHAINS, Hanging in. By the 25th Geo. II. 1752, it was enacted that the judge should 
direct the bodies of pirates and murderers to be dissected and anatomised, or hung in chains. 
The custom of hanging in chains was abolished in 1834. 

CHALCEDON, Asia Minor, opposite Byzantium, colonised by Megarians, about 684 B.C. 
It was taken by Darius, B.C. 505 ; by the Romans, 74 ; plundered by tKe Goths, a.d. 259 ; 
taken by Chosroes, the Persian, 609 ; by Orchan, the Turk, 1338. Here was held the 
"Synod of the Oak," 403 ; and the fourth general council, which annulled the act of the 
"Robber Synod," Oct. 8, 451. 

CHALCIS. See Eubcea. 





under the degree of a knight, who, if his majesty 
api^roved of him, might officiate accordingly. Beat- 
fon. The office is now held by the present lord Wil- 
loughby d'Eresby (1865). 

Lord Chamberlain of the Household. — An 
ancient office. The title is from the French Cham- 
bellon, in Latin Camerarius. He has the oversight 
of the king's chaplains, the officers of the standing 
and removing wardrobes, beds, tents, revels, music, 
hunting, and of all the physicians, surgeons, apo- 
tliecaries, messengers, tradesmen, and artisans re- 
tained in his majesty's service. Sir William Stanley, 
knt., afterwards beheaded, was lord chamberlain, 
I Henry VII. 1485. A vice-chamberlain acts in the 
absence of the chief ; the offices are co-existent. 

CHALD J5A, the ancient name of Babylonia, but afterwards restricted to the S. W. portion. 
The Chaldfeans were devoted to astronomy and astrology. See Ba^i. ii. &c. — The CHALDiEAN 
Registeks of celestial observations were commenced 2234 B.C., and were brought down to the 
taking of Babylon by Alexander, 331 B.C. (a period of 1903 years). These registers were 
sent by Callisthenes to Aristotle. — Chaldean Chakactees : the Bible was transcribed from 
the original Hebrew into these characters, now called Hebrew, by Ezra, about 445 b.c. 

CHALGROVE (Oxfordshire). At a skirmish here with prince Rupert, June 18, 1643, 
John Hampden, of the parliament party, was mortally wounded. A column was erected to 
his memory June 18, 1843. 

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (N. E. France). Here the emperor Aurelian defeated Tetricus, 
the last of the pretenders to the throne, termed the Thirty Tyrants, 274; and here in 451 
Aetius defeated Attila the Hun, compelling him to retire into Pannonia. 

CHAMBERLAIN, early a high court officer in France, Germany, and England. The office 
of chamberlain of the exchequer was discontinued in 1834. The chamberlain is also a civic 
officer, as in London, of ancient origin. 

_ Lord Great Chamberlain of England. — The 
sixth great officer of state, whose duties, among 
others, relate to coronations and public solemnities. 
The rank long appertnined to the family of De Vere, 
earls of Oxford, granted to it by Heniy I. in iioi. 
On the death of Jnhn De Vere, the sixteenth earl, 
Mary, his sole daughter, marrying lord Willoughby 
d'Eresby, the right was established in that noble- 
man's f:imily by a judgment of the house of peers, 
2 Charles I. 1625. On the death of his descendant, 
unmarried, in July 1779, the house of lords and 
twelve judges concurred that the office devolved to 
lady Willoughby d'Eresby, and her sister the lady 
Georgina Charlotta Bertie, as heirs to their brother 
Robert, duke of Ancaster, deceased ; and that they 
had powers to appoint a deputy to act for them, not 

CHAMBERS. See Commerce, Agriculture. 

CHAMBERS' JOURNAL was first published in Feb., 1832. 

CHAMRRE ARDENTE (fiery chamber), an extraordinary French tribmial so named 

■from the punishment frequently awarded by it. Francis L in 1535 and Henry IL in 1549 

employed it for the extirpation of heres}', which led to the civil war with the Huguenots iu 

1560 ; and in 1679 Louis XIV. appointed one to investigate the poisoning cases which arose 

after the execution of the marchioness Brinvilliers. 

CHAMP DE MARS,* an open square in front of the Military School at Paris, with 
artificial embankments on each side, extending nearly to the river Seine. Here was held, 
July 14, 1790, the "federation," or solemnity of swearing fidelity to the " pati'iot king" 
and new constitution : great rejoicings followed, public balls were given by the municipality 
in the Champs Ehjsers, and Paris was illuminated. On July 14, 1791, a second great meeting 
was held here, directed by the Jacobin clubs, to sign petitions on the "altar of the country," 
praying for the abdication of Louis XVI. A commemoration meeting took place July 14, 
1792. Another constitution was sworn to here, under the eye of Napoleon I., May i, 1815, 
at a ceremony called the Champ de Mai. The prince president (now Napoleon III.) had a 
grand review in the Champ de Mars, and distributed eagles to the army. May 10, 1852. 

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province, N.E. France, formed part of the kingdom of 
Burgund}^, and was governed by -counts from the loth century till it was united to Navarre, 
count Thibaut beeoiiyng king, in 1234. The countess Joanna married Philip V. of France 
in 1284 ; and in 1361 Champagne M'as annexed by their descendant king John. 

CHAMPION OF THE King of England, an ancient office, which since 1377 has been 
attached to the manor of Scrivelsby, held by the Marmion family. Their descendant, sir 
Henry Dynioke, the seventeenth of his family who has held the office, died Apr. 28, 1865, 
and was succeeded by his brother John. At the coronation of the English kings, the 
champion used to cHallenge any one that should deny their title. 

CHAMPLAIN. See Lake Chamiylain. 

The ancient assemblies of the Prankish people, the germ of parliaments, held annually in March, 
his name. In 747, Pepin changed the month to May. 




CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND, Lord High, ranks after the princes of the blood royal 
as the first lay subject. Anciently the office was conferred upon some dignified ecclesiastic 
termed cancellariics, or doorkeeper, who admitted suitors to the sovereign's presence. Arfastus 
or Herefast, chaplain to the king (William the Conqueror) and bishop of Elmham, was lord 
chancellor in 1067. Hardy. Thomas a Becket was made chancellor in 11 54. The first 
person qualified by education, to decide causes upon his own judgment, was sir Thomas 
More, appointed in 1529, before which time the ofiice was more that of a high state func- 
tionary than the president of a court of justice. Sir Christopher Hatton, appointed lord 
chancellor in 1587, was very ignorant, on which account the first reference was made to a 
master in 1588. In England, the great seal has been frequently put in commission ; in 
1813 the office of Vice-Chancellor was established.* See Keeper, and Vice-Chancellor. 




162 1. 











John Moreton, archbishop of Canterbury. 

William Warhani, aft. archbshp. of Canterbury. 

Thomas Wolsey, cardinal and abp. of York. 

Sir Thomas More. 

Sir Thomas Audley, keeper. 

Sir Thomas Audley, chancellor, aft. Id. Audley. 

Thomas, lord Wriothesley. 

William, lord St. John, keeper. 

Richard, lord Bich, lord chancellor. 

Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, keeper. 

The same ; now lord chancellor. 

Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. 

Nicholas Heath, archbisbop of York. 

Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper. 

Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancellor. 

Sir Christopher Hatton. 

The great seal in commission. 

Sir John Puckering, lord keeper. 

Sir Thomas Bgerton, lord keeper. 

Sir Thomas Egerton, now lord EUesmere, lord 


Sir Francis Bacon, lord keeper. 

SirPrancisBacon, cr. lordVerulam, Id. chancellor. 

The great seal in commission. 

John, bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper. 

Sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord Coven- 
try, lord keeper. 

Sir John Finch, afterwards lord Pinch. 

Sir Edward Lyttelton, afterwards lord Lyttel- 
ton, lord keeper. 

The great seal in the hands of commissioners. 

Sir Richard Lane, royal keeper. 

In the hands of commissioners. . 

In commission for the commonwealth. 

Sir Edward Herbert, king's lord keeper. 

In commission during the remainder of the 

Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, afterwards 
created lord Hyde, and earl of Clarendon. 

Sir Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper. 

Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord 

Sir Heneage Pinch, lord keeper. 

Heneage, now lord Pinch, lord chancellor, 
afterwards earl of Nottingham. 

Sir Francis North, cr. lord Guilford, id. keeper. 

Francis, lord Guilford ; succeeded by 

George, lord Jeffreys, lord chancellor. 

In commission. 

Sir John Trevor, knt., sir Wilham Rawlinson, 
knt. , and sir George Hutchins, knt. , commis- 
sioners or keepers. 

Sir John Somers, lord keeper. 

Sh- John Somers, cr. lord Somers, chancellor. 

Lord chief justice Holt, sir George Treby, chief 
justice C. P., and chief baron sir Edward 
Ward, lord keepers. 

Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper. 

Right hon. WilUam Cowper, lord keeper, after- 
wards lord Cowper. 

WilUam, lord Cowper, lord chancellor. 





1 761. 










In commission. 

Sir Simon Harcourt, cr. lord Harcourt, keeper. 

Simon, lord Harcoiu-t, lord chancellor. 

William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor. 

In commission. 

Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor; after- 
wards earl of Macclesfield. 

In commission. 

Sir Peter King, cr. lord King, chancellor. 

Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, chancellor. 

Phihp Yorke, lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor. 

In commission. 

Sir Robert Henley, afterwards lord Henley, 
last Inrd keeper. 

Lord Henley, lord chancellor, afterwards earl 
of Northington. 

Charles, lord Camden, lord chancellor. 

Hon. Charles Yorke, lord chancellor. 

[Created lord Mordan ; died within three days, 

and before the seals were put to his patent of 


In commission. 

Hon. Henry Bathurst, lord Apsley ; succeeded 
as earl Bathurst. 

Edward Thurlow, created lord Thnrlow. 

Alexander, lord Loughborough, and others, 

Edward, lord Thurlow, again. 

In commission. 

Alexander Wedderburne, lord Loughborough, 
lord chancellor. 

John Scott, lord Eldon. 

Hon. Thomas Brskine, created lord Erskine. 

John, lord Eldon, again. 

John Singleton Copley, created lord Lyndhurst. 

Henry Brougham, created lord Brougham. 

Lord Lyndhurst, again. 

Sir Chaiies Christopher Pepys, master of the 
rolls, vice-chancellor Shadwell, and Mr. 
justice Bosanquet, C. P., commissioners. 

Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, created lord 
Cottenham, lord chancellor. Jan. 16. 

Lord Lyndhurst, a third time. Sept. 3. 

Lord Cottenham, again lord chancellor. July 6. 

[His lordship on signifying his intention to 
retire, June 19, 1850, was created earl of 

Lord Laiigdale, master of the rolls. Sir Laun- 
celot Shadwell, vice-chancellor of England, 
and sir Robert Monsey Rolfe, B.E., commis- 
sioners of the great seal. June 19. 

Sir Thomas Wilde, lord Truro. July 15. 

Sir Edward Sugden, lord St. Leonards. Feb. 27. 

Robt. Monsey RoLfe, lord Cranworth. Dec. 28. 

Sir Frederic Thesiger,lord Chelmsford. Feb. 26. 

John, lord Campbell, June 18 ; died June 23, 

Richard BetheU, lord Westbury, June 26. 
Resigned July 4, 1865. 

Thomas, lord Cranworth, again. July 6. 

* la 1863 was passed the Lord Chancellor's Augmentation Act. It enabled him to sell the advowson 
of certain livings in his gift for the augmentation of poor benefices. 

M 2 




CHANCELLOR OF IRELAND, Lord High. The earliest nomination was by Richard I., 
1189, when Stephen Ridel was elevated to this rank. The office of vice-chancellor was 
known in Ireland in 1232, Geoffrey Turvillo, archdeacon of Dublin, being so named. 










Dec. 29. Sir Charles Porter. 
Jan. 12. Sir John Jefifreyson, Thomas Coote, 

and Nehemlah Donellan, lords keepers. 
March ii. J. Methuen. 
Dec. 21. Edward, earl of Meath, Francis, earl 

of Longford, and Murrough, viscount Bles- 

siugton, lord keepers. 
Aug. 26. Lord Methuen, lord chancellor. 
Aug. 6. Sir Richd. Cox, bart. ; resigned in 1707. 
June. Richard Freeman. 
Nov. 28. Robert, earl of Kildare, archbishop 

(Hoadley) of Dublin, and Thomas Keightley, 

Jan. 22. Sir Constantino Phipps ; resigned 

Sept. 1 714. 
Oct. It. Alan Brodrick, afterwards viscount 

Middleton ; resigned May, 1725. 
June. Richard West. 
Dec. 21. Thomas Wyndham, afterwards lord 

Wyndham of Finglas. 
Sept. 7. Robert Jocelyn, afterwards lord New- 
port and visct. Jocelyn ; died Oct. 25, 1756. 
March 22. John Bowes, afterwards lord Bowes 

of Clonlyon ; died 1767. 
Jan 9. James Hewitt, afterwards viscount 

Lifford ; died April 28, 1789. 

From the Revolution. 

I Patent. 

1789. June 20. John, baron Fitzgibbon, afterwards 
earl of Clare ; died Jan. 28, 1802. 

1802. March 15. John, baron Redesdale ; resigned 
Feb. 1806. 

1806. Mar. 25. George Ponsonby ; resigned Ap. 1807. 

1807. May. Thomas, lord Manners, previously an 

English baron of the exchequer ; resigned 

Nov. 1827. 
1827. Nov. 5. Sir Anthony Hart, previously vice- 
chancellor of England ; resigned Nov. 1830. 
1830. Dec. 23. William, baron Plunket ; resigned 

Nov. 1834. 
1835. Jan. 13. Sir Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, 

resigned April 1835. 
,, April 30. William, baron Plunket, a second 

time ; resigned June, 1841. 
1 841. June. John, baron Campbell ; resigned Sept. 

„ Oct. Sir Edward Sugden, afterwards lord St. 

Leonards, a second time ; resigned July, 1846. 
1846. July 16. Maziere Brady ; resigned Feb. 1852. 

1852. March. Francis Blackburn ; resigned Dec. 

1853. J^'^i- Maziere Brady, again. 

1858. Feb. Joseph Napier. 

1859. June. Maziere IBrady, again. The present 

lord chancellor of Ireland (1865). 

CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND, Lord. In the laws of Malcolm II., who reigned 
1004, this officer is thus mentioned : — "The chancellar sail at al tymes assist the king in 
giving him counsall mair secretly nor the rest of the nobility. . . The chancellar sail be 
ludgit neir unto the kingis Grace, for keiping of his bodie, and the seill, and that he may be 
readie, baith day and nicht, at the kingis command." Sir James Balfour. Evan was lord 
chancellor to Malcolm III., surnamed Caumore, in 1057 ; and James, earl of Seafield, after- 
wards Findlater, was the last lord chancellor of Scotland, the office having been abolished in 
1708, after the union. See Keeper, Lord. 


CHANCELLORSVILLE, Virginia, U. S., a large brick hotel, once kept by a Mr. 
Chancellor, was the site of severe sanguinary conflicts, on May 2, 3, and 4, 1863, between 
the American federal army of the Potomac under general Hooker, and the confederates 
under general Lee. On Apr. 28, the federal army crossed the Rappahannock ; on May 2, 
general " Stouewall " Jackson furiously attacked and routed the i-ight wing, but was 
unfortunately mortally wounded by his own party firing on him by mistake. Gen. Stuart 
took his command, and after a severe conflict on May 3 and 4, with great loss to both 
parties, the federals were compelled once more to retreat across the Rappahannock. The 
struggle has been compared to that at Hougomont during the battle of AVaterloo. Jackson 
died May 9. 

CHANCERY, Court of. According to some, instituted as early as 605, to others, by 
Alfred, in 887 ; settled upon a better footing by William I., in 1067 {Stoiv) or 1070. This 
court had its origin in the desire to render justice complete, and to moderate the rigour of 
other courts that are bound to the strict letter of the law. It gives relief to or against 
infants, notwithstanding their minority : and to or against married women, notwithstanding 
their coverture ; and all frauds, deceits, breaches of trust and confidence, for which there is 
no redress at common law, are relievabie here. BlacJcstone. See Chancellors of England. 
The delays in chancery proceedings having long given dissatisfaction, the subject was brought 
before parliament in 1825, and frequently since ; which led to the passing of important acts 
in 1852, 1853, and 1855, to amen-d the practice in the court of chancery. See County Courts. 

CHANDOS CLAUSE. See Counties. 

CHANTING the psalms was adopted by Ambrose from the pagan ceremonies of the 
Romans, about 350. Lenglet. About 602, Gregory the Great added tones to the Ambrosian 
chant, and established singing schools. Chanting was adopted by some dissenters about 1859. 




CHANTRY, a chapel endowed with revenue for priests to sing mass for the souls of the 
donors. See Chanting. Chantries were abolished in England in 1545. 

CHAPEL. There are free chapels, chapels of ease, the chapel royal, &c. Cmuel. The 
gentlemen pensioners (formerly poor knights of "Windsor, who were instituted by the direc- 
tion of Henry VIII. in his testament, 1546-7) were called knights of the chapel. See Poor 
Knights of Windsor. — The place of conference among printers, and the conference itself, are 
by them called a chai^d, it is said because the first work printed in England by Caxton was 
executed in a ruined chapel in "Westminster-abbey. 

CHAPLAIN", a clergyman who pei'forms divine service in a chapel, or who is retained by 
a prince or nobleman. About seventy chaplains are attached to the chapel royal. The chief 
personages invested with the privilege of retaining chaplains are the following, with the 
number that was originally allotted to each rank, by 21 Hen. VIII. c. 13 (1529) : — 

Arcli bishop . 

. 8 


• 5 


. . 6 

Viscount . 

• ■ 4 

Bishop . 

. 6 

Baron . 

• 3 

Marquess . 

• • 5 


• • 3 

Knight of the Garter . 3 
Duchess . . .2 
Marchioness . . . 2 
Countess . . .2 

Baroness . . .2 

Master of the Rolls . 2 

Almoner . . . . 2 

Chief Justice . . i 

CHAPLETS, the string of beads used by the Eoman Catholics in reciting the Lord's 
prayer, Ave Maria, &c. See Beads. 

CHAPTER. Anciently the bishop and clergy lived in the cathedral, the latter to assist 
the former in performing holy ofiices and governing the church, until the reign of Henry VIII. 
The chajiter is now an assembly of the clergy of a collegiate church or cathedral. Cowel. 
The chapter-house of "Westminster-abbey was built in 1250. By consent of the abbot, the 
commoners of England held their parliaments there from 1377 until 1547, when Edward VI. 
granted them the chapel of St. Stephen. 

CHARCOAL AIR-FILTERS were devised by Dr. John Stenhouse, F.R.S., in 1853, 
About the end of the last century Lowitz, a German chemist, discovered that charcoal 
(carbon) possessed the property of deodorising putrid substances, by absorbing effluvia and 
gases. Air-filters, based on this property, have been successfully applied to public build- 
ings, &c. Dr. Stenhouse also invented charcoal respirators. 

CHARING CROSS, so called from one of the crosses which Edward I. erected to the 
memory of his C[ueen Eleanor, who died 129 1 ; Charing being the name of the village in which 
it was built. Some contend that it derived its name from being the resting-place of the chere 
reyne, dear queen. It was yet a small village in 1353, and the cross remained till the civil 
wars in the reign of Charles L, when it was destroyed as a monument of popish superstition. 
A new cross was erected by the South Eastern Railway Company in 1865. — Charing-cross 
was built about 1678, nearly as it appeared before the new buildings were commenced in 
1829, The first stone of Charing-cross hospital was laid by the duke of Sussex, Sept. 15, 
1831. Hungerford-bridge (or Charing-cross bridge) was opened May i, 1845; taken down 
July, 1862, and the materials employed in erecting Clifton suspension bridge, beginning 
March, 1863. See Clifton. The Chaeing-Cross Railv^^ay. The first train passed over it 
Dec. 2, 1863, and it was opened to the public on Jan. 11, 1864. TliC new Hungerford rail- 
way bridge is built of iron with brick piers. It was constructed by Mr. Hawkshaw. 

CHARIOTS. Chariot racing was one of the exercises of Greece. The chariot of the 
Ethiopian officer {Acts viii. 27), is supposed to have been in the form of our chaise with four 
wheels. Caesar relates that Cassibelaunus, after dismissing all his other forces, retained no 
fewer than 4000 war-chariots about his person. See Carriages, Coaches, &c, 

CHARITABLE BEQUESTS, &c. Boards for their recovery were constituted in 1764 
and 1800, and a board for Ireland (chiefly prelates of the established church), in 1825. The 
Roman Catholic Charitable Bequests act passed in 1844, and an act for the better adminis- 
tration of Charitable Trusts in 1853, when commissioners were appointed, who have from 
time to time published voluminous reports. The law relating to the conveyance of land for 
Charitable Uses was amended in 1861. 

CHARITABLE BRETHREN, an order founded by St. John of God, and approved by 
pope Pius V. 1572 ; introduced into France, 1601 ; settled at Paris, 1602. HenauU. 

CHARITIES AND Charity Schools are very numerous in this country. The Charity 
Commission reported to parliament that the endowed charities alone of Great Britain 
amounted to 1,500,000?. annually, in 1840. Pari. Rep. Charity schools were instituted in 
London to prevent the seduction of the infant poor into Roman Catholic seminaries, 3 James 


II., 1687. RaiJin. ^tQ Education. Mr. Low's "Charities of Loudon" (2nd edition) was 
published 1862. 

CHARLEROI, in Belgium. Great battles have been fought near this town in several 
wars ; the principal in 1690 and 1794. See Fleurus. Charleroi was besieged bj' the prince 
of Orange in 1672, and was again invested by the same prince with 60,000 men, in 1677 ; 
but he was soon obliged to retire. Near here, at Ligny, Napoleon attacked the Prassian 
line, making it fall back upon Wavres, June 16, 1815. 

CHARLES-ET-GEORGES. Two French vessels of this name, professedly conveying free 
African emigrants (but really slaves), were seized by the Portuguese, in Conducia Bay, 
Nov. 29, 1857, sent to Lisbon, and condemned as slavers. They were demanded haughtily 
by the Frencli government, who, on the hesitation of the Portuguese, sent two ships of war 
to the Tagus. The captxired vessels were then surrendered under protest. Tlie conduct of 
the British government (that of Lord Derby), to whom the Portuguese had referred the dis- 
pute, was considered more prudent than dignified. The emperor of France, however, gave 
up the free emigration scheme. 

CHARLESTOWN (Massachusetts) was burnt by the British forces under general Gage, 
June 17, 1775. Charleston taken by the British, May 7, 1779. 

CHARLESTON (South Carolina). The English fleet here was repulsed with great loss, 
June 28, 1776. It was besieged b}"- the British troops at the latter end of March, 1780, and 
surrendered May 13 following, with 6000 prisoners ; it was evacuated April 14, 1783. Great 
commotion arose here on Nov. i860, through the election of Mr. Lincoln for the presidency, 
he being opposed to slavery. On April 12, 1861, the war began, by the confederates capturing 
Fort Sumter, See United States, 1863. In Dec. 1861, the federals sank a number of vessels 
laden with stone in order to clioke up the entrance to Charleston harbour. On Feb. 17, 1865, 
the confederates were compelled to retire from Charleston, and the federals replacecl their 
standard on Fort Sumter, April 14, the day on wdiich president Lincoln was assassinated. 

" CHARTE," the French political constitution acknowledged by Louis XVIII. in 1814. 
The infraction of this constitution led to the revolution of 1830. The " Charte " was 
sworn to by Ijouis-Philippe, Aug. 29, 1830 ; but set aside by the revolution of 1848. 

CHARTER-HOUSE (a coiTuption of Chartreuse, which see), London, formerly a Carthu- 
sian monastery, founded in 1371 by sir Walter de Manny, one of the knights of Edward III., 
now an extensive cliaritable establishment. The last prior, John Houghton, was executed 
as a traitor, for denying the king's supremacy, in 1535. After the dissolution of monasteries 
in 1539, it passed through various hands till Nov. i, 161 1, when it was sold by the earl of 
Suffolk to Mr. Thomas Sutton for 13,000/., who obtained letters patent directing that it 
should be called "the hospital of king James, founded in the Charter-house," and that 
"there should be for ever 16 governors," &c. On the foundation are 80 poor brothers, and 
44 poor scholars. Sutton died Dec. 12, 161 1. The expenditure for 1853-4 was 22, 396Z.; 
the receipts 28,908/. 

_ CHARTER-PARTY, a covenant between merchants and masters of ships relating to the 
ship and cargo, is said to have been first used in England about 1243. 

CHARTERS granted to corporate towns to protect their manufactures by Henry 11. in 
1 132 ; called in and modified by Charles II. in 1682 ; the ancient charters restored in 1698. 
Alterations were made by the Municipal Reform Act in 1835. See Magna Charta and 

CHARTISTS, the name assumed by large bodies of the working people, shortly after the 
passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, from their demanding the people's Cluirter, the six 
points of which were Universal Siiffragc, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Payment of 
the Members, the Abolition of the Property Qualification (which was enacted, June, 1858), 
and Equal Electoral Districts. In 1838 the Chartists assembled in various parts of the 
country, armed with guns, pikes, and other weapons, and carrying torches and flags. They 
conducted themselves so tumultuously, that a proclamation wa.s issued against them, Dec. 12, 
Their petition (agreed to at Birmingham, Aug. 6, 1838) was presented by Mr. T. Attwood, 
June 14, 1839. They committed great outrages at Birmingham, July 15, 1839, and at 
Newport (xohich sec), Nov. 4, 1839. They held for some time a sort of parliament called 
the " National Convention," the leading men being Feergus O'Connor, Henry Vincent, Mr. 
Stephens, &c. On April 10, 1848, they proposed to hold a meeting of 200,000 men on 
Kennington Common, London, to march thence in procession to Westminster, and present 
a petition to parliament ; but only about 20,000 came. The bank and other establisliments 

CHA 167 CHA 

were fortified by niilitarj^ ; and the preventive measures adopted by the government proved 
so completely successful, that the rioters dispersed after some slight encounters with the 
police. The monster petition, in detached rolls, was sent in cabs to the house of commons, 
and not less than 150,000 persons of all ranks (including Louis Napoleon, now emperor) 
were voluntaril}'^ sworn to act as special constables. From this time the j)roceedings of the 
Chartists became insignificant. 

CHAETEEUSE, La Grande, famoi;s as the chief of the monasteries of the Carthusian 
order, is situated among the rugged mountains near Grenoble, in France. It was founded by 
Bruno of Cologne about 1084. At the revolution in 1792, the monks were expelled and 
their valuable library destroyed. They returned to the monastery after the restoration in 

CHAETS AND MAPS. Anaximander of Miletus was the inventor of geographical and 
celestial charts, about 570 B.C. Modern sea-charts were brought to England by Bartholomew 
Columbus to illustrate his brother's theory res]3ecting a western continent, 1489. The first 
tolerably accurate map of England was drawn by George Lilly, who died in 1559. Gerard 
Mercator published an atlas of maps in 1595. See Mercator. 

CHASTITY. The Roman laws justified homicide in defence of one's self or relatives ; 
and our laws justify a woman for killing a man in defence of her chastity ; and a hushand or 
a father in taking the life of him who attempts to violate his wife or daughter. In 1000 
years from the time of ISTuma, 710 B.C., to the reign of Theodosius the Great, a.d. 394, only 
eighteen Roman vestals had been condemned for incontinence. See Vestals, Acre, and 

CHATHAM (Kent), a principal station of the royal navy. Its dockyard, commenced by 
queen Elizabeth, contains immense naval magazines. The Chatham Chest, for the relief of 
wounded and decayed seamen, originally established here by the queen and admirals Drake 
and Hawkins, in 1588, was removed to Greenwich in 1803. In 1667, on the loth June, the 
Dutch fleet, under admiral De Ruyter, sailed up to this town and burnt several men-of-war ; 
but the entrance into the Medway is now defended by Sheeruess and other forts, and 
additional fortifications were made at Chatham. On Feb. 8, 1861, a violent outbreak of the 
convicts was suppressed by the military, and many of the rioters severely flogged. About 
lOOoZ. worth of property was destroyed, and many persons were seriously hurt. 

CHATHAM ADMmiSTRATIOK* Formed Aug. 1766; terminated Dec. 1767. 

Earl of Chatham, first minister and lord privy seal. 
Duke of Grafton, first lord, of the treasury. 
Lord Camden, lord chancellor. 
Charles Townshend, clianeellor of the exchequer. 
Earl of Northing ton, lord president. 
Earl of Shelbume and general Conway, secretaries of 

Sir Charles Saunders (succeeded by sir Edward 

Hawke), adniiralty. 
Marquess of Granby, ordnance. 
Lord Hillsborough, /csi lord of trade. 
Lord Barrington, secretary at war. 
Lord North and Sir George Cooke, joint paymaiters. 
Viscount Howe, treasurer of the navy. 
Duke of Ancaster, lord le Despenser, &c. 

CHATILLON (on the Seine, France). Here a congress was held by the four gi-eat 
powers allied against France, at which Caulaincourt attended for ISTapoleon, Feb. 5, 1814 ; 
the negotiations for peace were broken oft" on March 19, following. 

CHAT MOSS (Lancashire), a peat bog twelve miles square, in most places so soft as to 
be incapable of supporting a man or horse, over which George Stephenson, the railway 
engineer, carried the Liverpool and Manchester railway, after overcoming diOiculties con- 
sidered invincible. The road (literally a floating one) was completed by Jan. I, 1830, when 
the first experimental train, drawn by the Rocket locomotive, passed over it. 

CHATTANOOGA (Tennessee). Near here the federal generals, Sherman and Thomas, 
defeated the confederate general Bragg, after storming the entrenchments, Nov. 25, 1863. 
The result was very injurious to the confederates. Bragg retreated into Georgia, and Long- 
street into Virginia. 

CHAUMONT (on the Marne, France), Treaty of, entered into between Great Britaiii, 
Austria, Russia, and Prussia, and signed by these powers respectively, March i, 1814. This 

* William Pitt, earl of Chatham (called the great commoner), was horn Nov. 15, 1708, entered parliament 
in 1735 ; became secretary of state' (but virtually the premier) in the Devonshire admmistration, Nov. 
1756, and secretary in the Newcastle administration, Jan. 1757. In 1766 he became premier, lord privy 
.seal, and earl of Chatham, which lord Chesterfield called a fall upstairs. He opposed the taxation 01 the 
American colonies, but protested against the recognition of their independence, April 7, 1778, ana died 
May 1 1 following. 

CUE 168 CHE 

treaty was succeeded by the celebrated treaty of Paris, April ii following, by which 
Napoleon renounced his sovereignt}'- over France. See Paris. * 

CHEATS are punishable by jiillory (since abolished), imprisonment, and fine, i Ilawlc. 
L.C. 1 88. A rigorous statute was enacted against them in 1542. Persons cheating at play, 
or winning at any time more than lol. or any valuable thing, were deemed infamous, and 
were to suffer punishment as in cases of perjury, 9 Anne, 171 1. Blackstone. 

CHEESE. It is supposed by Camden and others that the English learned cheese- 
making from the Romans about the Christian era. Wilts, Gloucester, and Cheshire make 
vast quantities ; the last alone, annuallj'-, about 31,000 tons. In 1840 we imported from 
abroad about 10,000 tons ; and in 1864, 41,742 tons. The duty on foreign cheese, pro- 
ducing annually about 50,000^., was taken off in i860. 

CHELSEA. On the site of a college founded by James I. in 1609 for theological dispu- 
tations against popery, but converted by Charles II. in 1682 to its present purpose, stands 
Clielsea college, an asj'lum for wounded a)id superannuated soldiers. — The erection was 
carried on by James II., and completed by William III. in 1690. The real projector was sir 
Stephen Fox, grandfather of the orator C. J. Fox. The architect Avas sir Christopher Wren, 
and the cost 150,0007. In 1850 there were 70,000 out- and 539 in-jyeiisioiuers. — The body of 
the duke of Wellington lay here in state, Nov. 10 — 17, 1852. — The physic garden of sir 
Hans Sloane, at Chelsea, was given to the Apothecaries' company in 1721. The Chelsea 
waterworks were incorporated 1722. The first stone of the Military Asylum, Chelsea, was 
laid by Frederick, duke of York, June 19, 1801. — The bridge, constructed by Mr. T. Page 
to connect Chelsea with Battersea-park, was opened in the spring of 1858. 

CHELTENHAM (Gloucestershire). Its celebrated mineral spring was discovered in 
1718. The king's-well was sunk in 1778 ; and other wells by Jlr. Thompson in 1806. 
Magnesian salt was first found in the waters in 181 1. The theatre was erected in 1804. 

CHEMICAL SOCIETIES. One formed in London in 1780, did not long continue. 
The present chemical society was established in 1841. The Chemical Society at Paris was 
established in 1857. 

CHEMISTRY was introduced into Europe by the Spanish Moors, about 1150 ; they had 
learned it from the African Moors, and these from the Egyptians. In Egypt they had, in 
very early ages, extracted salts from their bases, separated oils, and prepared vinegar and wine ; 
and embalming was a kind of chemical process. The Chinese also claim an early acquaint- 
ance with chemistry. Tl)e first chemical students in Europe were the Alchemists (see 
Alchemy); but cliemistry could not be said to exist as a science till the 17th century; 
during which its study was promoted by the writings of Bacon and the researches of Hooke, 
Mayow, and Boyle. In the early pai-t of the i8th century. Dr. Stephen Hales laid the 
foundation oi Pneumatic Chemistry, and his contemporary Boerhaave combined the study of 
chemistry with medicine. These were succeeded by Black, Bergman, Stahl, &c. In 1772, 
Priestley published his researches on air, having discovered the gases oxygen, ammonia, &c. ; 
and thus commenced a new era in the history of chemistry. He was ably seconded bj' 
Lavoisier, Cavendish, Scheele, Chaptal, &c. The 19th century opened with the brilliant 
discoveries of Davy, continued by Dalton, Faraday, Thomson, &c. Organic Cliemistry has 
been very greatly advanced by the labours of Berzelius, Liebig, Dumas, Laurent, Hofmann, 
Cahours, Frankland,* &c., since 1830. See Pharmacy, Electricity, Galvanism. For the 
analytical processes termed ^'Spectrum analysis," invented by Kirchhoff and Bunsen (1861), 
and ''Dialysis" (1861), and "^^jmoZ^sw" (1863), invented by Mr. T. Graham, see those 
articles. The Royal College of Chemistry, Oxfoid Street, London, was established in 1845. 
The publication of Watt's great " Dictionary of Chemistry " began in April, 1863. 

CHEQUES. See Drafts. 

CHERBOURG, the great naval fortress and arsenal of France on the coast of Brittany, 
about 60 or 70 miles equi-distant from Portsmouth and Plymouth. It was captured by our 
Henry V. in 1418, and lost in 1450. Under the direction of Louis XIV., some works were 
erected here by the great Vauban, which with some shipping, &c., were destroyed by the 
British, Aug. 6, 7, 1758. The works were resumed on a stupendous scale by Louis XVI. ; 

* In 1828 'Wohler succeeded in producing artificially urea, a body hitherto known only as a product of 
the animal organism. Since then, acetic acid, alcohol, gi-ape sugar, various essential oils, similar to those 
of the pine apple, pear, garlic, <fec. , have been formed by combinations of the gases, oxygen, hydrogen, and 
carbonic acid. The barrier formed by chemists between organic and inorganic bodies is thus broken down, 
though the names are still retained. 

CHE 169 CHI 

but their progress was interrupted by the revolution. The break-water, cominenced in 1783, 
resumed by Napoleon I. about 1803, and finally completed in 1813, is a magnificent work, 
forming a secure harbour, capable of affording anchorage for nearly the whole navy of 
France, and protected by strong fortifications, increased by the present emperor. On Aug. 
4, 5, 1858, the railway and the Grand Napoleon docks were opened, the latter in the 
pi-esence of the queen of England and court. The British fleet visited Cherbourg, Aug. 
15-17, 1865, and the officers and men were treated with much hospitality. 

CHERITON DOWN" (Hants). Here sir Wm. Waller defeated the royalists under lord 
Hopton, May 29, 1644. 

CHEERY, the Primus Cerasus (so called from Cerasus, a city of Pontus, whence the 
tree was brought by LucuUus to Eonie, about 70 B.C.), was first planted in Britain, it is said, 
about 100. Fine kinds were brought from Flanders, in 1540, and planted in Kent, with 
much success. 

CHEESOK See Kherson. CHEESONESUS. See Crimea. 

CHESAPEAKE. At the month of this river a contest took place between the British 
admiral Greaves and the French admiral De Grasse, in the interest of the revolted states of 
America ; the former was obliged to retire, 1781. The Chesapeake and Delaware were 
blockaded by the British fleet in the American war of 1812, and the bay was, at that 
period, the scene of great hostilities of various results. — The Chesapeake American frigate, 
commanded by capt. Lawrence (50 guns, 376 men), struck to the Shannon British fiigate 
(49 guns, 330 men), commanded by capt. Philip Vere Broke, after a severe action of eleven 
minutes, June i, 1813. Capt. Lawrence, who had invited the contest, died of his wounds. 

CHESS, a game invented, according to some authorities, by Palamedes, 680 B.C. ; and 
according to others, in the fifth century of our era. The learned Hyde and sir William Jones 
concur in stating that the origin of chess is to be traced to Lidia. The automaton chess- 
player (a piece of machinery) was exhibited in England in 1769.* A chess congress was 
held at New York in 1857, and an international one in London in June and July, 1862. 

CHESTER (England, N. W.), the British Caerleou and the Roman Deva, the station of 
the twentieth legion, Valeria Vidrix, quitted by them about 476. The city wall was 
first built by Edelfleda, 908 ; and Hugh Lupus, the earl, nephew of William L, rebuilt the 
Saxon castle in 1084, and the abbey of St. Werbnrgh. Chester was incorporated by 
Henry IlL and made a distinct county. It was ravaged by the Danes, 980 ; and nearly 
destroyed by an accidental fire in 1471. A fatal gunpowder explosion occurred Nov. 5, 
1772. The exchange and town hall were burnt Dec. 30, 1862. — The see was anciently part 
of Lichfield, one of whose bishops, Peter, removing the seat hither in 1075, occasioned his 
successors to be styled bishops of Chester ; but it was not erected into a distinct bishopric 
until the dissolution of monasteries. Henry YIII. in 1542 raised it to this dignity, and 
allotted the church of the abbey of St. Werburgh for the cathedral. This see is valued in 
the king's books at 420Z. is. 2>d. per annum. Present income 4500Z. 


1828. John Bird Sunmer, trans, to Canterbury, 1848. 
1848. John Graham, died June 15, 1865- 
1865. William Jacobson (present bishop). 

1800. Henry Wm. Majendie, trans, to Bangor, 1809. 
1810. Bowyer Edward Sparkle, trans, to Ely, 1812. 
1812. George Henry Law, translated to Bath, 1824. 
1824, Chas. J. Blomfield, trans, to London, Aug. 1828. 

CHEYALIER D'EON. See D'Eon. CHEYY CHASE. See Otterhurne. 

CHICAMAUGA ("the stream of death"), near the Chattanooga, Tennessee, North 
America. Near here the confederates under general Bragg, aided by Longstreet, totally 
defeated the federals under Eosencrans, Sept. 19, 20, 1863. The loss was severe on both 
sides. The credit of the victory is attributed to Longstreet ; its fruitlessness is assigned to 

CHICHESTER (Sussex), built by Cissa, about 540. The cathedral was completed 
about 1088, burnt with the city in 11 14, and rebuilt by bishop Seffrid about 1187. The 
present cathedral was erected during the 13th century. The spire fell Feb. 20, 1861, and the 
foundation of a new one was laid May 2, 1865. The bishopric originated thus : Wilfrida, 
archbishop of York, compelled to flee by Egfrid, king of Northumberland, preached the 
gospel in this country, and built a church in the Isle of Selsey, about 673. In 681 Selsey 

* A chess-club was formed at Slaughter's coffee-house, St. Martin's lane, in 1747. M. F. A. Danican, 
known as Phillidor, played three matches blindfold at the Salopian ; he died in 1795. The London Chess- 
club was founded in 1807, and St. George's in 1833. In Dec. 1861 Herr Paulsen played ten games at once, 
of which he won five, and lost one ; three were drawn, and one not played out. 




became a bishopric, and so continued until it was removed to Chichester, then called Cissan- 
Caester, from its builder, Cissa, by Stigand, 1070. This see has yielded to the church two 
saints, and to the nation three lord chancellors. It is valued in the king's books at 
677Z. IS. yl. per annum. Present income, 4200^. 



John Buckner, died May 2, 1824. 

Kobert J. Carr, trans, to Worcester, Sept. 1831. 

Edward Maltby, translated to Durham, 1836. 

1836. Charles Otter, died Aug. 20, 1840. 

1840. Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, died Jan. 7,1842. 

1842. Ashurst Turner Gilbert (presekt bishop). 


CHICORY, the wild endive, or CicJiormni Intijhus of Linnaeus, grows wild in calcareous 
soils. It has been raised to some extent in England as herbage, its excellence in this respect 
having been much insisted upon by Arthur Young.* 

CHILDERMAS DAY, Dec. 28, observed by the Roman church, in memoiy of the 
slaughter of the Holy Innocents. {Matt, ii.) 

CHILDREN. Manj' ancient nations exposed their infants, — the Egyptians on the banks 
of rivers, and the Greeks on highways, — when they could not support or educate them ; in 
such cases, they were taken care of, and humanely protected by the state. The custom, 
which long previously existed, of English parents selling their children to the Irish for 
.slaves, was prohibited in the reign of Canute, about 1017. Mat. Paris. See Foundling. 

CHILI (S. America), discovered by Diego de Almagro, one of the conquerors of Peru, 
1535. When Almagro crossed tlie Cordilleras, the natives, regarding the Spaniards on 
their first visit as allied to the Divinity, collected for them gold and silver amounting to 
290,000 ducats, a present which led to the subsequent cruelties and rapacity of the invaders. 
Chili was subdued, but not wholly, in 1546. Population in 1857, 1,558,319. 

The Chilians declare their independence of 
Spain Sept. 18, iSio 

Fight with varying success ; decisive victory 
gained by San Martin over the forces, 
Feb. 12 ; the province was declared inde- 
pendent 1817 

Present constitution established in . . . 1833 

Manuel Montt elected president . Oct. 18, 1856 

Insurrection headed by Pedro Gallo, Dec. 
1858, suppressed .... April, 1859 

Jos6 Perez, president . . . Sept. 18, 1861 

Conflagration of the Jesuits' church at San- 
tiago (see Santiago), more than 2000 persons 
peri.shed Dec. 8, 1863 

Rupture between ChiU and Bolivia respecting 
the " Guano " isles . . . March i, 1864 

CHILLIANWALLAH, Battle of, India, between the Sikh forces in considerable 
strength, and the British commanded by lord (afterwards viscount) Gough, fought Jan. 13, 
1849. The Sikhs were completely routed, but the loss of the British was very severe : 26 
oflicers were killed and 66 wounded, and 731 rank and file killed, and 1446 wounded. The 
Sikh loss was 3000 killed and 4000 wounded. f On Feb. 21, lord Gough attacked the Sikh 
ai-my, under Shere Singh, in its position at Goojerat, with complete success ; and the whole 
of the enemy's camp fell into the hands of the British. 

CHILTERN HUNDREDS (viz. Burnham, Desborough, and Stoke), an estate of the 
crowu on the chain of chalk hills that pass from east to west through the middle of 
Buckinghamshire, the stewardship whereof is a nominal office, with a salary of 20s., conferred 
on members of parliament when they wish to vacate their seats, as, by accepting an office 
under the crown, a member becomes disqualified, unless he be again returned by his con- 
stituents. The strict legality of the practice is questioned. 

CHIMNEY-TAX. See Ifearth. 

CHIMNEYS. Chafing-dishes were in use previous to the invention of chimneys, whicli 
wei'e first introduced into these countries, in 1200, when they were confined to the kitchen 
and large hall. The family sat round a stove, the fimnel of which passed through the 

* Chicory had been for many years so largely mixed with cofifee in England, that it became a matter 
of serious complaint, the loss of revenue being estimated at 100,000?. a-year. An excise order was i.ssued, 
Aug 3, 1852, interdicting the mixture of chicory with coffee. The admixture, however, has since been 
permitted, provided the word " chicorj' " be plainly printed on each jiarcel .sold. In f86o a duty of 3s. per 
cwt. was put upon English-grown chicory until April 1861 ; after that date to be 5.S. 6d. per cwt 

t The duke of Wellington (commander in chief) did not think the victory complete. Gough was 
superseded, and sir C. Napier sent out (March 1849), who did not arrive in India till Gough had redeemed 
his reputation. 




ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys were general in domestic architecture in 13 10. Act to regulate 
chimney-swee]iing, 28 Geo. III. 1789. The chimney-siveejnng machine was invented 
by Smart in 1805. A statute regulating the trade, the apprenticeship of children, the 
construction of flues, preventing calling "sweep" in the streets, &c., passed 1834. By 
5 Vict. 1840, it is not lawful for master sweeps to take apprentices under sixteen years 
of age : and since July I, 1842, no individual under twenty-one may ascend a chimney. In 
1864, the enforcement of this law was made more stringent, it having been neglected. At 
the chemical works, Glasgow, is a chimney (there terjned a stalk) 420 feet in height ; the 
height of the Monument in London being 202 feet ; of St. Paul's, 404 feet. 

CHINA, the "Celestial Empire," in Eastern Asia, for which the Chinese annals claim an 
antiquity of from 80,000 to 100,000 years B.C., is allowed to have commenced about 2500 B.C. ; 
by others to have been founded by Eohi, supposed to be the ISToah of the Bible, 2240 b. c. 
We are told that the Chinese were acute astronomers in the reign of Yao, 2357 b.c. 
Towards the close of the 7th century B.C., the history of China becomes more distinct. 
Twentj^-two dynasties have reigned, including the present. In the battle between Phraates 
and the Scythians, 129 B.C., the Chinese aided the latter, and afterwards ravaged the coasts 
of the Caspian, which is their first appearance in history. Lenglet. The population of 
China was estimated at 190,348,228 in 1757 ; and at 414,607,000 in i860. 

Tlie Chinese state their first cycle to have com- 
menced B.C. 2700 

The first dates fixed to his history, by Se-ma- 

tsien, begin 651 

Supposed age of Confucius (Kungfutze), the 

Chinese philosopher 550 

Stupendous wall of China completed 298 or 211 
The dynasty of Han .... 202 or 206 
Literature and the art of printing encouraged^?) 202 
Religion of Tao-tse commenced ... 15 

BeUgion of Fo commenced . . about a.d. 60 
Pretended embassy from Rome . . . 166 

Mankin becomes the capital 420 

The atheistical philosopher, San-Shin, flourishes 449 
The Nestorian Christians permitted to preach 635 
They are proscribed and extirpated . . . 845 
China ravaged by Tartars, 9th to nth centuries 
Seat of government transferred to Pekin . . 1260 
Marco Polo introduces missionaries . . . 1275 
Canal, called the Yu Ho, completed . about 1400 
Europeans first arrive at Canton . . . . 1517 
Macao is granted to the Portuguese . . . 1536 
Jesuit missionaries are sent from Rome . . 1575 
The country is conquered by the eastern or 
Mantchou Tartars, who estabUsh the present 

reigning house 1616-47 

Tea brought to England 1660 

An earthquake throughout China,buries 300,000 

persons at Pekin alone 1662 

Commerce with East India Company begins . 1680 

Jesuit missionaries preach 1692 

Commercial relations with Russia . . 1719-27 

The Jesuits expelled 1724-32 

Another general earthquake destroys 100,000 

persons at Pekin, and 80,000 in a suburb . 1731 
In a salute by one of our India ships in China, 
a loaded gun was inadvertently fired, which 
killed a native ; the government demanded 
the gunner to be given up ; he was soon 
strangled. — Sir George Staunton . July 2, 1785 
Earl Macartney's embassy* arrives at Pekin ; 

his reception by the emperor . Sept. 14, 1793 
He is ordered to depart . . . Oct. 7, ,, 
And arrives in England . . . Sept 6, 1794 
The affair of the Company's ship Neptune, when 

a Chinese was killed 1807 

Edict against Christianity ... 
Lord Amherst's embassy ; f he leaves England 

Feb 8. 



Exclusive rights of the E. I. Co. cease April 22, 

Opium dispute begins 

Free-trade ships sail for England . April 25, 
Lord Najiier arrives at Macao, to superintend 
British commerce .... July 15, 
Affair between the natives and two British 
shiiDS of war ; several Chinese killed, Sept. 5, 
Lord Napier dies, and is succeeded by Mr. 
(aftei-wards sir John) Davis . . Oct. n, 
Opium trade interdicted by the Chiuese,Nov. 7, 
Cliinese seize the Argyle and crew . Jan. 31, 
Opium burnt at Canton hy the Chinese, Feb. 23, 
Captain Elhot becomes chief British commis- 
sioner . . . . . Dec. 14, 
Admiral Maitland arrives at Macao . Jtily 12, 
Commissioner Lin orders seizure of opium, 
March 18 ; British and other residents for- 
bidden to leave Canton, March 19 ; the fac- 
tories surrounded, and outrages committed, 
March 24 ; captain Elliot requires of British 
subjects their surrender to him of all opium, 
promising them on the part of government 
the full value of it, March 27 ; half of it is 
given up as contraband to the Chinese, April 
20 ; the remainder (20,283 chests) surrendered, 
May 21 ; captain Elliot and the British mer- 
chants leave Canton, May 24 ; the opium 
destroyed by the Chinese . . June 3, 
Affair between the British and American sea- 
men and the Chinese ; a native killed, July 7, 
Hong-Kong taken .... Aug. 23, 
The British boat Blach Joke attacked, and the 
crew murdered, Aug. 24 ; the British mer- 
chants retire from Macao . . Aug-. 26, 
Affair at Kow-lung between British boats and 

Chinese junks Sept 4, 

Attack by 28 armed junks on the British 
frigates Volage and Hyacinth : several junks 

blown up Nov. 3, 

The British trade with China ceases, by an 
edict of the emperor, and the last servant of 
the con:ipany leaves this day . . Dec. 6, 
Edict of the emperor interdicting all trade and 
intercourse with England for ever . Jan. 5, 
The Hellas ship attacked by armed junks, May 
22 ; blockade of Canton by a British fleet, 
by orders from sir Gordon Bremer, June 
28 ; the Blonde with a flag of truce fired on 
at Amoy, July 2 ; Ting-hai, in Chusan, sur- 



* This embassy threw some lighten the political circumstances of the empire; it appeared to be 
divided intoisx^rovinces, containing 4402 walled cities ; the population ofthe whole was given at 333,000,000: 
its annual revenues at 66,ooo,oooi : and the army, including the Tartars, 1,000,000 of infantry, and 800,000 
cavalry ; the religion Pagan, and the government absolute. Learning, and the arts and sciences, were 
encouraged, and ethics studied. 

t His lordship failed in the objects of his mission, having refused to make the prostration of the 
Icou-tuu, lest he should thereby compromise the majesty of England. 




CHINA, continued. 

renders, July 5 ; blockade established along 
the Chinese coast, July 10 ; Mr. Sfciunton 
carried off to Canton . . . . Aug. 6, lE 

Captain Elliot, on board a British steam-ship, 
enters the Peiho river, near Pekin, Aug. 11, ,, 

The ship Kite lost on a sand-bank, and the cap- 
tain's wife and a part of the crew are captured 
by the natives, and confined in cages Sept. 15, ,, 

Lin finally degraded ; Keshin appointed im- 
perial commissioner, Sept. 16 ; capt. Elliot's 
truce with him Nov. 6, , 

British plenipotentiaries arrive off Macao, 

Nov. 20, , 

Admiral Elliot's resignation announced, Nov. 29, , 

Jlr. Staunton released . . . Dec. 12, , 

Negotiations cease, owing to breaches of faith 
on the i^art of the Chinese emperor . Jan. 6, 18 

Chuen-pe and Taecoc-tow, and 173 guns (some 
sent to England), captured . . Jan. 7, , 

Hong-Kong ceded by Keshin to Great Britain, 
and 6,000,000 dollars agreed to bo paid within 
ten days to the British authorities . Jan. 20, , 

Hong-Kong taken possesiion of . Jan. 26, , 

The emperor rejects Keshin's treaty, Feb. 11 ; 
hostilities resumed, Feb. 23 ; Chusan evacu- 
ated, Feb. 24; rewards proclaimed at Canton 
for the bodies of Englishmen, dead or alive ; 
50,000 dollars to be given for ringleaders and 
chiefs Feb. 25, , 

Bogue forts taken by sir G. Bremer ; admiral 
Kwan killed ; 459 gvins captured . Feb. 26, , 

The British squadron proceeds to Canton 
March i ; sir H. Gough takes command of the 
army, March 2 ; hostilities again suspended, 
March 3 ; and again resumed, March 6 ; 
Keshin degraded by the emperor March 12, , 

Flotilla of boats destroyed. Canton threatened, 
the foreign factories seized, and 461 guns 
taken by the British forces . March 18, , 

New commissioners from Pekin arrive at 
Canton April 14, , 

JJoiig Kong Gazette first published . May i, , 

Capt. EUiot prepares to attack Canton May 17, , 

Heights behind Canton taken . May 25, , 

The city ransomed for 6,000,000 dollars ; 
S,ooo,ooopaiddown ; hostilities cease May 31, , 

British forces withdrawn, June i ; and British 
trade re-opened .... July 16, , 

Arrival at JIacao of sir Henry Pottinger, who, 
as plenipotentiary, proclaims the objects of 
his mission ; capt. Elliot .superseded Aug. 10, ,. 

Amoy taken, and 296 guns destroyed . Aug. 27, ,. 

The Bogue forts destroyed . . Sept. 14, ,! 

Ting-hae taken, 136 guns captured, and Chusan 
re-occupied by the British, Oct. i ; they take 
Chinhae, Oct. 10; Ning-po, Oct. 13 ; Yu-yaou, 
Tsze-kee, and Foung-hua . . Dec. 28, ,, 

Chinese attack Ningpo and Chiu-hae, and are 
repulsed with great loss, March 10 ; 8000 
Chinese are routed near Tsze-kee March 15, 

Cha-pou attacked ; its defences destroyed. 

May 18, 

The British squadron enters the river Kiang, 
June 13 ; capture of Woosung, and of 230 
guns and stores, June i6 ; Shang-hae taken, 
June 19 ; the British armament anchors near 
the "Golden Isle," July 20; Chin-Keang 
taken ; the Tartar general and many of the 
gan'i.son commit suicide, July 21 ; the ad- 
vanced ships reach Nankin, Aug. 4 ; the whole 
fleet arrives, and the disembarkation com- 
mences, Aug. 9 ; Keying arrives at Nankin, 
with full powers to treat for peace . Aug. 12. 

Treaty of peace signed before Nankin, on board 
the Comwall'is by sir Henry Potliinger for 
England, and Keying Elepoo* and Neu-Kien 
on the part of the Chinese emperor — [Con- 
ditions : lasting peace and friendship between 
the two empires; China to pay 21,000,000 of 
dollars ; Canton, Amoy, Foochoofoo, Ning- 
po, and Shang-hae to be thrown open to the 
British, and consuls to reside at these cities ; 
Hong-Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to Eng- 
land, (fee. ; Chusan and Ku-lang-su to be held 
by the British until the provisions are ful- 
filled] t Aug. 29, 

The ratifications signed by queen Victoria and 
the emperor formallj- exchanged, July 22 ; 
Canton opened to the British by an imperial 
edict July 27, 

Aiipointmeut of Mr. Davis in the room of sir 
Henry Pottinger .... Feb. 16, 

Bogue forts captured by the British . April 5, 

Hong-Kong and the neighbourhood visited by 
a violent typhoon ; immense damage done to 
the shipping ; upwards of 1000 boat-dwellers 
on the Canton river drowned . . Oct. 

H.M. steam-.ship Medea destroys 13 pirate 
junks in the Chinese seas . . March 4, 

Kebellion breaks o\it in Qviang-si . . Aug. 

Appearance of the pretender Tien-teh,J March 

Defeat of Leu, the imperial commissioner, and 
destruction of half the army . June 19, 

Successful progress of the rebels ; the emperor 
applies to the Europeans for lielp, without 
success .... March and April, 

The rebels take Nankin, March 19, 20 ; Amoy, 
May 19 ; Shang-hae . . . Sept. 7, 

And besiege Canton without success Aug. -Nov. 

The scanty accounts are unfavourable to the 
rebels, the imperialists having retaken Shang- 
hae, Amoy, and many important places . . 

Outrage on the British lorcha Arrow, in Canton 
river § Oct. 8, 








* He took part (it was said without authority) in arranging the treaty of Tien-sin in June, 1858. He 
was in consequence condemned to death — by suicide. 

\ The non-fulfilment of this ti-eaty led gradually to the war of 1S56-7. 

t The emperor Taou-Kwang, who died Feb. 25, 1850, during the latter part of his reign, became liberal 
in his views, and favoured the introduction of European arts ; but his son, the late emperor, a rash and 
narrow-minded prince, quickly departed from his father's wise policy, and adopted reactionary measures, 
particularly against English influence. An insurrection broke out in consequence, Aug. 1850, and quickly 
became of alarming importance. The insurgents at first proposed only to expel the Tartars ; but in March 
1851, a pretender was announced among them, first by the name of Tien-teh (Celestial Virtue), but after- 
wards assuming other names. He is stated to have been a native of Quang-si, of obscure origin, but to have 
obtained some literary knowledge at Canton about 1835, and also to have become acquainted at that time 
with the principles of Christianity from a Chinese Christian, named Leang-afa, and also from the mis- 
sionary Roberts in 1844. He announced himself as the restorer of the worship of the true God, Shang-ti, 
but has derived many of his dogmas from the Bible. He declared himself to be the monarch of all beneath 
the sky, the true lord of China (and thus of all the world), the brother of Jesus, and the second son of God, 
and demanded universal submission. He made overtures for alliance to lord Elgin, in November, i860. 
His followers are termed Taephujs, " princes of peace," a title utterly belied by their atrocious deeds. 
The rebellion was virtually terminated July 18, 1864, by the capture of Nankin, the suicide of the 
Tien-wang, and the execution of the militai-y leaders. 

§ It was boarded by the Chinese officers, 12 men out of the crew of 14 being carried oflf, and the national 
ensign taken down. Sir J. Bowring, governor of Hong-Kong, being compelled to resort to hostilities. 




CHINA, continued. 

After vain negotiations with commissioner Yeh, 
Canton forts attacked and taken . Oct. 23, 1856 

A Chinese fleet destroyed and Canton bom- 
barded, by sir M. Seymour . Nov. 3, 4, ,, 

Imperialists defeated, quit Shang-hae Nov. 6, ,, 

The Americans revenge an attack by capturing 
three forts .... Nov. 21 — 23, ,, 

Eebels take Kuriking . . . Nov. 25, ,, 

Other forts taken by the British . . Dec. ,, 

The Chinese biu-n Em-opean factories Dec. 14, ,, 

And murder the crew of the r/iis/^s . Dec. 30, ,, 

A-lum, a Chinese baker, acquitted of charge of 
poisoning the bread .... Feb. 2, 1857 

Troops arrive from Madras, and England ; and 
lord Elgin appointed envoy . . March, ,, 

No change on either side : Teh said to be 
straitened for money ; the imperiaUsts seem 
to be gaining ground upon the rebels May, ,, 

Total desti-uction of the Chinese fleet by com- 
modore Elliot, May 25, 27; and sir M. Sey- 
mour and comimodore Keppel . . June i, ,, 

Blockade of Canton .... Aug. ,, 

Stagnation in the war — lord Elgin departs to 
Calcutta, with assistance to the English 
against the Sepoys, July 16 ; returns to Hong- 
Kong Sept. 25, ,, 

Gen. Ashbumham departs for India, and gen. 
Straubenzee assumes the command Oct. 19, ,, 

Canton bombarded and taken by English and 
French, Dec. 28, 29, 1857 ; who enter it Jan. 5, 1858 

Yeh* sent a prisoner to Calcutta . . Jan. ,, 

The allies proceed towards Pekin, and take the 
Pei-ho forts , . . . . May 20, ,, 

The expedition arrives at Tien-Sin . May 20, ,, 

Negotiations commence June s ; treaty of peace 
signed at Tien-sin by lord Elgin, baron Gros, 
and Keying (who signed the treaty of 1842) — 
[Ambassadors to be at both courts ; freedom 
of trade; toleration of Christianity ; expenses 
of war to be paid by China ; a revised tariff ; 
term libarharian) to be no longer apphed to 
Europeans] .... June 26, 28, 29, „ 

Lord Elgin visits Japan, and concludes an im- 
portant treaty with the emperor . Aug. 28, „ 

The British destroy about 130 piratical junks 
in the Chinese seas . . Aug. and Sept. ,, 

Lord Elgin proceeds up the Yang-tse-Kiang to 
Nankin, Jan. ; returns to England . May, 1859 

Mr. Bruce, the British envoy, on his way to 
Pekin, is stopped in the river Pei-ho (or Tien- 
sin); admiral Hope attempting to force a 
passage, is repulsed with the loss of 81 killed, 
and about 390 wounded . . . June 25, „ 

The American envoy Ward arrives at Pekin, 
and refusing to submit to degrading cere- 
monies, does not see the emperor, July 29 ; 
the commercial treaty with America is con- 
cluded Nov. 24, „ 

The English and French prepare an expedition 
against China Oct. „ 

Lord Elgin and baron GroS sail for China, April 
26; wrecked near point de Galle, Ceylon, 
May 23 ; arrive at Shang-hae . June 29, i860 

The war begins : the British commanded by sir 
Hope Grant, the French by general Montau- 
ban. The Chinese defeated in a skirmish 
near the Pei-ho .... Aug. 12, „ 

The allies repulse the Tae-ping rebels attacking 
Shang-hae, Aug. 18-20 ; and take the Taku- 
forts, losing 500 killed and wounded ; the Tar- 
tar general San-ko-hn-sin retreats Aug. 21, „ 

After vain negotiations, the allies advance to- 
wards Pekin ; they defeat the Chinese at 
Chang-kia-wan and Pa-li-chiau Sept. 18 & 21, ,, 

Consul Parkes, captains Anderson and Bra- 

bazon, Mr. De Noi-man, Mr. Bowlby (the 
Times' correspondent), and 14 others (Euro- 
peans and Sikhs), advance to Tung-chow, to 
arrange conditions for a meeting of the minis- 
ters, and are cajjtured by San-ko-lin-sin ; 
capt. Brabazon and abb^ de Luc beheaded, 
and said to be thrown into the canal ; others 
carried into Pekin . . . Sept. 21, 

The allies march towards Pekin ; the French 
ravage the emperor's summer palace, Oct. 6 ; 
Mr. Parkes, Mr. Loch, and others, restored 
ahve, Oct. 8 ; capt. Anderson, Mr. De Norman, 
and others die of ill-usage . Oct. 8-11, 

Pekin invested ; surrenders, Oct. 12 ; severe 
proclamation of sir Hope Grant . Oct. 15, 

The bodies of Mr. De Norman and Mr. Bowlby 
buried with great solemnity in the Russian 
cemetery in Pekin, Oct. 17 ; the summer 
palace (Tuen-ming-yuen) iDurnt by the 
British, in memory of the outraged prisoners 

Oct. 18, 

Convention signed in Pekin by lord Elgin and 
the prince of Kung, by which the treaty of 
Tien-sin is ratifled ; apology made for the 
attack at Pei-ho (June 25, 1859) ; a large in- 
demnity to be paid immediately, and com- 
pensation in money given to the families of 
the murdered prisoners, &c. ; Kow-loon ceded 
in exchange for Chusan, and the treaty and 
convention to be proclaimed throughout the 
empire Oct. 24, 

AUies quit Pekin .... Nov. s, 

Treaty between Russia and China — the former 
obtaining free trade, territoi-ies, &c. Nov. 14, 

Mr. Loch arrives in England with the treaty 

Dec. 27, 

First instalment of indemnity paid . Nov. 30, 

Part of the allied troops comfortably settled at 
Tien-sin Jan. 5, 

Adm. Hope examines Yang-tse-Kiang, <fec. Feb. 

English and French embassies established at 
Pekin March, 

The emperor Hienfung dies . . Aug. 24, 

Canton restored to the Chinese . Oct. 21, 

Ministerial crisis ; several ministers put to 
death ; Kung appointed regent . Dec. 13, 

Advance of the rebels ; they seize and desolate 
Ning-po and Hang-chow . . . Dec. 

They advance on Shang-hae, which is placed 
under protection of the English and French, 
and fortified Jan. 

Rebels defeated in two engagemenls . April, 

English and French assist the government 
against the rebels — Ning-po retaken May 10, 

French admiral Protet killed in an attack on 
rebels May 17, 

Captain Sherard Osborne permitted by the 
British government to organise a small fleet 
of gim-boats to aid the imperialists to 
establish order July, 

Imperialists gaining ground, take Kah-sing,&c 


Commercial treaty with Prussia ratified Jan. 14, 

The imperialists under Gordon, defeat the 
Taepings under Burgevine, (fee. . Oct. 

Gordon, commanding the imperiaUsts, captures 
Sow-chow (after a severe attack on Nov. 27, 
28) ; the rebel chiefs treacherously butchered 
by the Chinese .... Dec. 4, 5, 

Capt. Osborne came to China ; but retired in 
consequence of the Chinese government de- 
parting from its engagements . Dec. 31, 

Gordon's successes continue . Jan. to April, 

After a severe repulse he takes Chang-chow-foo, 

Mar. 23, 




applied to India and Ceylon for troops. On March 3, 1857, the house of commons, by a majority of 19, 
censiired sir John for the " violent measures " he had pursued. The ministry (who took his part) dissolved 
the parhament ; but obtained a lai-ge majority in the new one. 

* He died peacefully at Calcutta, April 9, 1859. He is said to have beheaded above 100,000 rebels. 




CHINA, conlinucd. 

He takes Nankin (a heap of ruins) ; the Tien- 
wang, the rebel emperor, commits suicide 
by eating gold leixf. Chang- wang and Kan- 
wang, the rebel generals, are " cut into a 
thousand pieces ;" . . . . July i8, 1864 

The Taepings hold Ming-chow ; the Mahome- 
tan i-ebellion progressing in Honan March, 1865 

Taepings evacuate Ming-chow . . May 23 ,, 

A rebellion in the north, headed by Nien-Cei ; 
Pekin in danger .... July ,, 

The Chinese general San-ko-lin-sin defeated 
and slain ; his son more successful . July ,, 


1627. Chwang-lei. 

1644. Shun-che (first of the Tsing dynasty). 

1669. Kang-he. 

1693. Yung-ching. 

1735. Keen-lung. 

1795. Kea-king. 

1820. Taou-Kwang. 

1850. Hieng-fung, Feb. 25. 

1861. Ki-tsiang, Aug. 22 ; bom April 5, 1855. 

CHINA PORCELAIN introduced into England about 1531. See Pottery. 

CHINA ROSE, &c. The Hosa indica was brought from China, and successfully planted 
in England, 1786 ; the Cliiuese apple-tree, or Pyrus spcdabilis, about 1780. 

CHIOS (now Scio), an isle in the Greek Archipelago, revolted against Athens, 412 B.C. 
It partook of the fortunes of the Greeks, being conquered by the Venetians, a.d. 1124; by 
the Crusaders, 1204 ; by the Greek emperor and Romans, 1329 ; by the Genoese, 1329, and 
by the Turks in 1459. A dreadful massacre of the inhabitants by the Turks took place April 
II, 1822, diiring the Greek insurrection.* 

CHIPPAWA (N. America). Here the British under Eiall were defeated by the 
Americans under Browne, July 5, 1814. The Americans were defeated by the British, 
under generals Drummoud and Riall, July 25 following, but the latter was Avounded and 
taken prisoner. 

CHIVALRY arose out of the feudal system in the latter part of the 8th century 
{chevalier, or knight, being derived from the caballarius, the equijiped feudal tenant on 
horseback). From the 12th to the 15th century it tended to refine manners. The knight 
swore to accomplish the duties of his profession, as the champion of God and the ladies ; 
to speak the truth, to maintain the right, to protect the dis"tressed, to practise courtes}', to 
fulfil obligations, and to vindicate in every perilous adventure his honour and character. 
Chivalry, which owed its origin to the feudal system, expired with it. See Toiu-naments. 
By letters patent of James I. the earl-marshal of England had " the like jurisdiction in the 
courts of chivalry, when the office of lord high constable was vacant, as this latter and the 
marshal did jointly exercise," 1623. See Knighthood. 

CHLORINE (Greek chloros, pale green), a gas first obtained by Scheele in 1774, by 
treating manganese with muriatic (hyili'ochloric) acid. Sir H. Davy, in 1810, proved this 
gas to be an element, and named it chlorine. Combined with sodium it forms common 
salt (chloride of sodium), and combined with lime, the bleaching powder and disinfectant — 
cliloride of lime. The bleaching powers of chlorine wei'e made known by Berthollet in 1785. 
In 1S23 chlorine was condensed into a liquid by Faraday. 

CHLOROFORM (the ter-chloride of the hypothetical radical formyl) is a compound of 
carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine, and was made from alcohol, water, and bleaching powder. 
It was discovered by Soubeiran in 1831, and its composition was determined by Dumas in 
1834. The term " chloric ether" was applied in 1820 to a mixture of chlorine and olefiant 
gas. Chloroform was first applied as an anDesthetic by Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh ; it was 
first administered in England on Dec. 14, 1848, by Mr. James Robinson, surgeon-dentist. f 

CHOBHAM COMMON, in Surrey. A military camp was formed here on June 14, 1853, 
by a force between 8000 and 10,000 strong. The last field-day took place Aug. 17, i860. 
Only one serious case of misconduct was reported during all the time. 

CHOCOLATE, made of the cocoa berry, introduced into Europe (from Mexico and the 
Brazils) about 1520, was sold in the London coffee-houses soon after their establishment, 1650. 

* The slaiighter lasted 10 days : 40,000 of both sexes falling victims to the sword, or to the fire, which 
raged until every house, save those of the foreign consuls, was burned to the ground. 7000 Greeks, who 
had fled to the mountains, were induced to surrender by a promise of amnesty, guaranteed by the consuls 
of England, France, and Austria : yet even they were all butchered I The onlj' exception made during the 
massacre was in favour of the young and more beautiful women and boys, 30,000 of whom were reserved 
for the markets. 

t A committee of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in July, 1864, after examining statistics, 
reported that the use of anesthetics had in no degree increased the rate of mortaUty. 




CHOIE, This was separated from the nave of the cliurch iu the time of Constantiue. 
The choral service was first used in England at Canterbury, 677. See Chanting. 

CHOLERA MORBUS, known in its more malignant form as the Indian cholera, made 
great ravages in the north, east, and south of Europe, and in Asia, where alone it carried off 
more than 900, ocx) persons, in 1829-30. In England and "Wales in 1848-9, 53,293 persons 
died of cholera, and in 1854, 20,097. 

Cholera appears at Sunderland . . Oct. 26, 1831 

And at Edinburgh . . . . Feb. 6, 1832 

First observed at Rotherhithe and Limehouse, 
London, Feb. 13 ; and in Dublin . March 3 „ 

The mortality very ffreat, but more so on the 
Continent; 18,000 deaths at Paris, between 

March and August, 1832 

Cholera rages in Rome, the Two Sicilies, Genoa, 
Berlin, &c. , in . . July and August, 1837 

Another visitation of cholera in England : the 
number of deaths in London, for the week 
ending Sept. 15, 1849, was 3183 ; the ordinary 
average 1008 ; and the number of deaths 
by cholera from June 17 to Oct. 2, in London 
alone, 13,161. The mortality lessened and 
the distemper disappeared . . Oct. 13, 1849 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Hexham, Tynemouth, 

and other northern towns, suffer much, from 
cholera Sept. 1853 

It rages in Italy and Sicily ; above 10,000 are 
said to have died at Naples ; it was also very 
fatal to the allied troops at Varna, autumn, 1S54 

Cholera very severe for a short time in the 
southern parts of London, and in Soho and 
St. James's^ Westminster . Aug. and Sept. ,, 

Raging in Alexandria, June ; abated . July, 1865 

Prevailmg in Ancona (S43 deaths) Aug., sub- 
siding Sept. ,, 

Very severe in Constantinople, nearly 50,000 
deaths, Aug. ; subsides after the great fire, 

Sept. 6 „ 

Cases at Marseilles, Toulon, and Southampton, 
end of Sept. ,, 

CHORAGUS, a Greek officer who regulated the chorus in the public feasts, worship, 
&c. Stesichorus (or Tysias) received this name, he having first taught the chorus to dance 
to the lyre, 556 B.C. Quintil. 

CHORUS-SUSTGIISrG was early practised at Athens. Hypodicus, of Chalcides, carried 
off the prize for the best voice, 508 b. c. Parian marbles. See Mzisic. 

CHOUAjN'S, a name given to the Bretons during the war of La Vendee in 1792, from 
their chief Jean Cottereair, using the cry of the Chat-haunt, or screech-owl, as a signal. He 
was killed in 1794. Georges Cadoudal, their last chief, was connected with Pichegru in a 
conspiracy against Napoleon when first consul, and Avas executed in 1804. 

CHRISM, consecrated oil, was used early in the ceremonies of the Roman and Greek 
churches. Musk, saffron, cinnamon, roses, and frankincense, are mentioned as used with the 
oil, in 1 541. It was ordained that chrism should consist of oil and balsam only ; the one 
representing the human nature of Christ, and the other his divine nature, 1596. 

CHRIST. See Jesits Christ. Christ's Hospital (the Blue-Coat school) was established 
by Edward VI. 1553, on the site of the Grey Friars monastery. A mathematical ward was 
founded by Charles 11. , 1672, and the city of London and the community of England have 
contributed to render it a richly endowed charity. The Times ward was founded in 1841. 
Large portions of the edifice having fallen into decay, it was rebuilt ; in 1822 a new infirmary 
was completed, and in 1825 (April 25) the duke of York laid the first stone of the magnificent 
new hall. — On Sept. 24, 1854, the master. Dr. Jacob, in a sermon, in the church of the 
hospital, censured the system of education and the general administration of the establish- 
ment, and many improvements have since been made. The suboixiinate school at Hertford, 
for 416 younger boys and 80 girls, was founded in 1683. Christ's-thoen, conjectured to 
be the plant of which our Saviour's crown of thorns was composed, came hither from the 
south of Europe before 1596. 

CHRISTIAN Era. See Anno Domini. Christian Knovpledge Society was founded 
in 1698 to promote charity schools, and to disperse bibles and religious tracts. It has an 
annual revenue of about 100,000?. Most Christian King ; Christianissimus Rex, a title 
conferred by pope Paul II. in 1469 on the crafty Louis XL of France. 

CHRISTIANIA, the capital of Norway, built in 1624, by Christian IV. of Denmark, to 
replace Opslo (the ancient capital founded by Harold Haardrade, 1058), which had been de- 
stroyed by fire. On April 13, 1858, Christiania suflfered by fire, the loss being about 250,000?. 
The univei'sity was established in 181 1. New Storthing (parliament house) built 186 1-2. 

CHRISTIANITY. The name Christian was first given to the believers and followers of 
Christ's doctrines at Antioch, in Syria, 43 {Acts xi. 26, i Peter iv. 6). The first Christians 
were divided into episcopoi (bishops or overseers), preshyteroi (elders), diaconoi (ministers or 
deacons), and pistoi (believers) ; afterwards were added catechumens, or learners, and ener- 
gumens, who were to be exorcised. See Persecutions. 




CHRISTIANITY, continued. 

Christianity said to be taught in Britain, about 

64 ; and propagated with some success (Bede) 156 
Christianity said to be introduced into Scotland 

in the reign of Donald I., about . . . 212 
Constantino the Great professes tne Christian 

religion 312 

Frumentiiis preaches in Abyssinia . about 346 

Introduced among the Goths by Ulfilas . . 376 
Into Ireland in the second century, but with 

more success after the arrival of St. Patrick in 432 

Christianity established in France by Clovis . 496 

Conversion of the Saxons* by Augustin . . 597 

Introduced into Helvetia, by Irish missionaries 643 
Into Flanders in the 7th century. 

Into Saxony, by Charlemagne .... 785 

Into Denmark, under Harold . . . . 827 

Into Bohemia, under Borzivoi . . . 894 



Into Russia, by Swiatoslaf . . . about 
Into Poland, under Meicislaiis I. . . . 

Into Hungary, under Geisa 

Into Norway and Iceland, under Olaf I. . 
Into Sweden, between loth and nth centuries. 
Into Prussia, by the Teutonic knights, when 

they were returning from the holy wars 
Into Lithuania; paganism was abolished about 1386 
Into Guinea, AJigola, and Congo, in the 15th 

Into China, where it made some progress (but 

was afterwards extirpated, and thousands of 

Chinese Christians were put to death) . . 1575 
Into India and America, in the i6th century. 
Into Japan, by Xavier and the Jesuits, 1549; 

but the Christians were exterminated in . 1638 
Christianity re-estabUshed in Greece . . . 1628 

CHRISTMAS-DAY, Dec. 25 (from Christ and the Saxon mcesse, signifying the mass 
and a feast), a festival in commemoration of the nativity of our Saviour, said to have heen 
first kept 98 ; and ordered to be lield as a solemn feast, by pope Telesjihorus, about 137. f 
In the eastern church, Christmas and the Epiphany (ivhich sec) are deemed but one and the 
same feast. The holly and mistletoe used at Christmas are said to be the remains of the 
religious observances of the Druids. See Aiuio Domini. 

CHRISTMAS ISLAND, in the Pacific Ocean, so named by captain Cook, who landed 
here on Christmas-day, 1777. He had passed Christmas-day at Christmas-sound, 1774. On 
the shore of Christmas Harbour, visited by him in 1776, one of his men found a piece of 
parchment with this inscription : " Zudovico XV. Galliarum rege, et d. JBoyncs regi a sccretis 
ad res maritimas, annis 1772 et 1773." On the other side of it captain Cook wrote : 
"Naves Resolution et Discovery de rege Magnce Britannice, Dec. 1776," and placed it in a 
bottle safely. 

CHRISTOPHER'S, St. (or St. Kitt's), a AVest India island, discovered in 1493, by 
Columbus, who gave it his own name.. Settled by the English and French 1623 or 1626. 
Ceded to England by the peace of Utrecht, 17 13. Taken by the French in 1782, but 
restored the next year. The town of Basseterre sulfered from a fire, Sept. 3, 1776. 

CHROMIUM (Greek, chrome colour^ a rare metal, discovered by Vauquelin in 1797. It 
is found combined with iron and lead, and forms the colouring matter of the emerald. 

CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY. See Printing in Colours. 

CHRONICLES. The earliest are those of the Jews, Chinese, and Hindoos. In Scrip- 
ture there are two "Books of Chronicles." Collections of the British chroniclers have been 
published by Camden, Gale, &c., since 1602 ; in the present century by the Historical 
Society, &c. In 1858, the publication of " Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and 
Ireland during the Middle Ages," commenced under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. 
Macray's " Manual of British Historians" was published 1845. 

CHRONOLOGY (the science of time) has for its object the arrangement and exhibition 
of the various events of the history of the world in the order of their succession, and the 
ascertaining the intervals between them. See Eras and E'pochs. Valuable works on the 
subject are V Art de Verifier Ics Dates, compiled by the Benedictines (1783 — 1820). Play- 
fair's Chronology, 1784; Blair's Chronology, 1753 (new editions by sir H. Ellis, in 1844, 
and by Mr. Rosse, in 1856). The Oxford Chronological Tables, 1838. Sir Harris Nicolas' 
Clironology of History, 1833 ; new edition, 1852. Hales' Chronology, 2nd edition, 1830 ; 
Mr. H. Fynes-Clinton's Fasti Hellenici and Fasti Romani (1824-50). 

CHRONOMETER. See Clocks and Harrison. 

* It is, traditionally, said that Gregory the Great, shortly before his elevation to the papal chair, 
chanced one day to pass through the slave-market at Rome, and perceiving some children of great beauty 
who were set up for sale, he inquired about their country, and finding they were English pagans, he is said 
to have cried out in the Latin langiiage, " Non Angli sed Amjeli foreat, si essent Christiani ;" that is, "They 
would not be English, but angels, if they were Christians." From that time he was struck with an ardent 
desire to convert that unenlightened nation, and ordered a monk named Austin, or Augustin, and others 
of the same fraternity, to undertake the mission to Britain in the year 596. 

t Diocletian, the Roman emperor, keeping his court at Nicomedia, being informed that the Christians 
were assembled on this day in great multitudes to celebrate Christ's nativity, ordered the doors to be shut, 
and the church to be set on fire, and 600 perished in the burning pile. This was the commencement of the 
tenth persecution, which lasted ten years, 303. 




CHRONOSCOPE, an apparatus invented by professor Wlieatstone in 1840, to measure 
small intervals of time. It has been applied to the velocity of projectUes, and of the electric 
current. Chronoscopes were invented by Pouillet, and others in 1844. 

CHUNAR, Treaty of, concluded between the nabob of Oude and governor Hastings,- 
by which the nabob was relieved of all his debts to the East India Company, on condition of 
his seizing the property of the begums, his mother and grandmother, and delivering it up to 
the English, Sep. 19, 1781. This treaty enabled the nabob to take the lands of Fyzoola 
Khan, a Rohilla chief, who had settled at Rampoor, under guarantee of the English, The 
nabob presented to Mr. Hastings ioo,oooZ. 

CHURCH (probably derived from the Greek Tcyriakos, pertaining to the Lord, Kijrios), 
signifies a collective body of Chi'istians, and also the place where they meet. In the New 
Testament, it signifies "congregation," in the original ekklesia. Christian architecture 
commenced with Constantine, who, after he was settled in his government, erected, at Rome, 
churches (called basilicas, from the Greek basileus, a king) ; St. Peter's being erected about 
330. His successors erected others ; and adopted the heathen temples as places of worship. 
Several very ancient churches exist in Britain and Ireland. See Architecture ; Choir and 
Chanting ; Rome, Modern : and Popes. 

CHURCH OF England.* The following are important facts in her history : for details, 
refer to separate articles. — See Clergy. 

Britain converted to Christianity ("Christo 

subdita," Tertullian) . . . 2nd century 

Invasion of the Saxons, 477 ; converted by 

Augustin and his companions . . . 596 
Dunstan establishes the supremacy of the n\o- 

hastic orders, about 960 

The aggrandising policy of the Church, fostered 
by Edward the Confessor, was checked by 
WiUiam I. and his successors . . 1066 et seg_. 
Contest between Henry II. and Becket re- 
specting the " Constitutions of Clarendon," 

John surrenders his crown to the papal legate 1213 
Rise of the Lollards — Wiokliflfe publishes tracts 
against the errors of the Church of Rome, 
1356 ; and a version of the Bible, about . 1383 
Ihe clergy regulated by parHanient, 1529 ; they 

lose the first fruits 1534 

The royal supremacy imposed on the clergy by 
Henry VIII., 1531 ; many suffer death for re- 
fusing to acknowledge it 153S 

Coverdale' s translation of the Bible commanded 

to be read in churches ,, 

" Six Articles of Religion " promulgated . . 1539 
First book of Common Prayer issued . . . 1548 
The clergy permitted to marry . . . 1549 

" Forty-two Articles of Religion " issued . . 1552 
Restoration of the Roman forms, and fierce 

persecution of the Protestants by Mary . 1553-8 
The Protestant forms restored by EUzabeth ; 

the Puritan dissensions begin . . 1 558-1603 
" Thirty-nine " Articles published . . . 1563 
Hampton Court conference with the Puritans 1604 
New translation of the Bible published . .1611 
Book of Common Prayer suppressed and Direc- 
tory estabUshed by parliament . . . 1644 
Presbyterians established by the Common- 
wealth 1649 

Act of Uniformity (14 Chas. II. c. 4) passed — 
2000 nonconforming ministers resign their 

livings 1662 

Attempts of James II. to revive Romanism ; 



" Declaration of Indulgence " published . 16S7 
Acquittal of the seven bishops on a charge of 

" seditious hbel" 16S8 

The Non-juring bishops and others deprived ; 

(they formed a separate communion) Feb. i, 1691 
" Queen Anne's Bounty," for the augmentation 

of poor livings 

Act for building 50 new churches passed . . 
Fierce disputes between the low church and 

high church ; trial of Sacheverell . . . 
The Bangorian controversy begins . 
John Wesley and George Whitefield commence 


Rise of the Evangelical party in the church, 

under Newton, Romaine, and others, in the 

latter part of the iSth century. 
Church of England united with that of Ireland 

at the Union iSoo 

Clergy Incapacitation Act passed . . . 1801 

Acts for building and enlarging churches 182S, 1838 
200 new churches erected in the diocese of 

London during the episcopate of C. J. Blom- 

field 1828-56 

"Tracts for the Times" (No. 1-90) published 

(much controversy ensued) . . . 1833-41 
Ecclesiastical Commission established . . 1834 
New Church Discipline Act (3 & 4 Vict. c. 86) . 1841 
" Essays and Reviews " published, i860 ; nume- 
rous Replies issued (see i'ssays and Reviews) 1 861-2 

[The Church of England is now said to be 
divided into High, Low (or Evangehcal), and 
Broad Church : the last including persons 
who hold the opinions of the late Dr. Arnold, 
the Rev. F. D. Maurice, and others.] 

Dr. Colenso, bishop of Natal, publishes his work 
on "The Pentateuch," about Oct., 1862; 
great cry against it ; the bishops, in convo- 
cation, declare that it contains "errors of 
the gravest and most dangerous character," 

May 20, 1863 

A Church Congress at Manchester, Oct. 13, 14, 15, „ 

* The church of England consists of three orders of clergy — ^bishops, priests, and deacons; viz., two 
archbishops and twenty-five bishops, exclusive of the see of Sodor and Man. The other dignities are 
chancellors, deans (of cathedrals and collegiate churches), archdeacons, prebendaries, canons, minor canons, 
and priest-vicars : these and the mcumbents of rectories, vicarages, and chapelries, make the number 
of prefei-ments of the estabUshed church, according to official returns, 12,327. The number of henc-ficesxa 
England and Wales, according to parliamentary returns, in 1844, was 11,127, ^^^ the number of ^lebe- 
houses 5527. The number of parishes is 11,077, and of churches and chapels about 14,100. The number 01 
benefices in Ireland was 1495, to which there were not more than about goo glebe-houses attached, the I'^st 
having no glebe-houses. An act was passed in 1S60 for the union of contiguous benefices. See Church of 

CHU 178 CIL 

CHURCH OF England, continued. 

Bishop Colenso deposed by his metropolitan, I are said to have signed ; it was presented to 

Dr. Gray, bishop of Capetown . April i6, 1864 | the archbishop of Canterbury^ l^^^/JJ^l. 
Bishop Colenso's appeal came before the privy " ""' ' ' ^ --j- < ^.. j " t _.,„.,«, ^,„„ 

council, which declared bishop Gray's pro- 

ceednigs null and void (since a colonial 

bishop can have no authority except what 

is granted by parliament or by the colonial 

. legislature) .... March 21, 1865 -„ „ „ „ ., - -i ozr 

Church congress at Bristol . . . Oct. 1864 ' April, 1865 

"Bishop of London's Fund," for remedying 

spiritual destitution in London, establi.shed ; 

the Queen engages to give (in three years) 

3ooo<., and prince of Wales looof. . March 7, 

ioo,456(. received ; 72,003?. promised, Dec. 31, 

The Queen engages to give 15,000?. in lo years, 

' Oxford Declaration " (authorship ascribed to 
archdeacon Denison and Dr. Pusey), respect- 
belief in eternal puni.shment, drawn up 
and signed on Feb. 25, and sent by post to 

New form of clerical subscription proposed by 
a commission izi 1864 ; adopted by parliament, 

Church congress met at Norwich . Oct. 3-7 

the clergy at large for signature : about 3000 ' Congress to be at York in , . . . 1866 

• CHURCH OF IRELAND is no-sv in connection witli that of England— the United 
Church of England and Ireland. Previously to the Church Temporalities Act of Will. IV. 
in 1833, there were four archbishoprics and eighteen bishoprics in Ireland, of which two 
archbishoprics and eight bishoprics have ceased ; that act providing for the union or abolition 
of certain sees, according as the possessors of them died. See BisJiojJS. 

CHURCH OF North America. The Episcopal church was established in Nov. 1784, 
when bishop Seabury, chosen by the churches in Connecticut, was consecrated in Scotland. 
The first convention was held at Philadelphia in 1785. On Feb. 4, 1787, two more American 
bishops were consecrated at Lambeth, In 1851 there were 37 bishops. 

CHURCH of Scotland. See Bishops in Scotland. On the abolition of Episcopacy in 
Scotland in 1638, Presbyterianism became the e.stabli.shed religion. Its distinguishing tenets 
were first embodied in the formulary of faith, said to have been compiled by John Knox, in 
1560, which was approved by the parliament and ratified in 1567, finally settled by an act of 
the Scottish senate in 1696, and secured by the treaty of union with England in 1707. The 
chui'ch of Scotland is regulated by four courts — the general assembly,* the synod, the presby- 
tery, and kirk sessions. See Presbyterians. A large body seceded from this church in 
1843, and took the name of the " Free Church of Scotland," wJiich see. 

CHURCH-RATES. The maintaining the church {i. e. the !building) in repair belongs 
to the parishioners, who have the sole power of taxing themselves for the expense when 
assembled in vestry. The enforcement of payment, which is continually disputed by dis- 
senters and others, belongs to the ecclesiastical courts. Many attempts have been made to 
abolish church-rates. A bill for this purpose has passed the commons only several times 
since 1855 ; one was thrown out in Maj% 1861. See Braintree. 

CHURCH-SERVICES were ordered by pope A^itellianus to be read in Latin 663 ; by 
queen Elizabeth in 1558 to be read in English. 

CHURCH-WARDENS, officers of the church, appointed by the first canon of the synod 
of London in 1127. Overseers in every parish were also appointed by the same body, and 
they continue now nearly as then constituted. Johnson's Canons. 

CHURCHING OF Women is the act of retrrrning thanks in the church by women after 
child-birth. It began about 214. Whcatlcy. See Piirification. 

CHUSAN, a Chinese isle. See China, 1840, 1841, i860. 

CIDER (Zider, German), M'hen first made in England, was called wine, about 1284. The 
earl of Manchester, when ambassador in France, is said to have frequently passed off cider 
for a delicious wine. It was subjected to the excise in 1763 ct scq. A powerful spirit is 
drawn from cider by distillation. —Many orchards were planted in Herefordshire by lord 
Scudamore, ambassador from Charles I, to France. John Philips i^ublished his poem 
"Cider" in 1706. 

CILICIA, in Asia Minor, partook of the fortunes of that country. It became a Roman 
province 67 B.C., and was conquered by the Turks, a.d. 1387. 

• The first general assembly of the church was held Dec. 20, 1560. The general assembly constitutes 
the highest ecclesiastical court in the kingdom ; it meets annualJy in Edinburgh in May, and sits about 
ten days. It consists of a grand commissioner, appointed by the sovereign, and delegates from presbyteries, 
royal boroughs, and universities, some bcmg laymen. To this court all appeals from the inferior ecclesias- 
tical courts lie, and its decision is final. 




CIMBRI, a Teutonic race, who came from Jutland, and invaded the Roman empire about 
I20 B.C. They defeated the Romans, under Cn. Paperius Carbo, 113 B.C. ; under the consul, 
Marcus Silaniis, 109 B.C., and under Manlius, on the banks of the Rhine, where 80,000 
Romans were slain, 105 B.C. Their allies, the Teutones, were defeated by Marius in two 
battles at Aquae Sextise (Aix) in Gaul ; 200,000 were killed, and 70,000 made i)i'i-ioners, 
IQ2.B.C.. The Cimbri were defeated by Marius and Catulus, as they were again endeavouring 
to enter Italy; 120,000 were killed, and 60,00,0 taken prisoners, loi B.C. They were 
afterwards absorbed into the Teutones or Saxons. 

CIMENTO (Italian, experiment). The "Accademia del Cimento," at Florence, held its 
first meeting for making scientific experiments, June 18, 1657. It was patronised by 
Ferdinand, grand duke of Tuscany. Its establishment was followed bj'^ the foundation of 
the Royal Society of London in 1660, and the Academy of Sciences at Paris in 1666, 

CIlSrCIE'lSrATI. a society established in the American army soon after the peace of 
1783, "to perpetuate friendship," and to raise a fund for relieving the widows and orphans 
of those who had fallen during the war." On the badge was a figure of Cincinnatus. The 
people dreading military influence, the officers gave up the society. 

CINNAMON", a species of laurel in Ceylon, is mentioned among the perfumes of the 
sanctuary, Exodus sxx. 23. It was found in the American forests, by Don UUoa, in 1736, 
and was ci;ltivated in Jamaica and Dominica in 1 788. 

CINQUE-CENTO (five hundred) ; ter-cento, &c., see note to article Italy. 

CINQUE PORTS, on the south coast of England, were originally five (hence the name) 
— Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, and Sandwich : Winchelsea and Rye were afterwards 
added. Jecike. Their jurisdiction was vested in barons, called wardens, for the better security 
of the coast, these ports being nearest to France, and considered the keys of the kingdom ; 
instituted by William I. in 1078. Rapin. The latest lord-wardens were the duke of 
Wellington, 1828-52 ; the marquess of Dalhousie, 1852-60 ; lord Palmerston, appointed 
March, 1861. 

CINTRA (Portugal). The convention of Cintra was concluded between the British army 
under sir Hew Dalrymple, and the French under marshal Junot. By this compact, on Aug, 
30, 1808, shortly after the battle of Vimeira (Aug. 22), the defeated French army was allowed 
to evacuate Portugal in British ships, carrying with them all their spoil. The convention 
was publicly condemned, and in consequence a court of inquiry was held at Chelsea, which 
exonerated the British commanders, who, however, were never again employed. Wellington. 
and Napoleon both justified sir Hew Dalrymple. 

CIRCASSIA (Asia, on N. side of the Caucasus). The Circassians are said to be descended 
from tlie Albanians. They were unsubdued, even by Timour. In the .i6th century the 
greater part of them acknowledged the authority of the czai", Ivan II. of Russia, and aboiit 
1 745, the princes of Kabarda took oaths of fealty. Many Circassians became Mahometans in 
the 1 8 th century. 

Circassia surrendered to Russia by Turkey by 

the treaty of Adrianople (but the Circassians, 

under Schamyl, long resisted) . , . 1830 
Victories of OrbeUiani over them 

June, Nov., Dec, 1857 
He subdues much of the coimtry, and expels 

the inhabitants .... April, 1858 
Schamyl, their great leader, captured, and 

treated with much respect . . Sept. 7, 1859 
About 20,000 Circassians emigrate to Constan- 

CIRCENSIAN GAMES were combats in the Roman circus (at first in honour of Census, 
the god of councils, but afterwards of Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, and Minerva), instituted by 
Evander, and established at Rome 732 B.c. by Romulus, at the time of the rape of the 
Sabines. They were an imitation of the Olympian games among the Greeks, and, by way 
of eminence, were called the Great games, but Tarquin named them Circensian ; their 
celebration continued from Sept. 4 to 12. 

CIRCLE. The quadrature, or ratio of the diameter of the circle to its circumference, 
has exercised the ingenuity of mathematicians of all ages. Archimedes, about 221 e.g., 
gave it as 7 to 22 ; Abraham Sharp (1717) as I to 3 and 72 decimals, and Laguy (1719) as 
I to 3 and 122 decimals. 

X 2 

tinople, and suffer much distress, and are 

The last of the Circas.sian strongholds cap- 
tured, and the grand duke Michael declares 
the war at an end . . . June 8, 

Above a million Circassians emigrate into 
Turkey, and suffer many privations, par- 
tially relieved by the sultan's government, 
June, et seq. 

cm 180 CIR 

CIECLES OF Germany (formed about I5CX3, to distinguisTi the members of the diet of 
the empire) were, in 15 12, Franconia, Bavaria, Upper and Lower Ehine, Westphalia, and 
Saxony ; in 1789, Austria, Burgundy, Westphalia. Palatinate, Upper Rhine, Suabia, Bavaria, 
Franconia, and Upper and Lower Saxony. In 1804 these divisons were annulled by the 
establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine, in 1806 {which see). 

CIRCUITS IN England were divided into three, and three justices were appointed to 
each, 1 1 76. They were afterwards divided into four, with five justices to each division, 
1 180. ilainn. They have been frequently altered. England and Wales are at present 
divided into eight — each travelled in spring and summer for the trial of civil and criminal 
cases ; the larger towns are visited in winter for trials of criminals only : this is called 
"going the circuit." There are monthly sessions for the city of London and county of 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY. Stationers lent books on hire in the middle ages._ The 
public circulating library in England, opened by Samuel Fancourt, a dissenting minister 
of Salisbury, about 1740, failed ; but similar institutions at Bath and in London succeeded, 
and others were established throughout the kingdom. There was a circulating library at 
Crane-court, London, in 1748, of which a catalogue in two vols, was published. — No books 
can be taken from the British Museum except for judicial purposes, but the libraries of the 
Roj'al Society and the princij^al scientific societies, except that of the Royal Institution,' 
London, are circulating. — The London Library (circulating) was founded in 1841, under the 
highest auspices, and is of great value to literary men. — Of the subscription libraries 
belonging to individuals, that of Mr. C. E. Mudie, in New Oxford-street, is the most 
remarkable for the large quantity and good quality of the books : several hundreds, some- 
times thousands, of copies of a new work being in circulation. It was founded in 1842, and- 
grew into celebrity in Dec. 1848, when the tirst two volumes of Macaulay's History of 
England were published, for which there was an unprecedented demand, which this library 
supplied. The hall, having the walls covered with shelves filled with new books, was 
opened in Dec. i860. The "Circulating Library Company" was founded in Jan. 1862, 

CIRCULATION of the Blood. See Blood.. 

CIRCUMCISION (instituted 1897 B.C.) was the seal of the covenant made by God with 
Abraham. It was practised by the ancient Egyptians, and is still by the Copts and some 
oriental nations. The Festival of the Circumcision (of Christ), originally "the Octave of 
Christmas," is mentioned aboiit 487. It was introduced into the Liturgy in 1550. 

CIRCUMNAVIGATORS. Among the most daring human enterprises at the period 
when it was first attempted, was the circumnavigation of the earth in 1519.* 

Miigellan first entered the Tasman, Dutch . . . 1642 James Cook .... 1768 

Pacific Ocean . . . 1519I Cowley, British , . . 16S3 On his death the voyage was 

Groalva, Spaniard . . . 1537! Dampier, English . . . 1689 continued by King . . 1779 

Avalradi, Spaniard . • >> Cooke, English . . . . 1708 Bougainville, French , . 1776 

Mendana, Spaniard^ . . 1567 Clipperton, British . . 1719 Portlocke, British . . . 1788 

Sir Francis Drake, first Eng- \ Roggewein, Dutch . . . 1721 King and Fitzroy, British 1826-36 

lish 15771 Anson (n/<(;rK'a?'rfs lord) . 1740 Belcher, British . . 1836-42 

Cavendish, first voyage . . 1586 Byron, English . . . . 1764 Wilkes, American . . 1838-42 

Le Maire, Dutch . . . 1615 ' Wallis, British . . . 1766 1 See JVortA- JFest Passape. 

Quiros, Spaniard . . . 1625 Carteret, English . • . ,> 

CIRCUS. There were eight (some say ten) buildings of this kind at Rome ; the largest, 
the Circus Maximus, was built by the elder Tarquin, 605 B.C. It was an oval figure ; length 
three stadia and a half, or more than three English furlongs ; breadth 960 Roman feet. It 
was enlarged by Julius Csesar so as to seat 150,000 persons, and was rebuilt by Augustus. 
Julius Ca;sar introduced in it large canals of water, which could be quickly covered with 
vessels, and represent a sea fight. Pliny. See Ampliitheatrcs. In the 5th and 6th centuries 
after Christ, Constantinople was greatly disturbed by the white, red, green, and blue factions 
of the circus. In 501, about 3000 persons were killed. In Jan. 532 a fierce conflict between 
the blue and green factions lasted five days, and was only suppressed by the efforts of 
Bolisarius after a frightful slaughter. The watchword was " Nika ! " (conquer). 

CIREHA, a town of Phocis (N. Greece), razed to the ground in the Sacred War, 586 B.C., 
for sacrilege. 

* The first ship that sailed round the earth, and hence determined its being globular, was Magellan's, 
or Magelhaen's ; he was a native of Portugal, in the service of Spain, and by keeping a westerly course he 
returned to the same place he had set out from in 1519. The voj'agc was completed in 3 years and 29 days ; 
but Magellan was killed on his homeward passage, at the Philippines, in 1521. 

CIS 181 CIV 

CISALPINE REPUBLIC (N. Italy) was formed by the French in May, 1797, out of the 
Cispadane and Transpadane republics, acknowledged by the emperor of Germany to be 
independent, by the treaty of Campo Formio {which see), Oct. 17 following. It received 
a new constitution in Sept. 1798 ; but merged into the kingdom of Italy in March, 1805. 
See Italy. 

CISTERCIANS, an order of monks founded by Robert, a Benedictine, abbot of Citeaux 
(the order of Citeaux), in France, near the end of the nth century. For a time it governed 
almost all Europe. The monks observed silence, abstained from flesh, lay on straw, and 
wore neither shoes nor shirts. De Vitri,. They were reformed by St. Bernard. See 

CITATE. The Russian general Gortschakoff, intending to storm Kalafat, threw up 
redoubts at Citate, close to the Danube, which were stormed by the Turks under Onier 
Pacha, Jan. 6, 1854. The fighting continued on the 7th, 8th, andgth, when the Russians 
were compelled to retire to their former position at Krajowa, having lost 1500 killed and 
2000 wounded. The loss of the Turks was estimated at 338 killed and 700 wounded. 

CITY. (French cite, Italian cittd,, Latin civitas.) The word has been used in England 
only since the conquest, when London was called Londonhurgh. Cities were iirst incorporated 
1079. A town corporate is called a city when made the seat of a bishop and having a 
cathedral church. Camden. 

CITIZEN. It is not lawful to scourge a citizen of Rome. Livy._ In England a citizen 
is a person who is free of a city, or who doth carry on a trade therein. Camden. Various 
privileges have been conferred on citizens as freemen, in several reigns. — The wives of citizens 
of London (not being aldermen's wives, nor gentlewomen by descent) were obliged to wear 
minever cap&, being white woollen knit three-cornered, with the peaks projecting three or 
four inches beyond their foreheads ; aldermen's wives made them of velvet, i Eliz. i55^- 
Stow/ On Oct. 10, 1792, the convention decreed that "citoyen"and "citoyenne" should 
bethe only titles in France. 

' CIUDAD RODRIGO, a strong fortress of Spain, invested by the French, June 11, 18 10, 
and surrendered to them July 10. It remained in their possession until it was stormed by 
the British, under Wellington, Jan. 19, 18 12. 

,■ CIVIL ENGINEERS. ^q& Engineers. 

CIVIL LAW. A body of Roman laws, founded upon the laws of nature and of nations, 
was first collected by Alfrenus Varus, the civilian, who flourished about 66 b. c. ; and a 
digest of them was made by Servius Sulpicius, the civilian, 53 b. c. The Gregorian code 
was issued a.d. 290 ; the Theodosian in 438. Many of the former laws having grown out of 
use, the emperor Justinian ordered a revision of them (in 529-534), which was called the 
Justinian code, and constitutes a large part of the present civil law. Civil law was restored 
in Italy, Germany, &c. 1127. Blair. It was introduced into England by Theobald, a 
Norman abbot, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. It is now used in the spiritual 
courts only, and in maritime aflairs. See Doctors' Commons, and Laws. 

CIVIL LIST. This now comprehends the revenue awarded to the kings of England in 
lieu of their ancient hereditary income. The entire revenue of Elizabeth was not more than 
600,000^., and that of Charles I. was about 8oo,oooZ. After the revolution a civil list 
revenue was settled on the new king and queen of 700,000?., the parliament taking into its 
own hands the support of the forces both maritime aaid military. The civil list of George II. 
was increased to 800,000?. ; and that of George III. in the 55th year of his reign, was 

In 1831, the civil list of the sovereign was fixed j Sir H. Parnell's motion for inquiry into the 

at5io,oooZ., and in Dec, 1837, the civil list civil list led to the resignation of the Wel- 

of the queen was fixed at 385,000^. Ungton administration . . Nov. 15, 1830 

Prince Albert obtained an exclusive sum from A select committee was appointed by the house 

parliament of 30,000!. per an. on . Feb. 7, 1840 | of commons for the purpose . Peb. 2, 1863 

CIVIL SERVICE. Nearly 17,000 persons are employed in this service under the 
direction of the treasury, and the home, foreign, colonial, post, and revenue offices, &c. In 
1855 a commission reported most unfavourably on the existing system of appointments, 
and on lilay 21 commissioners were appointed to examine into the qualifications of the 
candidates, who report annually. The civil service superanniiation act passed in April, 
1859. Civil service for the year (ending March 31) 1855, cost 7, 735,515^-; 1865, 10,205,413?. 




CIVIL WARS. See England, France, &c. 

CLANSHIPS were tribes of the same race, and comiiionly of the same name, and 
originated in feudal times. See Feudal Laios. They are said to have arisen in Scotland, in 
the reign of Malcolm II., about 1008. The legal power of the chiefs of clans and other 
remains of heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scotland, and the liberty of the English 
was granted to clansmen in 1747, in consequence of the rebellion of 1745. The following 
is a list of all the kno^^^l clans of Scotland, with the badge of distinction anciently worn by 
each. The chief of each respective clan was, and is, entitled to wear two eagle's feathers in 
his bonnet, in addition to the distinguishing badge of his clan. Chambers. A history of the 
clans by Wm. Buchanan was published in 1775. 









Lament . 

. Crab-apple tree. 

jrNeil . 





. Five-leaved heath. 


Varieg.ated box-wd 




. Bell-heath. 


. Blackthorn. 




. Mountain heath. 

M'Rae . 

Fir-club moss. 

Colqulioun . 



. Cypre.=:s. 


. Ash. 


Common sallow. 


. Cloud-ben-y bush. 


Eagle's feathers. 




. Pine. 




Purple fo.xglovo. 


. Box-wood. 

Ogilvie . 


rer>,'Hson . 


M'Kay . 

. Bull-rush. 


Great maple. 

Forbes , . 



. Deer-grass. 


Fern, orbrechans. 

Frazor . 



. St. John's wort. 



Gordon . . 



Mountain- ash. 





M'Lean , 

. Blackberry heath. 

Sinclair . 



Cranbon-y heath. 


. Red whortle-berries. 


. Thistle. 

Gun . 


M'Nab . 

. Rose blackbeiTies. 


Cat's-tail grass. 

CLARE AND Clarence (Suffolk). Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, is said to have 
seated here a monastery of the order of Friars Eremites, the first of this kind of mendicants 
who came to England, 1248. Tanner. Lionel, third son of Edward III. becoming possessed 
of the honour of Clare, bj' marriage, was created duke of Clarence. The title has ever since 
belonged to a branch of the royal family.* — Clare was the first place in Ireland for 140 
years that elected a Roman Catholic member of parliament. See Roman Catholics. At the 
election, held at Ennis, the coimty town, Mr. Daniel O'Connell was returned, July 5, 1828^ 
He did not sit till after the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Act, in 1829, being re- 
elected July 30, 1829. 

CLARE, NuN.s OF St., a sisterhood, called Minoresses, founded in Italy about 1212. 
This order settled in England, in the Minories without Aldgate, London, about 1293. 
by Blanche, queen of Navarre, wife of Edmund, carl of Lancaster, brother of Edward I. 
At the suppression, the site was granted to the bishopric of Bath and Wells, 1539. Tanner. 

CLAREMONT (Surrey), the residence of the princess Charlotte (daughter of the prince- 
regent, afterwards George IV.), and the .scene of her death, Nov. 6, 1817. The house was 
originally built by sir John Vanbrugh, and was the seat successiveh' of the earl of Clare, 
afterwards duke of Newcastle, of lord Clive, lord Galloway, and the" earl of Tyrconnel. It 
was purchased of Mr. Ellis by government for 65,000?. for the prince and princess of Saxe- 
Coburg ; and the former, now king of Belgium, assigned it to prince Albert in 1840. The 
exiled royal family of France took up their residence at Claremont, March 4, 1848 ; and the 
king, Louis- Philippe, died there, Aug. 29, 1850. 

CLARENCIEUX, the second king-at-arms, formerly subject to the duke of Clarence ; 
his duty was to arrange the funerals of all the lower nobility, as baronets, knights, esquires, 
and gentlemen, on the south side of the Trent, from whence he is also called sur-roy or 

CLARENDON, Constitutions of, were enacted at a council held Jan. 25, 1164, at 
Clarendon, in Wiltshire, the object of which was to retrench the then enormous power of the 
clergy. They were the ground of Becket's quarrel with Henry II., and were at first con- 
demned by the pope, but afterwards agreed to in 11 73. 

* DrKES OF Clarence: 1362, Lionel, bom 1338, died 1369. See Torlc, dul-es of. — 1411, Thomas (.second 
son of Henry IV.), bom 1389, killed at Baug^ 7421.-1461, George (brother of Edward IV.), murdered 1478. 
—1789, William (third son of George HI.), afterwards William IV. 

CLA 183 CLE 

CLARENDOoSr, Constitutions oi?, continued. 

I. All suits concerning advowsons to be deter- 
mined in civil courts. 

II. The clergy accused of any crime to be tried by 
civil judges. 

III. No person of any rank whatever to be per- 
mitted to leave tbe realm without the royal licence. 

IV. Laics not to be accused in spiritual courts, 
except by legal and reputable promoters and wit- 

V. No chief tenant of the crown to be excommu- 
nicated, or his lands put under interdict. 

VI. Revenues of vacant sees to belong to the king. 

VII. Goods forfeited to the crown not to be pro- 
tected in churches. 

VIII. Sons of villains not to be ordained clerks 
without the consent of their lord. 

IX. Bishops to be regarded as barons, and be sub- 

jected to the burthens belonging to that rank. 

X. Chm-ches belonging to the king's see not to be 
granted in perpetuity against his will. 

XI. Excommunicated persons not to be bound to 
give security for continuing in their abode. 

XII. No inhabitant in demesne to be excommuni- 
cated for non-appearance in a spiritual court. 

XIII. If any tenant in capite should refuse sub- 
mission to spiritual courts, the case to be referred 
to the king. 

XIV. The clergy no longer to pretend to the right 
of enforcing debts contracted by oath or promise. 

XV. Causes between laymen and ecclesiastics to 
be determined by a jury. 

XVI. Appeals to be ultimately carried to the king, 
and no further without his consent. 

CLARE:srDOI^ PRmTmG-OFFICE, OxFOED, erectedby sir John Vanbrugh, in 1711-13, 
the being defrayed out of the profits of lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, 
the copyright of which was given by his son to the university. The original building has 
been converted into a museum, lecture-rooms, &c., and a new printing-office erected by 
Blore and Robertson, 1826-9. Sharp. 

CLARIOlSr, it is said by Sj)anish writers, invented by the Moors in Spain, about 800, was 
at iirst a trumjiet, serving as a treble to trumpets sounding tenor and bass. Ashe, Its tirbe 
is narrower and its tone shriller than the common trumpet. Pardon, 

CLARIONET, a wind instrument of the reed kind, invented by Joseph Denner, in 
Nuremberg, about 1690, 

CLASSIS. The name was first used by TuUius Servius (the sixth king of ancient Rome), 
in making divisions of the Roman people, 573 B.C. The first of the six classes were called 
classici, by way of eminence, and hence authors of the first rank (especially Greek and Latin) 
came to be called classics, 

CLAVICHORD, a musical instrument in the form of a spinnet (called also a manichord) ; 
much in use in France, Spain, and Germany, in the 17th century. 

CLEARING-HOUSE. In 1775, a building in Lombard-street was set apart for the use 
of bankers, in which they might exchange cheques, bills, and securities, and thereby save 
labour and curtail the amount of floating cash requisite to meet the settlement of the different 
houses, if effected singly. By means of transfer tickets, transactions to the amount of 
millions daily are settled without the intervention of a bank note. In 1861, the clearing- 
house was used by 117 companies, and on May, 1864, it was joined by the Bank of England. 
The raAlway cUarincj-house in Seymour-street, near Euston-square, is regulated by an act 
passed in 1850. 

CLEMENTINES, apocryphal pieces, attributed to Clemens Romanus, a contemporary of 
St. Paul, and said to have succeeded St. Peter as bishop of Rome. He died 102. Niceron. 
Also the decretals of pope Clement V. who died 13 14, published by his successor. Bowyer. 
Also Augustine monks, each of whom having been a superior nine j'-ears, then merged into 
a common monk. Clementines were the adherents of Robert, son of the coiint of Geneva, 
who took the title of Clement VII. on the death of Gregory XL, 1378, and Uebanists, 
those of pope Urban VI. All Christendom was divided by the claims of these two pontiffs : 
France, Castile, Scotland, &c., adhering to Clement ; Rome, Italy, and England, declaring 
for Urban. The schism ended in 1409, when Alexander V. was elected pope, and his rivals 
resigned. See Anti-Popes. 

CLEPSYDRA, a water- clock. ^&q OlocTcs. 

CLERGY (from the Greek Jcleros, a lot or inheritance) in the first century were termed 
presbyters, elders, or bishops, and deacons. The bishops [exnscopoi or overseers), elected from 
the presbyters, in the second century assumed higher functions (about 330), and, under 
Constantine, obtained the recognition and protection of the secular power. Under the Lombard 
and Norman kings in the 7th and 8th centuries, the clergy began to possess temporal power, 
as owners of lands : and after the establishment of monachism, a distinction was made 

CLE 184 OLI 

between the regular clergy, who lived apart from the world, in accordance with a regula or 
rule, and the secular (worldly) or beneficed clergy. See Church of England. * 

CLERGY CHARITIES. The Clergymen's Widows' and Orphans' Corporation was 
established in England, 1670, and iHeorporated 1678. William Assheton, an eminent theo- 
logical writer, was the first proposer of a plan to provide for the families of deceased clergy. 
Watts' s Life of Assheton. The festival of the "Sons of the Clergy," held annually at St. 
Paul's cathedral, was instituted about 1655 ; the charity called the "Sons of the Clergy" 
was incorporated July i, 1678. There are several other charities for the relatives of the 

,. CLERICAL SUBSCRIPTION ACT, passed July, 1865. 

CLERK. See ClergT/. 

CLERKENWELL, a parish near London, so called from a well (fans clericorum) in Ray- 
street, where the parish-clerks occasionally acted mystery-plays ; once before Richard II. iu 
1390. Hunt's political meetings in 1817 were held in Spa-fields in this parish. In St. 
John's parish are the remains of the prioiy of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. 
Clerkenwell prison was built in 1615, in lieu of the noted prison called the Cage, which was 
taken down in 1614 ; the then Bridewell having been found insufiicient. The prison called 
the House of Detention, erected in 1775, was rebuilt in 1818 ; again 1844. At Clerkenwell- 
close formerly stood the house of Oliver Cromwell, where some suppose the death-warrant of 
Charles I. was signed, Jan. 1649. 

CLERMONT (France). Here was held the coimcil under pope Urban II. in 1095, in 
which the first crusade against the infidels was determined npon, and Godfrey of Bouillon 
appointed to command it. In this council the name of pope was first given to the head of 
the Roman Catholic Church, exclusively of the bishops who used previously to assume the 
title. Philip I. of France was (a second time) excommunicated by this assemblj'. HmauU. 

CLEVES (N.E. Germany). Rutger, count of Cleves, lived at the beginning of the nth 
century. Adolphus, count of Mark, was made duke of Cleves by the emperor Sigismund, 
141 7. John William, duke of Cleves, Berg, Juliers, &c., died without issue, March 25, 1609, 
which led to a war of succession. Eventually Cleves was assigned to the elector of Brandenburg 
in 1666 ; seized by the French in 1757 j restored at the peace in 1763, and now forms part of 
the Prussian dominions. 

CLIFTON SUSPENSION-BRIDGE, over the Avon, connecting Gloucestershire and 
Somersetshire, constructed of the removed Hungerford-bridge, was completed in Oct. 1864 ; 
opened Dec. 8, 1864. It is said to have the largest span (702 feet) of any chain bridge in 
the world. In 1753 alderman Vick of Bristol, bequeathed loooZ. to accumulate for the 
erection of a bridge over the Avon. In 1831 Brunei began one which was abandoned, after 
the exiDenditure of 45,000?. 

CLIMACTERIC, the term applied to certain periods of time in a man's life (multiples of 
• 7 or 9), in which it is affirmed notable alterations in the health and constitution of a person 
happen, and expose hiin to imminent dangers. Cotgrave says, "Every 7th or 9th or 63rd 
year of a man's life, all very dangerous, but the last most." The grand climacteric is 63. 
Hippocrates is said to have referred to these periods iu 383 b.c. Much misemployed 
erudition has been expended on this subject. 

* The clergy were first styled clerks, owing to the judges being chosen after the Xorman custom from 
the sacred order, and the officers being clergy : this gave them that denomination, which they keep to this 
day. BlarkHone's Comm. " As the Druids," says Pasquier, " kept the keys of their religion and of letters, 
so did the priests keep both these to themselves ; they alone made profession of letters, and a man of letters 
was called a clerk, and hence learning went by the name of clerkship." The English clergy add " clerk" to 
their name in legal documents.— In 992, the distinction began in France. Htnaidt.—T]ie Benefit or Clergy, 
Privileyium Clerkale, arose in the regard paid by Christian princes to the church, and consisted of: ist, an 
exemption of places consecrated to religious duties from criminal an-ests, which was the foundation of 
sanct\iarics ; 2nd, exemption of the persons of clergjTiien from criminal process before the secular judge, 
in particular cases, which was the original meaning of the privilegium clerkale. In the course of time, how- 
ever, the bcnejil of clergy extended to every one who could read, which was thought a great proof of learn- 
ing ; and it was enacted, that there should be a prerogative allowed to the clergy, that if any man who 
could road were to be condemned to death, the bishop of the diocese might, if he would, claim him as a 
clerk, and dispose of him in some places of the clergy as he might deem meet. The ordinary gave the 
prisoner at the bar a Latin book, in a black Gothic character, from which to read a vei-se or two ; and if the 
ordinary said, " Legit ut Clericus " (" He reads like a clerk "), the offender was only burnt in the hand ; 
otherwise he suffered death, 3 Edw. I. (1274). This privilege was restricted by Henry VII. in 14S9, and 
abolished, with respect to murderers and other great criminals, by Henry YIII., 1512. Stow. The reading 
was discontinued by 5 Anne, c. 6 (1706). Benefit of clergy was wholly repealed by statute 7 & 8 Geo. IV. 
c. 28 (1827). 




CLIO. The iaitials C. L. I. 0., forming the name of the muse of history, were rendered 
famous from the most admired papers of Addison, in the Spectator, having been marked by 
one or other of them, signed consecutively, in 1713. Gibber. 

CLOACA MAXIMA, the chief of the celebrated sewers at Kome, the construction of 
which is attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus (588 B.C.) and his successors. 

CLOCK. The clepsydra, or water-clock, was introduced at Kome about 158 b.c. by 
Scipio JSTasica. Toothed wheels were applied to them by Ctesibius, about 140 b. c. Said to 
have been found by Csesar on invading Britain, 55 B.C. The only clock supposed to be then 
in the world was sent by pope Paul I. to Pepin, king of France a.d. 760. Pacificus, arch- 
deacon of Genoa, invented one in the 9th century. Originally the wheels were three feet in 
diameter. The earliest complete clock of which there is any certain record was made by 
a Saracen mechanic in the thirteenth century. Alfred is said to have measured time by wax 
tapers, and to have invented lanterns to defend them from the wind about 887. 

The scapement ascribed to Gerbert . . . 1000 
A great clock put up at Canterbury cathedral, 
cost 30J. ........ 1292 

A clock constructed by Richard, abbot of St. 

Alban's, about 1326 

John Visconte sets up a clock at Genoa . . 1353 
A striking clock in Westminster . . . 1368 
A perfect one made at Paris, by Vick . . . 1370 
The first portable one made .... 1530 
In England no clock went accurately before 
that set up at Harupton-court (maker's 

initials, N.O.) 1540 

Eichard Harris (who erected a clock at St; 
Paul's, Covent-garden) and the younger 
GaUleo con.stl-ucted the pendulum . . 1641 
Christian Huygens contested this discovery, 
and made his pendulum clock some time pre- 
viously to ■ ; 1658 

PromantU, a Dutchman, improved the pendu- 

lum, about 1659 

Repeating clocks and watches invented by 

Barlow, about 1676 

The dead beat, and horizontal escapements, by 

Graham, about . 1700 

The spiral balance spring suggested, and the 

duplex scapement, invented by Dr. Hooke ; 

pivot holes jewelled by Facio ; the detached 

scapement, invented by Mudge, and improved 

by Berthould, Arnold, Earnshaw, and others 

in the i8th century. 
Harrison's time-piece (which see) constructed . 1735 
Clocks and watches taxed, i^qy ; tax repealed 1798 
The Horological Institute established . . 1858 
The great Westminster clock set up . May 30, 1859 
266,750 clocks and 88,621 watches imported into 

the United Kingdom in 1857 > the duty came 

off in 1861. 

(See Electric Clock, under Electricity.) 

CLOGHER (Ireland). St. Macartin, a disciple of St. Patrick, fixed a. bishopric at 
Clogher, where he also built an abbey "in the street before the royal seat of the kings of 
Ergal." He died in 506. Clogher takes- its name from a golden stone, from which, in times 
of paganism, the devil used to pronounce juggling answers, like the oracles of ^j7o?^o PytMus. 
Sir James Ware. In 1041 the cathedral was built anew and dedicated to its founder. 
Clogher merged, on the death of its last prelate (Dr. Tottenham), into the archiepiscopal see 
of Armagh, by the act of 1834. 

CLONFERT (Ireland). St. Brendan founded an abbey at Clonfert in 558 : his life is 
extant in jingling monkish metre in the Cottonian library at Westminster. In his time the 
cathedral, famous in ancient days for its seven altars, was erected ; and Colgan makes St. 
Brendan its founder and the first bishop ; but it is said in the Ulster Annals, under the 
year 571, " Mcena, bishop of Clonfert-Brenain, went to rest." Clonfert, in Irish, signifies a 
wonderful den or retirement. In 1839 the see merged into that of Killaloe. See Bishops. 

CLONTARF (near Dublin), the site of a battle fought on Good Friday, April 23, 1014, 
between the Irish and Danes, the former headed by Bryan Boroimhe, monarch of Ireland, 
who signally defeated the invaders, after a long and bloody engagement, but was wounded, 
and soon afterwards died. His son Murchard also fell with many of the nobility ; ii,ocx) of 
the Danes are said to have perished in the battle. 

CLOSTERSEVEN (Hanover), Convention of, was entered into Sept. 8, 1757, between 
the duke of Cumberland, third son of George II., and the duke of Richelieu, commander of 
the French armies. By its humiliating stipulations, 38,000 Hanoverians laid down their 
arms, and were dispersed. The duke immediately afterwards resigned all his military 
commands. The convention was soon broken by both parties. 

CLOTH. See Woollen Cloth and Calico. 

CLOUD, St., a palace, near Paris, named from prince Clodoald or Cloud, who became a 
monk there in 533, after the murder of his brothers, and died in 560. The palace was built 
in the i6tli century, and in it Henry II. was assassinated by Clement in 1589. 

CLOUDS consist of minute particles of water, often in a frozen state, floating in the air. 
In 1803 Mr. Luke Howard published his classification of clouds, now generally adopted, 
consisting of three primary forms — cirrus, cumulus, and stratus ; three compounds of these 




forms ; and the nimbus or black rain-clouds (cumulo- cirro-stratus). A new edition of 
Howard's Essay on the Clouds appeared in 1865. 

CLOVESHOO (now Cliff), Kent. Here was held an important council of nobility and 
clergy concerning the government and discipline of the church, Sept. 747 ; and others were 
held here 800, 803, 822, 824. 

CLOYNE (S. Ireland), a bisliopric, founded in the 6th century by St. Coleman, in 
143 1 united to that of Cork, and so continued for 200 years. It was united with that of 
Cork and Koss, 1834. Sec Bislw^is. 

CLUBMEN, associations formed in the southern and western counties of England, to 
restrain the excesses of the armies during the civil wars, 1642-9. They professed neutrality, 
tut inclined towai'ds the king, and were considered enemies by his opponents. 

CLUBS, originally consisted of a small number of persons of kindred tastes and pursuits, 
who met together at stated times for social intercourse. The club at the Mermaid tavern, 
established about the end of the i6th century, consisted of Ealeigh, Shakspeare, and 
others. Ben Jonson set up a club at the Devil tavern. Addison, Steele, and others, fre- 
quently met at Button's coffee-house, as described in the SjKclator. The present London 
clubs, some comprising 300, others about 1500 members, possess luxuriously furnished 
edifices, several of great architectural pretensions, in or near Pall Mall. The members 
obtain the choicest viands and wines at veiy moderate charges. Many of the clubs possess 
excellent libraries, particularly the Athenfeum {which see). The annual payment varies from 
61. to 11^. 115. ; the entrance fee from gl. gs. to 31Z. lis. The following are the principal 
clubs : — 

Kit-Cut (whiih see) . , . 1703 
Beef-Steak (which see) . . 1735 
White's (ror?/), established . 1736 

Boodle's 1762 

Literary Club (uhich see), 
termed also " The Club," 
and Johnson's Club . . 1763 
Brooke's ( IFAis) • • • 1764 

Alfred 1808 

Guards' . . . May i, 1810 
Arthur's . . . . .1811 
Eoxburgho, London . . .1812 

United Service , . .1815 

Travellers' 1819 

Union 1821 

United University . . . 1822 
Bannatyne, Edinburgh . . 1823 
Athenfeum (which see) . . 1824 

Oriental ,, 

United Service (Junior) . 1827 
Wyndham . . . . . 1828 
Maitland, Glasgow . . . ,, 
Oxford and Cambridge . . 1829 
Carlton (Conservative) . . 1832 

Abbotsford, Edinburgh . . 1835 
Reform (Liberal) . . . 1836 
Parthenon . . . . ,, 
Army and Navy . . . 1837 
Etching, London . . . 1838 
Spalding, Aberdeen . . . 1839 
Consei-vative .... 1840 
Whittington (founded by 
Douglas Jerrold and others) 1846 

See Working Men's Clubs. 

CLUBS, French. The first of these arose aboiit 1782. They were essentially political, 
and were greatly concerned in the revolution. The Club Breton became the celebrated Club 
cles Jacobins, and the Ch(b des Cordeliers comprised among its members Danton and Camille 
Desmoulins. From these two clubs came the Mountain party which overthrew the Giron- 
dists in 1793, and fell in its turu in 1794. The clubs disappeared with the Directory in 
1799. They were revived in 1848 in considerable numbers, but did not attain to their 
former eminence, and were suppressed by decrees, in June 22, 1849, and June 6, 1850. 

CLUB-FOOT, a defonnity produced by the shortening of one or more of the muscles, 
although attempted to be cured by Lorenz in 1784, by cutting the tendo Achillis, was not 
effectually cured till 1831, when Stromeyer of Erlangen cured Dr. Little by dividing the 
tendons of the contracted muscles with a very thin knife. Judicious after-treatment is 

CLUGNY, OR Cluny, Abbey of, in France, formerly most magnificent, founded bj'' 
Benedictines, under the abbot Bern, about 910, and sustained afterwards by William, duke 
of Berry and Aquitaine. English foundations for Cluniac monks were instituted soon after. 

CLYDE AND FORTH Wall was built by Agi-icola 84. The Forth and Clyde Canal 
was commenced by Mr. Smeaton, July 10, 1768, and was opened July 28, 1790. It forms a 
communication between the seas on the eastern and western coasts of Scotland. 

CNIDUS, in Caria, Asia Minor ; near here Conon the Athenian defeated the Lacede- 
monian iieet, under Peisander, 394 B. c. 

COACH (from couchcr, to lie). Beckmann states that Charles of Anjou's queen entered 
Naples in a carcita (about 1282). Under Francis I. there were but two in Paris, one 
belonging to the queen, the other to Diana, the natural daughter of Henry II. There were 
but three in Paris in 1550 ; and Henry IV. had one without straps or sj>rings. John de 
Laval de Bois-Dauphin set up a coach on account of his enormous bulk. The first coach 
seen in England was about 1553. Coaches were introduced by Fitz- Allen, earl of Arundel, 




in 1580. Stoio. A bill was brought into parliament to prevent the effeminacy of men 
riding in coaches, 43 Eliz. 1601.* Carte. Kepealed 1625. The coach-tax commenced in 
1747. Horace Walpole says that the present royal state coach (first used Nov. 16, 1762) 
cost 7528?. See Car, Carriages, Chariots, Hackney Coaches, Mail Coaches, &c. 

COAL.f It is contended, with much seeming truth, that coal, a,lthough not mentioned 
by the Eomans in their notices of Britain, Avas yet in use by the ancient Britons. Brandt. 
Henry III. is said to have granted a licence to dig coals near Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1234,- 
some say earlier, and others in 1239. Sea-coal was prohibited from being used in and near 
London, as being "prejudicial to human health ; " and even smiths wore obliged to burn 
wood, 1273. Stow. In 1306 the gentry petitioned against its us% Coal was first made an 
article of trade from ISTewcastle to London, 4 Eich. II. 1381. Mymc7-'s Fcedera. JSTotwith- 
standing the many previous complaints against coal as a public nuisance, it was at length 
generally burned in Loudon in 1400 ; but it was not in common use in England until the 
reign of Charles I. 1625. 



. 317,000 chald. 1810 . . . ,980,372 chald. | 1835 . . . 2,299,816 tons.- 

. . 510,000 ditto. 1820. . . . 1,171,178 ditto. 1840 . . . . 2,638,256 ditto. 

. 814,000 ditto. 1830 . . . 1,588,360 ditto. I 1850 . . . 3,638,883 ditto. 

i860. — Coal brought to London, 3,573,377 tons coast ways; 1,499,899 tons by railways and canals. 
1861. — ,, „ ,, 5,232,082 tons; in 1862, 4,973,823 tons. 

The coal-fields of Great Britain are estimated at 
S400 square miles ; of Durham and Northum- 
berland, 723 square miles. Bakewell. In 
1857 about 655 milUons of tons were ex- 
ti-acted (value about 16,348,676?.) from 2095 
collieries ; about 25 millions are consumed 
annually in Great Britain. 

Coal obtained in Great Britain and Ireland : — 
In 1861, 86,417,941 tons; in 1862, 81,638,338 
tons ; in 1S63, 86,292,215 tons (valued at 
51,000,000?.); in 1864 (from 3268 collieries), 
92,787,873 tons. 

Mr. SoiJwith, in 1855, computed the annual 
product of the coal-mines of Durham and 
Northumberland at 14 million tons : — 6 mil- 
hons for London, 2^ niillions exported, 2-^ 
millions for coke, i milKon for colliery en- 
gines, (fee, and 2 millions for local consump- 

By a stipulation in the commercial treaty ot 
i860, in consequence of the French govern- 
ment greatly reducing the duty on imported 
coal, the British government (it is thought 
by many imprudently) engaged to lay no 
duty on exported coal for ten years. In 1859 
about 7,000,000 tons of British coals were 
exported, of which 1,391,009 tons went to 

The first ship laden with Irish coal arrived in 
Dublin from Newry ..... 

Sale of Coal flegalation Act 

The duties on the exportation of British coal, 
which had existed since the 16th century, 
were practically repealed 

Sir R. Peel imposed a duty of 4s. a ton in 1S42 ; 
caused much dissatisfaction ; repealed . 

Women were prohibited from working in Eng- 
Ush collieries in 

The consumption of coal in France, in 1780 only 

400,000 tons, rises to 6,000,000 tons in 1845. 

The United States produced between 8 and 9 

miUions of tons ; Belgium, 5,000,000; and 

France, 4,500,000, in . . . ^ . 




An act for the regulation and inspection of 
mines was passed in iggg 

Coal-pitmen's strikes frequently occur ; a long 
and severe one arose in Staffordshire in ° 1864 

Accidents.— About 1000 lives are lost annually by 
accidents ui coal-mines. 

In 1858, by explosions in coal-mines, 52 persons 
perished at Bardsley ; 20 at Duffrjn, near Newport ; 
52 at Tyldesley, near Leeds ; and about 36 in different 
parts of the country. 

On April 5, 1859, 26 lives were lost at the chain 
coUiery, near Neath, through the irruption of water. 

In 1S60, 76 lives were lost on March 2, at Burra- 
don, near Killingworth ; 145 at the Eiscamino, near 
Newport, Dec. i ; and 22 at the Hetton mine, North- 
umberland, Dec. 20. 

On June n, 1861, 21 lives were lost through an 
inundation in the Claycross mines, Derbyshire. 

In 1862, 47 lives were lost at Cethin mine, Merthyr 
TydviU, S. Wales, Feb. 19; at Walker, near New- 
castle- on-Tyne, 15 lives lost, Nov. 22 ; Edmund's 
Main, near Barnsley, 60 hves lost, Dec. 8. 

In 1863, 13 lives lost atCoxbridge, near Newcastle, 
March 6 ; 39 lives lost at Margam, S. Wales, Oct. 17 ; 
14 lives lost at Moestig, S. Wales, Dec. 26. 

In 1865, 6 hves lost at Claycross, May 3; 24 at 
New Bedwelty pit, near Tredegar, June 16. 

(For still more fatal accidents, see LundUll and 

85 lives were lost at LaUe coal-mine, in France, in 
Oct. 1861. 

Coal Exchange, London, established by 47 
Geo. III. c. 68 (1807). The present building 
(a most interesting structure) was erected by 
Mr. J. B. Bunning, and opened by prince 
Albert Oct. 30, 1849 

CoAL-WHiPPEEs' Board, to protect the men 
employed in unloading coal-vessels from pub- 
licans, formed by an act of parliament in 
1843, lasted till 1856, when the coal-owners 
themselves established a whipping-oflace. 

* In the beginning of the year 1619, the earl of Northumberland, who had been imprisoned ever since 
the gunpowder plot, obtained his liberation. Hearing that Buckingham was drawn about with six horses 
in his coach (being the first that was so), the earl put on eight to his, and in that manner passed from the 
Tower through the city. Rapin. 

t There are five kinds of fossil fuel : anthracite, coal, lignite, bituminous shale, and bitumen. No satis- 
factory definition of coal has yet been given. The composition of wood is 49'i carbon, 6'3 hydro^^en, 44-6 
oxygen ; oicoal 82 '6 carbon, 5 '6 hydrogen, 11 '8 oxygen. 




COALITIONS AGAINST France generally arose through England subsidising the great 
powers of the continent. They were entered into as follows : — 

Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain . 
Great Britain, Germany, Russia, Naples, Por- 
' tugal, and Turkey, signed . . June 22, 
Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Naples, 

Aug. 5, 

Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Saxony, 

Oct. 6, i8o6 
England and Austria . . . April 6, 1809 

Russia and Prussia; the treaty ratified at 

Kalisch March 17, 1813 

See Ti-eatiet. 


COAST GUARD. In 1856, the raising and governing this body was transferred to the 
admiralty. A coast brigade of artillery was established in Nov, 1859. 

COAST VOLUNTEERS. See under Navy of England. 

COBALT, a rare mineral found among the veins of ores, or in the fissures of stone, at an 
early date, in the mines of Cornwall, where the workmen call it mundic. Hill. It was 
distinguished as a metal by Brandt, in 1733. 

COBURG. See Saxc-Coburg. 

COCCEIANS, a small sect founded by John Cocceius, of Bremen, about 1665, who held, 
amongst other opinions, that of a visible reign of Christ in this world, after a general 
conversion of the Jews and all other people to the Christian faith. 

COCHIN (India), held by the Portuguese, 1503 ; by the Dutch, 1663 ; taken by the 
British, 1735 ; ceded to them 1814. 


COCHINEAL INSECT (Cocctis cacti), derives its colour from feeding on the cactus, and 
became known to the Spaniards soon after their conquest of Mexico in 15 18. Cochineal 
was brought to Europe about 1523, but was not known in Italy in 1548, although the art of 
dyeing then flourished there. In 1858 it was cultivated successfully in Teneriffe, the 
vines having failed through disease. 260,000 lbs. of cochineal were impoi-ted into England 
in 1830 ; 1,081,776 lbs. in 1845 ; 2,360,000 lbs. in 1850 ; and 3,034,976 lbs. in 1859. Duty 
repealed 1845. 

COCKER'S ARITHMETIC, The work edited by John Hawkins, first appeared in 1677. 

COCK-FIGHTING, practised by the Gi-eeks. It was introduced at Rome after a victory 
over the Persians, 476 B.C. ; and was brought by the Romans into England. William Fitz- 
Stephen, in the reign of Henry II., describes cock-fighting as the sjiort of school-boys on 
Shrove-Tuesday. It was prohibited by Edward III. 1365 ; by Henry VIII. ; and by 
Cromwell, 1653. Part of the site of Drmy-lane theatre was a cock-pit in the reign of James 
I. ; and the cock-pit at Whitehall was erected by Charles II. Till within these few years 
there was a Cock-jnt Royal in St. James's Park ; but the governors of Christ's Hospital would 
not renew the lease for a building devoted to cruelty.* Cock-fighting is now forbidden 
by law. 

COCK-LANE GHOST, an imposition practised by William Parsons, his wife, and 
daughter, by means of a female ventriloquist, during 1760 and 1761, carried on at No. 
33, Cock-lane, London, was at length detected, and the parents were condemned to the 
pillory and imprisonment, July 10, 1762, 

COCOA, OR Cacao, the kernel or seed of the tree Thcohroma cacao (Linn.), was introduced 
into this coimtry shortly after the discovery of Mexico, where it forms an important article 
of diet. From cocoa is produced chocolate. The cocoa imported into the United Kingdom, 
chiefly from the British West Indies and Guiana, was in 1849, 1,989,477 lbs. ; in 1851, 
4,349,051 lbs.; in 1855, 7,343.458 3bs. ; in 1859, 6,006,759 lbs'. ; iu 1861, 9,080,288 lbs.; 
in 1864, 7,920,912 lbs., about half for home consumption. • 

* Mr. Ardesoif, a gentleman of large fortune and gi-eat hospitality, who was almost unrivalled in the 
splendour of his eqxiipages, had a favourite cock, upon which he had won many pi-ofitable matches. The 
last wager he laid upon this cock he lost, which so enraged him, that in a fit of passion he thrust the bird 
into the fire. A delirious fever, the result of his rage and inebriety, in three days put an end to his life. 
He died at Tottenham, near London, April 4, 178S. — On April 22, 1865, 34 persons were fined at Marl- 
borough-street police-office, for being present at a cock-fight. 




COCOA-NUT TREE {Cocos nucifera, Linn.), supplies the Indians with almost all they 
need, as bread, water, wine, vinegar, hrandy, milk, oil, honey, sugar, needles, clothes, 
thread, cups, spoons, basins, baskets, paper, masts for ships, sails, cordage, nails, covering 
for their houses, &c. Ray. In Sept. 1829, Mr. Soames patented his mode of procuring 
stearine and elaine from cocoa-nut oil. It is said that 32 tons of candles have been made in 
a month from these materials at the Belmont works, Lambeth, 

CODES, see Lmvs. Alfrenus Varus, the civilian, first collected the Roman laws about 
66 B.C. ; and Servius Sulpicius, the civilian, embodied them about 53 B.C. The Gregorian 
and Hermoginian codes were published a.d. 290 ; the Theodosian code in 438 ; the celebrated 
code of the emperor Justinian, in 529— a digest from this last was made in 533. Alfred's 
code of laws is the foundation of the common law of England, 887. The Code Napoleon, 
the civil code of France, was promulgated from 1803 to 1810. The emperor considered it 
his most enduring monument. It was prepared under his supervision by the most eminent 
jurists, from the 400 systems previously existing. It has been adopted by other countries. 

CODFISH. ^QQ Holland, 1347. 

COD-LIVER OIL was recommended as a remedy for chronic rheumatism by Dr. Percival 
in 1782, and for diseases of the lungs about 1838. De Jongh's treatise on cod-liver oil was 
published in Latin in 1844 ; in English in 1849. 

CCEUR DE LION, OR THE Lion-Heaeted, a surname given to Richard I. of England, 
on accoimt of his courage about 1192 ; and also to Louis VIII. of France, who signalised 
himseK in the crusades, and in his wars against England, about 1223. 

COFFEE. The tree was conveyed from Mocha in Arabia to Holland about 1616 ; and 
carried to the "West Indies in 1726, First cultivated at Surinam by the Dutch, 1718. The 
cultm-e was encouraged in the plantations about 1732, and the British and French colonies 
now grow the coffee-tree abundantly. Its use as a beverage is traced to the Persians. It 
came into great repute in Arabia Felix, about 1454 ; and passed thence into Egypt and Syria, 
and thence (in 1511) to Constantinople, where a coffee-house was opened in 1551. M. 
Thevenot, the traveller, was the first who brought it into France, to which country he returned 
after an absence of seven years, in 1662. Chambers. 

Coffee was brought into England by Mr. Natha- 
niel Canopus, a Cretan, who made it his 
common beverage at Balliol college, Oxford, 
in 1641. Anderson. 

The quantity of coffee imported into these 
realms and entered for home consumption in 
1843 was 29,,97g,404fts. ; in 1850, 31,166,358 
lbs. ; in 1857, 34,367,484 lbs. ; in 1859, 
34,492,947 lbs. ; in i860, 35,674,381 lbs. (duty 
3d. per lb. raw coffee; i\d. roasted.) Total 
imported in 1861, 83,532,525^)8.; in 1863, 
117,354,217 lbs. ; in 1864, 109,370,213 lbs. 

The first. coft'ee-house in England was kept by 
a Jew, named Jacobs, in Oxford . 


Mr. Edwards, an English Turkey merchant, 
brought home with him a Greek servant, 
named Pasquet, who opened the first coffee- 
house in London, in George-yard, Lorabard- 
street 1652 

Pasquet afterwards went to Holland, and opened 
the first house in that country. Andenson. 

The Eainbow coffee-house, near Temple-bar, was 
represented as a nuisance to the neighbour- 
hood 1657 

Coffee-houses were suppressed by proclamation 
in 1675 ; but the order was revoked in 1676, 
on the petition of the traders in tea and 

COFFERER of the Hotjsehold, formerly an officer of state, and a member of the 
privy council, who had special charge of the other officers of the household. Sir Henry 
Cocks was cofferer to queen Elizabeth. Some of the highest statesmen filled the office up to 
1782, when it Was suppressed by act of parliament, and the duties of it ordered to be dis- 
charged by the .lord steward and the paymaster of the household, Beatson. 

COFFINS. Athenian heroes were bmied in coffins of cedar ; owing to its aromatic and 
incorruptible qualities. Thucydides. Coffins of marble and stone were used by the Romans, 
Alexander is said to have been buried in one of gold ; and glass coffins have been foimd in 
England. Gough. The earliest record of wooden coffins amongst us is that of the burial of 
king Arthur in an entire trunk of oak hollowed, a.d. 542, ■ Asser. Patent coffins were 
invented in 1796. Air-tight metallic coffins were advertised at Birmingham in 1861. 

COHORT. A division of -the Roman army consisting of about 600 men. It was the 
sixth part of a legion, and its number, consequently, was under the same' fludtuation as that 
of the legiouSr being sometimes more and sometimes less. The cohort was divided into 
centuries'. In the time of the empire the cohort often amounted to a thousand -men. 




COIF. The Serjeant's coif was originall}' an iron skull-cap, worn by knights under their 
helmets. The coif was introduced before 1259, and was used to hide the tonsure of such 
renegade clergymen as chose to remain advocates in the secular courts, notwithstanding 
their prohibition by canon. Blackstone. The coif was at first a thin linen cover gathered 
together in the form of a skull or helmet, the material being afterwards changed into white 
silk, and the for